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Special Issue "Biotic and Abiotic Stress"

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A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2009)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Mylène Durand-Tardif (Website)

Genetics and Plant Breeding Laboratory, Jean-Pierre Bourgin Institute, INRA Centre of Versailles-Grignon, Route de Saint-Cyr, 78026 Versailles Cedex, France
Interests: arabidopsis thaliana; phenotype; drought; osmotic; abiotic stress; natural variability; induced variability

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is becoming more and more obvious that growth and development of all living organisms is tightly link to their abiotic and biotic ecological units. All individuals have to deal with their physical and chemical environment to grow, sometimes when conditions are not favorable, they might organize reparation of damages, survival and/or some cells death in order to preserve the organism. Some stress response mechanisms are ubiquitous like response to heat shock or to ionizing radiation, some are particular to a taxon or even to a species but could be of great interest for the whole scientific community to discover new response strategies. This special issue is aiming to present original results or reviews on molecular aspects of stress responses in biology.

Dr. Mylène Durand-Tardif
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • biology of stress response
  • plasticity
  • adaptation
  • variation
  • variability
  • homeostasy

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Chromosomal Location of Traits Associated with Wheat Seedling Water and Phosphorus Use Efficiency under Different Water and Phosphorus Stresses
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(9), 4116-4136; doi:10.3390/ijms10094116
Received: 26 July 2009 / Revised: 27 August 2009 / Accepted: 31 August 2009 / Published: 18 September 2009
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (160 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study was to locate chromosomes for improving water and phosphorus-deficiency tolerance of wheat at the seedling stage. A set of Chinese Spring- Egyptian Red wheat substitution lines and their parent Chinese Spring (recipient) and Egyptian Red (donor) cultivars [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to locate chromosomes for improving water and phosphorus-deficiency tolerance of wheat at the seedling stage. A set of Chinese Spring- Egyptian Red wheat substitution lines and their parent Chinese Spring (recipient) and Egyptian Red (donor) cultivars were measured to determine the chromosomal locations of genes controlling water use efficiency (WUE) and phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) under different water and phosphorus conditions. The results underlined that chromosomes 1A, 7A, 7B, and 3A showed higher leaf water use efficiency (WUEl = Pn/Tr; Pn = photosynthetic rate; Tr = transpiration rate) under W-P (Hoagland solution with1/2P), -W-P (Hoagland solution with 1/2P and 10% PEG). Chromosomes 7A, 3D, 2B, 3B, and 4B may carry genes for positive effects on individual plant water use efficiency (WUEp = biomass/TWC; TWC = total water consumption) under WP (Hoagland solution), W-P and -W-P treatment. Chromosomes 7A and 7D carry genes for PUE enhancement under WP, -WP (Hoagland solution with 10% PEG) and W-P treatment. Chromosome 7A possibly has genes for controlling WUE and PUE simultaneously, which indicates that WUE and PUE may share the same genetic background. Phenotypic and genetic analysis of the investigated traits showed that photosynthetic rate (Pn) and transpiration rate (Tr), Tr and WUEl showed significant positive and negative correlations under WP, W-P, -WP and -W-P, W-P, -WP treatments, respectively. Dry mass (DM), WUEP, PUT (phosphorus uptake) all showed significant positive correlation under WP, W-P and -WP treatment. PUE and phosphorus uptake (PUT = P uptake per plant) showed significant negative correlation under the four treatments. The results might provide useful information for improving WUE and PUE in wheat genetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotic and Abiotic Stress)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Potato Virus Y on the NADP-Malic Enzyme from Nicotiana tabacum L.: mRNA, Expressed Protein and Activity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(8), 3583-3598; doi:10.3390/ijms10083583
Received: 2 June 2009 / Revised: 7 August 2009 / Accepted: 11 August 2009 / Published: 13 August 2009
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (379 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effect of biotic stress induced by viral infection (Potato virus Y, strain NTN and O) on NADP-malic enzyme (EC 1.1.1.40) in tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L., cv. Petit Havana, SR1) was tested at the transcriptional, translational and activity [...] Read more.
