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Special Issue "Biodegradable Magnesium Alloys and Implants"

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A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Material Sciences and Nanotechnology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 April 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Mihriban O. Pekguleryuz

Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Website | E-Mail
Interests: light metals; aluminum, magnesium; alloy development; biodegradable magnesium implants

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Magnesium biomaterials are emerging as important candidates for bio-resorbable implant applications. Because magnesium biodegrades via corrosion by the body fluids, the stimulus for hyperplasia is removed and the tendency to restenosis is minimized, while the substrate for local tissue irritation is eliminated. Magnesium has an advantage over biodegradable polymeric stents in that it can have smaller mass for equal mechanical performance and can be better visualized in CT scans. Biodegradable stents have been successfully used in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease and other clinical trials with magnesium alloys have been undertaken. Furthermore, Mg offers key advantage as the deployment material for drug delivery and gene therapy. Research now focuses on developing improved Mg alloys with lower bio-corrosion rates without creating potential toxicity problems related to some alloying elements. Eventual use in biomedical devices also necessitates optimization of the alloys for mechanical performance.

Dr. Mihriban Pekguleryuz
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF.


Keywords

  • magnesium alloys
  • biodegradable magnesium implants
  • biocorrosion and biocompatibility
  • bio absorbable metallic stents
  • orthopaedic metallic implants
  • toxicity and cell viability

