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Special Issue "Advances in Anisotropic and Smart Materials"

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A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Material Sciences and Nanotechnology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Qinghua Qin (Website)

Research School of Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia
Interests: Boundary Element Method; functional Materials and Structures; Fracture and Damage Mechanics; Biomechanics and Biomaterials; Composite Materials; Nanomaterials; Cell Biomechanics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, the study of anisotropic and functional materials systems, and of their applications to biomedical engineering, has become increasingly popular. A functional material system is typically a composite matrix or hybrid of several distinct, material phases with embedded actuators and sensors, in which each phase performs a different but necessary function (such as structure, transport, logic, energy storage, noise control, damage control/self-healing, etc.) in response to stimuli. Such a system sometimes integrates sensors, actuators, and a control system so as to mimic the biological body in performing many desirable functions. These functions include synchronization with environmental changes, self-repair of damage, etc. More importantly, new state-of-the-art functional and reduced-scale materials will be hybridized into designing materials that can perform dramatic “tailorable” functions in large engineered systems. These performance-tailored structures will have the ability to change or adapt the performance or style of a structure on demand. Because of recent advances in biomaterials and nanotechnology, anisotropic and functional materials are emerging as a new interdisciplinary field that promises to provide a new level of functionality, adaptability, and tailorability for future engineered systems.

Professor Qinghua Qin
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • anisotropic materials
  • multifunctional materials
  • artificial biomaterials
  • biological nanomaterials
  • smart hydrogel system
  • piezoelectric biomaterials

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Hydrothermal Synthesis Au-Bi2Te3 Nanocomposite Thermoelectric Film with a Hierarchical Sub-Micron Antireflection Quasi-Periodic Structure
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(6), 12547-12559; doi:10.3390/ijms160612547
Received: 13 March 2015 / Revised: 8 April 2015 / Accepted: 9 April 2015 / Published: 3 June 2015
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Abstract
In this work, Au-Bi2Te3 nanocomposite thermoelectric film with a hierarchical sub-micron antireflection quasi-periodic structure was synthesized via a low-temperature chemical route using Troides helena (Linnaeus) forewing (T_FW) as the biomimetic template. This method combines chemosynthesis with biomimetic techniques, without [...] Read more.
In this work, Au-Bi2Te3 nanocomposite thermoelectric film with a hierarchical sub-micron antireflection quasi-periodic structure was synthesized via a low-temperature chemical route using Troides helena (Linnaeus) forewing (T_FW) as the biomimetic template. This method combines chemosynthesis with biomimetic techniques, without the requirement of expensive equipment and energy intensive processes. The microstructure and the morphology of the Au-Bi2Te3 nanocomposite thermoelectric film was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning-electron microscopy (FESEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Coupled the plasmon resonances of the Au nanoparticles with the hierarchical sub-micron antireflection quasi-periodic structure, the Au-Bi2Te3 nanocomposite thermoelectric film possesses an effective infrared absorption and infrared photothermal conversion performance. Based on the finite difference time domain method and the Joule effect, the heat generation and the heat source density distribution of the Au-Bi2Te3 nanocomposite thermoelectric film were studied. The heterogeneity of heat source density distribution of the Au-Bi2Te3 nanocomposite thermoelectric film opens up a novel promising technique for generating thermoelectric power under illumination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Anisotropic and Smart Materials)
Open AccessArticle Structural, Magnetic and Luminescent Properties of Lanthanide Complexes with N-Salicylideneglycine
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(5), 9520-9539; doi:10.3390/ijms16059520
Received: 30 March 2015 / Revised: 15 April 2015 / Accepted: 17 April 2015 / Published: 28 April 2015
PDF Full-text (3123 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A series of anionic heavy lanthanide complexes, involving the N-salicylideneglycinato(2-) Schiff base ligand (salgly) and having the general formula K[Ln(salgly)2(H2O)2]∙H2O (16), where Ln stands for Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, [...] Read more.