The effect of biotic stress induced by viral infection (Potato virus Y, strain NTN and O) on NADP-malic enzyme (EC 1.1.1.40) in tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L., cv. Petit Havana, SR1) was tested at the transcriptional, translational and activity level. The increase of enzyme activity in infected leaves was correlated with the increased amount of expressed protein and with mRNA of cytosolic NADP-ME isoform. Transcription of the chloroplastic enzyme was not influenced by viral infection. The increase of the enzyme activity was also detected in stems and roots of infected plants. The effect of viral infection induced by Potato virus Y, NTN strain, causing more severe symptoms, was compared with the effect induced by milder strain PVYO. The observed increase in NADP-malic enzyme activity in all parts of the studied plants was higher in the case of PVYNTN strain than in the case of strain PVYO. The relevance of NADP-malic enzyme in plants under stress conditions was discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotic and Abiotic Stress)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of the Sesbania rostrata Phytochelatin Synthase Gene: Alternative Splicing and Function of Four Isoforms
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(8), 3269-3282; doi:10.3390/ijms10083269
Received: 5 June 2009 / Revised: 7 July 2009 / Accepted: 17 July 2009 / Published: 24 July 2009
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (438 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Phytochelatins (PCs) play an important role in detoxification of heavy metals in plants. PCs are synthesized from glutathione by phytochelatin synthase (PCS), a dipeptidyltransferase. Sesbania rostrata is a tropical legume plant that can tolerate high concentrations of Cd and Zn. In this [...] Read more.
Phytochelatins (PCs) play an important role in detoxification of heavy metals in plants. PCs are synthesized from glutathione by phytochelatin synthase (PCS), a dipeptidyltransferase. Sesbania rostrata is a tropical legume plant that can tolerate high concentrations of Cd and Zn. In this study, the S. rostrata PCS gene (SrPCS) and cDNAs were isolated and characterized. Southern blot and sequence analysis revealed that a single copy of the SrPCS gene occurs in the S. rostrata genome, and produces four different SrPCS mRNAs and proteins, SrPCS1-SrPCS4, by alternative splicing of the SrPCS pre-mRNA. The SrPCS1 and SrPCS3 proteins conferred Cd tolerance when expressed in yeast cells, whereas the SrPCS2 and SrPCS4 proteins, which lack the catalytic triad and the N-terminal domains, did not. These results suggested that SrPCS1 and SrPCS3 have potential applications in genetic engineering of plants for enhancing heavy metal tolerance and phytoremediation of contaminated soils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotic and Abiotic Stress)
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Open AccessArticle Protein and Metabolite Analysis Reveals Permanent Induction of Stress Defense and Cell Regeneration Processes in a Tobacco Cell Suspension Culture
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(7), 3012-3032; doi:10.3390/ijms10073012
Received: 8 June 2009 / Revised: 26 June 2009 / Accepted: 26 June 2009 / Published: 6 July 2009
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (900 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The secretome of a tobacco cell suspension culture was investigated by a combined proteomic and metabolomic approach. Protein analysis from 2-DE gels led to identification of 32 out of 60 spots from culture medium. Identified proteins were mainly involved in stress defence [...] Read more.
The secretome of a tobacco cell suspension culture was investigated by a combined proteomic and metabolomic approach. Protein analysis from 2-DE gels led to identification of 32 out of 60 spots from culture medium. Identified proteins were mainly involved in stress defence and cell regeneration processes. Among them three putative new isoforms, e.g. for chitinase, peroxidase and β-1,4-xylosidase were identified, not yet present in available protein databases for the genus Nicotiana. GC-MS analysis of time course experiments revealed significant changes for metabolites involved in energy transport, signalling and cell development. Among them, the most significant increase was found for putrescine in the medium of cultures entering the exponential phase. Results showed strong abundance of stress associated proteins and metabolites in the absence of elicitors or additional stress treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotic and Abiotic Stress)
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Open AccessArticle Variation in Dehydration Tolerance, ABA Sensitivity and Related Gene Expression Patterns in D-Genome Progenitor and Synthetic Hexaploid Wheat Lines
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(6), 2733-2751; doi:10.3390/ijms10062733
Received: 22 May 2009 / Revised: 16 June 2009 / Accepted: 16 June 2009 / Published: 18 June 2009
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (737 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The wild wheat Aegilops tauschii Coss. has extensive natural variation available for breeding of common wheat. Drought stress tolerance is closely related to abscisic acid (ABA) sensitivity. In this study, 17 synthetic hexaploid wheat lines, produced by crossing the tetraploid wheat cultivar [...] Read more.