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle The Influence of MgH2 on the Assessment of Electrochemical Data to Predict the Degradation Rate of Mg and Mg Alloys
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(7), 11456-11472; doi:10.3390/ijms150711456
Received: 9 April 2014 / Revised: 13 June 2014 / Accepted: 20 June 2014 / Published: 26 June 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1859 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mg and Mg alloys are becoming more and more of interest for several applications. In the case of biomaterial applications, a special interest exists due to the fact that a predictable degradation should be given. Various investigations were made to characterize and predict
[...] Read more.
Mg and Mg alloys are becoming more and more of interest for several applications. In the case of biomaterial applications, a special interest exists due to the fact that a predictable degradation should be given. Various investigations were made to characterize and predict the corrosion behavior in vitro and in vivo. Mostly, the simple oxidation of Mg to Mg2+ ions connected with adequate hydrogen development is assumed, and the negative difference effect (NDE) is attributed to various mechanisms and electrochemical results. The aim of this paper is to compare the different views on the corrosion pathway of Mg or Mg alloys and to present a neglected pathway based on thermodynamic data as a guideline for possible reactions combined with experimental observations of a delay of visible hydrogen evolution during cyclic voltammetry. Various reaction pathways are considered and discussed to explain these results, like the stability of the Mg+ intermediate state, the stability of MgH2 and the role of hydrogen overpotential. Finally, the impact of MgH2 formation is shown as an appropriate base for the prediction of the degradation behavior and calculation of the corrosion rate of Mg and Mg alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable Magnesium Alloys and Implants)
Open AccessArticle Optimization of Cell Adhesion on Mg Based Implant Materials by Pre-Incubation under Cell Culture Conditions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(5), 7639-7650; doi:10.3390/ijms15057639
Received: 27 February 2014 / Revised: 20 March 2014 / Accepted: 16 April 2014 / Published: 5 May 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1578 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Magnesium based implants could revolutionize applications where orthopedic implants such as nails, screws or bone plates are used because they are load bearing and degrade over time. This prevents a second surgery to remove conventional implants. To improve the biocompatibility we studied here
[...] Read more.
Magnesium based implants could revolutionize applications where orthopedic implants such as nails, screws or bone plates are used because they are load bearing and degrade over time. This prevents a second surgery to remove conventional implants. To improve the biocompatibility we studied here if and for how long a pre-incubation of the material under cell culture conditions is favorable for cell attachment and proliferation. For two materials, Mg and Mg10Gd1Nd, we could show that 6 h pre-incubation are already enough to form a natural protective layer suitable for cell culture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable Magnesium Alloys and Implants)
Open AccessArticle Endothelialization of Novel Magnesium-Rare Earth Alloys with Fluoride and Collagen Coating
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(4), 5263-5276; doi:10.3390/ijms15045263
Received: 23 January 2014 / Revised: 10 March 2014 / Accepted: 13 March 2014 / Published: 25 March 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1822 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Magnesium (Mg) alloys are promising scaffolds for the next generation of cardiovascular stents because of their better biocompatibility and biodegradation compared to traditional metals. However, insufficient mechanical strength and high degradation rate are still the two main limitations for Mg materials. Hydrofluoric acid
[...] Read more.
Magnesium (Mg) alloys are promising scaffolds for the next generation of cardiovascular stents because of their better biocompatibility and biodegradation compared to traditional metals. However, insufficient mechanical strength and high degradation rate are still the two main limitations for Mg materials. Hydrofluoric acid (HF) treatment and collagen coating were used in this research to improve the endothelialization of two rare earth-based Mg alloys. Results demonstrated that a nanoporous film structure of fluoride with thickness of ~20 µm was formed on the Mg material surface, which improved the corrosion resistance. Primary human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) had much better attachment, spreading, growth and proliferation (the process of endothelialization) on HF-treated Mg materials compared to bare- or collagen-coated ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable Magnesium Alloys and Implants)
Open AccessArticle Shape and Site Dependent in Vivo Degradation of Mg-Zn Pins in Rabbit Femoral Condyle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 2959-2970; doi:10.3390/ijms15022959
Received: 26 October 2013 / Revised: 2 January 2014 / Accepted: 16 January 2014 / Published: 20 February 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3010 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A type of specially designed pin model of Mg-Zn alloy was implanted into the full thickness of lesions of New Zealand rabbits’ femoral condyles. The recovery progress, outer surface healing and in vivo degradation were characterized by various methods including radiographs, Micro-CT scan
[...] Read more.
A type of specially designed pin model of Mg-Zn alloy was implanted into the full thickness of lesions of New Zealand rabbits’ femoral condyles. The recovery progress, outer surface healing and in vivo degradation were characterized by various methods including radiographs, Micro-CT scan with surface rendering, SEM (scanning electron microscope) with EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis) and so on. The in vivo results suggested that a few but not sufficient bridges for holding force were formed between the bone and the implant if there was a preexisting gap between them. The rapid degradation of the implantation in the condyle would result in the appearance of cavities. Morphological evaluation of the specially designed pins indicated that the cusp was the most vulnerable part during degradation. Furthermore, different implantation sites with distinct components and biological functions can lead to different degradation rates of Mg-Zn alloy. The rate of Mg-Zn alloy decreases in the following order: implantation into soft tissue, less trabecular bone, more trabecular bone, and cortical bone. Because of the complexities of in vivo degradation, it is necessary for the design of biomedical Mg-Zn devices to take into consideration the implantation sites used in clinics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable Magnesium Alloys and Implants)
Open AccessArticle In Vitro Corrosion and Cytocompatibility of ZK60 Magnesium Alloy Coated with Hydroxyapatite by a Simple Chemical Conversion Process for Orthopedic Applications
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(12), 23614-23628; doi:10.3390/ijms141223614
Received: 27 September 2013 / Revised: 23 October 2013 / Accepted: 4 November 2013 / Published: 3 December 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1660 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Magnesium and its alloys—a new class of degradable metallic biomaterials—are being increasingly investigated as a promising alternative for medical implant and device applications due to their advantageous mechanical and biological properties. However, the high corrosion rate in physiological environments prevents the clinical application
[...] Read more.
Magnesium and its alloys—a new class of degradable metallic biomaterials—are being increasingly investigated as a promising alternative for medical implant and device applications due to their advantageous mechanical and biological properties. However, the high corrosion rate in physiological environments prevents the clinical application of Mg-based materials. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on ZK60 magnesium alloy substrates to mediate the rapid degradation of Mg while improving its cytocompatibility for orthopedic applications. A simple chemical conversion process was applied to prepare HA coating on ZK60 magnesium alloy. Surface morphology, elemental compositions, and crystal structures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The corrosion properties of samples were investigated by immersion test and electrochemical test. Murine fibroblast L-929 cells were harvested and cultured with coated and non-coated ZK60 samples to determine cytocompatibility. The degradation results suggested that the HA coatings decreased the degradation of ZK60 alloy. No significant deterioration in compression strength was observed for all the uncoated and coated samples after 2 and 4 weeks’ immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). Cytotoxicity test indicated that the coatings, especially HA coating, improved cytocompatibility of ZK60 alloy for L929 cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable Magnesium Alloys and Implants)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Bioresorbable Drug-Eluting Magnesium-Alloy Scaffold for Treatment of Coronary Artery Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(12), 24492-24500; doi:10.3390/ijms141224492
Received: 21 October 2013 / Revised: 3 December 2013 / Accepted: 12 December 2013 / Published: 16 December 2013
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (551 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The introduction of metallic drug-eluting stents has reduced the risk of restenosis and widened the indications of percutaneous coronary intervention in treatment of coronary artery disease. However, this medical device can induce hypersensitive reaction that interferes with the endothelialization and healing process resulting
[...] Read more.
The introduction of metallic drug-eluting stents has reduced the risk of restenosis and widened the indications of percutaneous coronary intervention in treatment of coronary artery disease. However, this medical device can induce hypersensitive reaction that interferes with the endothelialization and healing process resulting in late persistent or acquired malapposition of the permanent metallic implant. Delayed endotheliaization and malapposition may lead to late and very late stent thrombosis. Bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS) have been introduced to potentially overcome these limitations, as they provide temporary scaffolding and then disappear, liberating the treated vessel from its cage. Magnesium is an essential mineral needed for a variety of physiological functions in the human body and its bioresorbable alloy has the strength-to-weight ratio comparable with that of strong aluminum alloys and alloy steels. The aim of this review is to present the new developments in Magnesium BRS technology, to describe its clinical application and to discuss the future prospects of this innovative therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable Magnesium Alloys and Implants)
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