A series of anionic heavy lanthanide complexes, involving the N-salicylideneglycinato(2-) Schiff base ligand (salgly) and having the general formula K[Ln(salgly)2(H2O)2]∙H2O (16), where Ln stands for Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Tm, was prepared using the one-pot template synthesis. The complexes were thoroughly characterized by elemental and Thermogravimetric/Differential Thermal Analyses (TG/DTA), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), and photoluminescence spectroscopies, electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry, and their magnetic properties were studied by temperature-dependent dc magnetic measurements using the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). The X-ray structure of the terbium(III) complex (2), representing the unique structure between the lanthanide complexes of N-salicylideneamino acids, was determined. The results of spectral and structural studies revealed the isostructural nature of the prepared complexes, in which the lanthanide ion is octacoordinated by two O,N,O-donor salgly ligands and two aqua ligands. The analysis of magnetic data confirmed that the complexes behave as paramagnets obeying the Curie law. The results of photoluminescence spectral studies of the complexes showed the different origin in their luminescent properties between the solid state and solution. An antenna effect of the Schiff base ligand was observed in a powder form of the complex only, while it acts as a fluorophore in a solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Anisotropic and Smart Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Development of Carbon Nanotube Modified Cement Paste with Microencapsulated Phase-Change Material for Structural–Functional Integrated Application
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(4), 8027-8039; doi:10.3390/ijms16048027
Received: 28 February 2015 / Revised: 3 April 2015 / Accepted: 8 April 2015 / Published: 10 April 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1154 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microencapsulated phase-change materials (MPCM) can be used to develop a structural–functional integrated cement paste having high heat storage efficiency and suitable mechanical strength. However, the incorporation of MPCM has been found to degrade the mechanical properties of cement based composites. Therefore, in [...] Read more.
Microencapsulated phase-change materials (MPCM) can be used to develop a structural–functional integrated cement paste having high heat storage efficiency and suitable mechanical strength. However, the incorporation of MPCM has been found to degrade the mechanical properties of cement based composites. Therefore, in this research, the effect of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the properties of MPCM cement paste was evaluated. Test results showed that the incorporation of CNTs in MPCM cement paste accelerated the cement hydration reaction. SEM micrograph showed that CNTs were tightly attached to the cement hydration products. At the age of 28 days, the percentage increase in flexural and compressive strength with different dosage of CNTs was found to be up to 41% and 5% respectively. The optimum dosage of CNTs incorporated in MPCM cement paste was found to be 0.5 wt %. From the thermal performance test, it was found that the cement paste panels incorporated with different percentages of MPCM reduced the temperature measured at the center of the room by up to 4.6 °C. Inverse relationship was found between maximum temperature measured at the center of the room and the dosage of MPCM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Anisotropic and Smart Materials)
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Open AccessArticle A New Series of Kinked Liquid Crystals: 2-(6-Alkoxynaphthalen-2-yl)-6-methoxyquinolines
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(4), 7520-7534; doi:10.3390/ijms16047520
Received: 12 February 2015 / Revised: 26 March 2015 / Accepted: 26 March 2015 / Published: 2 April 2015
PDF Full-text (885 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new series of 2-(6-alkoxynaphthalen-2-yl)-6-methoxyquinolines (nO-NpQOMe, n = 3–8) liquid crystal compounds, a linear molecular structure with two kinks, were synthesized using a short two-step reaction with overall yields between 43% and 58%. Spectral analyses were in accord with the [...] Read more.
A new series of 2-(6-alkoxynaphthalen-2-yl)-6-methoxyquinolines (nO-NpQOMe, n = 3–8) liquid crystal compounds, a linear molecular structure with two kinks, were synthesized using a short two-step reaction with overall yields between 43% and 58%. Spectral analyses were in accord with the expected structures. Thermotropic behavior of these liquid crystal compounds were investigated using polarized optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. All compounds exhibited purely enantiotropic nematic phase at the medium–high temperature range of 162.4–234.2 °C. However, short ranges of nematic phase, 20.5–16.6 °C at heating and 46.7–37.0 °C at cooling, were observed in these linear liquid-crystalline compounds with two kinks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Anisotropic and Smart Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Chemical Treatments on Flax Fibre Reinforced Polypropylene Composites on Tensile and Dome Forming Behaviour
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(3), 6202-6216; doi:10.3390/ijms16036202
Received: 4 February 2015 / Revised: 11 March 2015 / Accepted: 12 March 2015 / Published: 17 March 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (13280 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tensile tests were performed on two different natural fibre composites (same constituent material, similar fibre fraction and thickness but different weave structure) to determine changes in mechanical properties caused by various aqueous chemical treatments and whether any permanent changes remain on drying. [...] Read more.