The wild wheat Aegilops tauschii Coss. has extensive natural variation available for breeding of common wheat. Drought stress tolerance is closely related to abscisic acid (ABA) sensitivity. In this study, 17 synthetic hexaploid wheat lines, produced by crossing the tetraploid wheat cultivar Langdon with 17 accessions of Ae. tauschii, were used for comparative analysis of natural variation in drought tolerance and ABA sensitivity. Ae. tauschii showed wide natural variation, with weak association between the traits. Drought-sensitive accessions of Ae. tauschii exhibited significantly less ABA sensitivity. D-genome variations observed at the diploid genome level were not necessarily reflected in synthetic wheats. However, synthetic wheats derived from the parental Ae. tauschii accessions with high drought tolerance were significantly more tolerant to drought stress than those from drought-sensitive accessions. Moreover, synthetic wheats with high drought tolerance showed significantly higher ABA sensitivity than drought-sensitive synthetic lines. In the hexaploid genetic background, therefore, weak association of ABA sensitivity with drought tolerance wasobserved. To study differences in gene expression patterns between stress-tolerant and -sensitive lines, levels of two Cor/Lea and three transcription factor gene transcripts were compared. The more tolerant accession of Ae. tauschii tended to accumulate more abundant transcripts of the examined genes than the sensitive accession under stress conditions. The expression patterns in the synthetic wheats seemed to be additive for parental lines exposed to drought and ABA treatments. However, the transcript levels of transcription factor genes in the synthetic wheats did not necessarily correspond to the postulated levels based on expression in parental lines. Allopolyploidization altered the expression levels of the stress-responsive genes in synthetic wheats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotic and Abiotic Stress)
Open AccessArticle Overexpression of a Weed (Solanum americanum) Proteinase Inhibitor in Transgenic Tobacco Results in Increased Glandular Trichome Density and Enhanced Resistance to Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(4), 1896-1910; doi:10.3390/ijms10041896
Received: 12 March 2009 / Revised: 17 April 2009 / Accepted: 21 April 2009 / Published: 23 April 2009
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (902 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study we produced transgenic tobacco plants by overexpressing a serine proteinase inhibitor gene, SaPIN2a, from the American black nightshade Solanum americanum under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. SaPIN2a was properly transcribed and translated [...] Read more.
In this study we produced transgenic tobacco plants by overexpressing a serine proteinase inhibitor gene, SaPIN2a, from the American black nightshade Solanum americanum under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. SaPIN2a was properly transcribed and translated as indicated by Northern blot and Western blot analyses. Functional integrity of SaPIN2a in transgenic plants was confirmed by proteinase inhibitory activity assay. Bioassays for insect resistance showed that SaPIN2a-overexpressing transgenic tobacco plants were more resistant to cotton bollworm(Helicoverpa armigera) and tobacco cutworm(Spodoptera litura) larvae, two devastating pests of important crop plants, than the control plants. Interestingly, overexpression of SaPIN2a in transgenic tobacco plants resulted in a significant increase in glandular trichome density and a promotion of trichome branching, which could also provide an additional resistance mechanism in transgenic plants against insect pests. Therefore, SaPIN2a could be used as an alternative proteinase inhibitor for the production of insect-resistant transgenic plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotic and Abiotic Stress)
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Open AccessArticle Ultra Low-Dose Radiation: Stress Responses and Impacts Using Rice as a Grass Model
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(3), 1215-1225; doi:10.3390/ijms10031215
Received: 5 February 2009 / Revised: 11 March 2009 / Accepted: 13 March 2009 / Published: 16 March 2009
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (358 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We report molecular changes in leaves of rice plants (Oryza sativa L. - reference crop plant and grass model) exposed to ultra low-dose ionizing radiation, first using contaminated soil from the exclusion zone around Chernobyl reactor site. Results revealed induction of [...] Read more.
We report molecular changes in leaves of rice plants (Oryza sativa L. - reference crop plant and grass model) exposed to ultra low-dose ionizing radiation, first using contaminated soil from the exclusion zone around Chernobyl reactor site. Results revealed induction of stress-related marker genes (Northern blot) and secondary metabolites (LC-MS/MS) in irradiated leaf segments over appropriate control. Second, employing the same in vitro model system, we replicated results of the first experiment using in-house fabricated sources of ultra low-dose gamma (g) rays and selected marker genes by RT-PCR. Results suggest the usefulness of the rice model in studying ultra low-dose radiation response/s. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotic and Abiotic Stress)
Open AccessArticle Compensatory Growth Induced in Zebrafish Larvae after Pre-Exposure to a Microcystis aeruginosa Natural Bloom Extract Containing Microcystins
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(1), 133-146; doi:10.3390/ijms10010133
Received: 5 November 2008 / Revised: 27 December 2008 / Accepted: 4 January 2009 / Published: 5 January 2009
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (2397 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Early life stage tests with zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used to detect toxic effects of compounds from a Microcystis aeruginosa natural bloom extracton their embryolarval development. We carried out the exposure of developing stages of fish to complex cyanobacterial blooms [...] Read more.
Early life stage tests with zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used to detect toxic effects of compounds from a Microcystis aeruginosa natural bloom extracton their embryolarval development. We carried out the exposure of developing stages of fish to complex cyanobacterial blooms containing hepatotoxic molecules - microcystins. Fish embryo tests performed with the bloom extract containing 3 mg·L-1 Eq microcystin-LR showed that after 24 h of exposure all fish embryos died. The same tests performed with other diluted extracts (containing 0.3, 0.1 and 0.03 mg·L-1 Eq microcystin-LR) were shown to have an influence on zebrafish development and a large number of embryos showed malformation signs (edema, bent and curving tail). After hatching the larvae were transferred to a medium without toxins to follow the larval development under the new conditions. The specific growth of the pre-exposed larvae was significantly more important than that of the control larvae. This may represent a compensatory growth used to reduce the difference in size with the control fish noted after hatching. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotic and Abiotic Stress)
Open AccessArticle Tobacco OPBP1 Enhances Salt Tolerance and Disease Resistance of Transgenic Rice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9(12), 2601-2613; doi:10.3390/ijms9122601
Received: 19 November 2008 / Revised: 4 December 2008 / Accepted: 9 December 2008 / Published: 11 December 2008
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (278 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Osmotin promoter binding protein 1 (OPBP1), an AP2/ERF transcription factor of tobacco, has been demonstrated to function in disease resistance and salt tolerance in tobacco. To increase stress tolerant capability of rice, we generated rice plants with an OPBP1 overexpressing construct. Salinity [...] Read more.
Osmotin promoter binding protein 1 (OPBP1), an AP2/ERF transcription factor of tobacco, has been demonstrated to function in disease resistance and salt tolerance in tobacco. To increase stress tolerant capability of rice, we generated rice plants with an OPBP1 overexpressing construct. Salinity shock treatment with 250 mM NaCl indicated that most of the OPBP1 transgenic plants can survive, whereas the control seedlings cannot. Similar recovery was found by using the seedlings grown in 200 mM NaCl for two weeks. The OPBP1 transgenic and control plants were also studied for oxidative stress tolerance by treatment with paraquat, showing the transgenic lines were damaged less in comparison with the control plants. Further, the OPBP1 overexpression lines exhibited enhanced resistance to infections of Magnaporthe oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani pathogens. Gene expressing analysis showed increase in mRNA accumulation of several stress related genes. These results suggest that expression of OPBP1 gene increase the detoxification capability of rice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotic and Abiotic Stress)

Review

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Open AccessReview Trehalose Metabolism: From Osmoprotection to Signaling
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(9), 3793-3810; doi:10.3390/ijms10093793
Received: 30 July 2009 / Accepted: 31 August 2009 / Published: 1 September 2009
Cited by 72 | PDF Full-text (1021 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Trehalose is a non-reducing disaccharide formed by two glucose molecules. It is widely distributed in Nature and has been isolated from certain species of bacteria, fungi, invertebrates and plants, which are capable of surviving in a dehydrated state for months or years [...] Read more.
Trehalose is a non-reducing disaccharide formed by two glucose molecules. It is widely distributed in Nature and has been isolated from certain species of bacteria, fungi, invertebrates and plants, which are capable of surviving in a dehydrated state for months or years and subsequently being revived after a few hours of being in contact with water. This disaccharide has many biotechnological applications, as its physicochemical properties allow it to be used to preserve foods, enzymes, vaccines, cells etc., in a dehydrated state at room temperature. One of the most striking findings a decade ago was the discovery of the genes involved in trehalose biosynthesis, present in a great number of organisms that do not accumulate trehalose to significant levels. In plants, this disaccharide has diverse functions and plays an essential role in various stages of development, for example in the formation of the embryo and in flowering. Trehalose also appears to be involved in the regulation of carbon metabolism and photosynthesis. Recently it has been discovered that this sugar plays an important role in plant-microorganism interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotic and Abiotic Stress)
Open AccessReview A Focus on Natural Variation for Abiotic Constraints Response in the Model Species Arabidopsis thaliana
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(8), 3547-3582; doi:10.3390/ijms10083547
Received: 16 June 2009 / Revised: 4 August 2009 / Accepted: 11 August 2009 / Published: 13 August 2009
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (335 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Plants are particularly subject to environmental stress, as they cannot move from unfavourable surroundings. As a consequence they have to react in situ. In any case, plants have to sense the stress, then the signal has to be transduced to engage [...] Read more.