Tensile tests were performed on two different natural fibre composites (same constituent material, similar fibre fraction and thickness but different weave structure) to determine changes in mechanical properties caused by various aqueous chemical treatments and whether any permanent changes remain on drying. Scanning electronic microscopic examinations suggested that flax fibres and the flax/polypropylene interface were affected by the treatments resulting in tensile property variations. The ductility of natural fibre composites was improved significantly under wet condition and mechanical properties (elongation-to-failure, stiffness and strength) can almost retain back to pre-treated levels when dried from wet condition. Preheating is usually required to improve the formability of material in rapid forming, and the chemical treatments performed in this study were far more effective than preheating. The major breakthrough in improving the formability of natural fibre composites can aid in rapid forming of this class of material system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Anisotropic and Smart Materials)
Open AccessArticle Meshless Method with Operator Splitting Technique for Transient Nonlinear Bioheat Transfer in Two-Dimensional Skin Tissues
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 2001-2019; doi:10.3390/ijms16012001
Received: 25 November 2014 / Accepted: 7 January 2015 / Published: 16 January 2015
PDF Full-text (1499 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A meshless numerical scheme combining the operator splitting method (OSM), the radial basis function (RBF) interpolation, and the method of fundamental solutions (MFS) is developed for solving transient nonlinear bioheat problems in two-dimensional (2D) skin tissues. In the numerical scheme, the nonlinearity [...] Read more.
A meshless numerical scheme combining the operator splitting method (OSM), the radial basis function (RBF) interpolation, and the method of fundamental solutions (MFS) is developed for solving transient nonlinear bioheat problems in two-dimensional (2D) skin tissues. In the numerical scheme, the nonlinearity caused by linear and exponential relationships of temperature-dependent blood perfusion rate (TDBPR) is taken into consideration. In the analysis, the OSM is used first to separate the Laplacian operator and the nonlinear source term, and then the second-order time-stepping schemes are employed for approximating two splitting operators to convert the original governing equation into a linear nonhomogeneous Helmholtz-type governing equation (NHGE) at each time step. Subsequently, the RBF interpolation and the MFS involving the fundamental solution of the Laplace equation are respectively employed to obtain approximated particular and homogeneous solutions of the nonhomogeneous Helmholtz-type governing equation. Finally, the full fields consisting of the particular and homogeneous solutions are enforced to fit the NHGE at interpolation points and the boundary conditions at boundary collocations for determining unknowns at each time step. The proposed method is verified by comparison of other methods. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the coefficients in the cases of a linear and an exponential relationship of TDBPR is investigated to reveal their bioheat effect on the skin tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Anisotropic and Smart Materials)
Open AccessArticle Homogenized Finite Element Analysis on Effective Elastoplastic Mechanical Behaviors of Composite with Imperfect Interfaces
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23389-23407; doi:10.3390/ijms151223389
Received: 9 November 2014 / Revised: 26 November 2014 / Accepted: 3 December 2014 / Published: 16 December 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3767 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A three-dimensional (3D) representative volume element (RVE) model was developed for analyzing effective mechanical behavior of fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites with imperfect interfaces. In the model, the fiber is assumed to be perfectly elastic until its tensile strength, and the ceramic material [...] Read more.
A three-dimensional (3D) representative volume element (RVE) model was developed for analyzing effective mechanical behavior of fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites with imperfect interfaces. In the model, the fiber is assumed to be perfectly elastic until its tensile strength, and the ceramic material is modeled by an elasto-plastic Drucker-Prager constitutive law. The RVE model is then used to study the elastic properties and the tensile strength of composites with imperfect interfaces and validated through experiments. The imperfect interfaces between the fiber and the matrix are taken into account by introducing some cohesive contact surfaces. The influences of the interface on the elastic constants and the tensile strengths are examined through these interface models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Anisotropic and Smart Materials)
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Open AccessArticle MWCNTs-Reinforced Epoxidized Linseed Oil Plasticized Polylactic Acid Nanocomposite and Its Electroactive Shape Memory Behaviour
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(11), 19924-19937; doi:10.3390/ijms151119924
Received: 9 July 2014 / Revised: 24 October 2014 / Accepted: 27 October 2014 / Published: 31 October 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (4893 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel electroactive shape memory polymer nanocomposite of epoxidized linseed oil plasticized polylactic acid and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was prepared by a combination of solution blending, solvent cast technique, and hydraulic hot press moulding. In this study, polylactic acid (PLA) was [...] Read more.
A novel electroactive shape memory polymer nanocomposite of epoxidized linseed oil plasticized polylactic acid and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was prepared by a combination of solution blending, solvent cast technique, and hydraulic hot press moulding. In this study, polylactic acid (PLA) was first plasticized by epoxidized linseed oil (ELO) in order to overcome the major limitations of PLA, such as high brittleness, low toughness, and low tensile elongation. Then, MWCNTs were incorporated into the ELO plasticized PLA matrix at three different loadings (2, 3 and 5 wt. %), with the aim of making the resulting nanocomposites electrically conductive. The addition of ELO decreased glass transition temperature, and increased the elongation and thermal degradability of PLA, as shown in the results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), tensile test, and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to observe surface morphology, topography, and the dispersion of MWCNTs in the nanocomposite. Finally, the electroactive-shape memory effect (electroactive-SME) in the resulting nanocomposite was investigated by a fold-deploy “U”-shape bending test. As per the results, the addition of both ELO and MWCNTs to PLA matrix seemed to enhance its overall properties with a great deal of potential in improved shape memory. The 3 wt. % MWCNTs-reinforced nanocomposite system, which showed 95% shape recovery within 45 s at 40 DC voltage, is expected to be used as a preferential polymeric nanocomposite material in various actuators, sensors and deployable devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Anisotropic and Smart Materials)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Thermotropic Studies of Two Novel Series of Kinked Liquid Crystals: 2-(4'-Alkoxybiphen-4-yl)-6-methylquinolines and 2-(6-Alkoxynaphthalen-2-yl)-6-methylquinolines
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(5), 7579-7593; doi:10.3390/ijms15057579
Received: 11 March 2014 / Revised: 15 April 2014 / Accepted: 22 April 2014 / Published: 2 May 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (801 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two novel homologous series of kinked (Z-shaped) liquid crystalline compounds were synthesized using a short two-step reaction. Yields of 30%–40% and 51%–57% were obtained for 2-(4'-alkoxybiphen-4-yl)-6-methylquinolines (nO-PPQMe, n = 3–8) and 2-(6-alkoxynaphthalen-2-yl)-6-methylquinolines (iO-NpQMe, i = 3–7), respectively. Spectral [...] Read more.
Two novel homologous series of kinked (Z-shaped) liquid crystalline compounds were synthesized using a short two-step reaction. Yields of 30%–40% and 51%–57% were obtained for 2-(4'-alkoxybiphen-4-yl)-6-methylquinolines (nO-PPQMe, n = 3–8) and 2-(6-alkoxynaphthalen-2-yl)-6-methylquinolines (iO-NpQMe, i = 3–7), respectively. Spectral analyses agreed with the expected structures. The thermotropic behaviors of these compounds were investigated using polarized optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. An enantiotropic nematic phase appeared to be the main mesophase in these two series of kinked liquid crystalline compounds, and an additional enantiotropic smectic C phase appeared when n = 8. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Anisotropic and Smart Materials)
Open AccessArticle Comparative Study of Electroless Copper Film on Different Self-Assembled Monolayers Modified ABS Substrate
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(4), 6412-6422; doi:10.3390/ijms15046412
Received: 24 February 2014 / Revised: 4 April 2014 / Accepted: 8 April 2014 / Published: 15 April 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (640 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Copper films were grown on (3-Mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTMS), (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and 6-(3-(triethoxysilyl)propylamino)-1,3,5- triazine-2,4-dithiol monosodium (TES) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) modified acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) substrate via electroless copper plating. The copper films were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Their individual deposition [...] Read more.
Copper films were grown on (3-Mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTMS), (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and 6-(3-(triethoxysilyl)propylamino)-1,3,5- triazine-2,4-dithiol monosodium (TES) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) modified acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) substrate via electroless copper plating. The copper films were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Their individual deposition rate and contact angle were also investigated to compare the properties of SAMs and electroless copper films. The results indicated that the formation of copper nuclei on the TES-SAMs modified ABS substrate was faster than those on the MPTMS-SAMs and APTES-SAMs modified ABS substrate. SEM images revealed that the copper film on TES-SAM modified ABS substrate was smooth and uniform, and the density of copper nuclei was much higher. Compared with that of TES-SAMs modified resin, the coverage of copper nuclei on MPTMS and APTES modified ABS substrate was very limited and the copper particle size was too big. The adhesion property test demonstrated that all the SAMs enhanced the interfacial interaction between copper plating and ABS substrate. XRD analysis showed that the copper film deposited on SAM-modified ABS substrate had a structure with Cu(111) preferred orientation, and the copper film deposited on TES-SAMs modified ABS substrate is better than that deposited on MPTMS-SAMs or APTES-SAMs modified ABS resins in electromigrtion resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Anisotropic and Smart Materials)
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