Plants are particularly subject to environmental stress, as they cannot move from unfavourable surroundings. As a consequence they have to react in situ. In any case, plants have to sense the stress, then the signal has to be transduced to engage the appropriate response. Stress response is effected by regulating genes, by turning on molecular mechanisms to protect the whole organism and its components and/or to repair damage. Reactions vary depending on the type of stress and its intensity, but some are commonly turned on because some responses to different abiotic stresses are shared. In addition, there are multiple ways for plants to respond to environmental stress, depending on the species and life strategy, but also multiple ways within a species depending on plant variety or ecotype. It is regularly accepted that populations of a single species originating from diverse geographic origins and/or that have been subjected to different selective pressure, have evolved retaining the best alleles for completing their life cycle. Therefore, the study of natural variation in response to abiotic stress, can help unravel key genes and alleles for plants to cope with their unfavourable physical and chemical surroundings. This review is focusing on Arabidopsis thaliana which has been largely adopted by the global scientific community as a model organism. Also, tools and data that facilitate investigation of natural variation and abiotic stress encountered in the wild are set out. Characterization of accessions, QTLs detection and cloning of alleles responsible for variation are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotic and Abiotic Stress)
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Open AccessReview Chemical Diversity and Defence Metabolism: How Plants Cope with Pathogens and Ozone Pollution
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(8), 3371-3399; doi:10.3390/ijms10083371
Received: 6 June 2009 / Revised: 24 July 2009 / Accepted: 29 July 2009 / Published: 30 July 2009
Cited by 62 | PDF Full-text (533 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chemical defences represent a main trait of the plant innate immune system. Besides regulating the relationship between plants and their ecosystems, phytochemicals are involved both in resistance against pathogens and in tolerance towards abiotic stresses, such as atmospheric pollution. Plant defence metabolites [...] Read more.
Chemical defences represent a main trait of the plant innate immune system. Besides regulating the relationship between plants and their ecosystems, phytochemicals are involved both in resistance against pathogens and in tolerance towards abiotic stresses, such as atmospheric pollution. Plant defence metabolites arise from the main secondary metabolic routes, the phenylpropanoid, the isoprenoid and the alkaloid pathways. In plants, antibiotic compounds can be both preformed (phytoanticipins) and inducible (phytoalexins), the former including saponins, cyanogenic glycosides and glucosinolates. Chronic exposure to tropospheric ozone (O3) stimulates the carbon fluxes from the primary to the secondary metabolic pathways to a great extent, inducing a shift of the available resources in favour of the synthesis of secondary products. In some cases, the plant defence responses against pathogens and environmental pollutants may overlap, leading to the unspecific synthesis of similar molecules, such as phenylpropanoids. Exposure to ozone can also modify the pattern of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC), emitted from plant in response to herbivore feeding, thus altering the tritrophic interaction among plant, phytophagy and their natural enemies. Finally, the synthesis of ethylene and polyamines can be regulated by ozone at level of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), the biosynthetic precursor of both classes of hormones, which can, therefore, mutually inhibit their own biosynthesis with consequence on plant phenotype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotic and Abiotic Stress)
Open AccessReview Bax Inhibitor-1, a Conserved Cell Death Suppressor, Is a Key Molecular Switch Downstream from a Variety of Biotic and Abiotic Stress Signals in Plants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(7), 3149-3167; doi:10.3390/ijms10073149
Received: 16 June 2009 / Revised: 6 July 2009 / Accepted: 6 July 2009 / Published: 10 July 2009
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (1036 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In Nature plants are constantly challenged by a variety of environmental stresses that could lead to disruptions in cellular homeostasis. Programmed cell death (PCD) is a fundamental cellular process that is often associated with defense responses to pathogens, during development and in [...] Read more.
In Nature plants are constantly challenged by a variety of environmental stresses that could lead to disruptions in cellular homeostasis. Programmed cell death (PCD) is a fundamental cellular process that is often associated with defense responses to pathogens, during development and in response to abiotic stresses in fungi, animals and plants. Although there are many characteristics shared between different types of PCD events, it remains unknown whether a common mechanism drives various types of PCD in eukaryotes. One candidate regulator for such a mechanism is Bax Inhibitor-1 (BI-1), an evolutionary conserved, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident protein that represents an ancient cell death regulator that potentially regulates PCD in all eukaryotes. Recent findings strongly suggested that BI-1 plays an important role in the conserved ER stress response pathway to modulate cell death induction in response to multiple types of cell death signals. As ER stress signaling pathways has been suggested to play important roles not only in the control of ER homeostasis but also in other biological processes such as the response to pathogens and abiotic stress in plants, BI-1 might function to control the convergence point that modulates the level of the “pro-survival and pro-death” signals under multiple stress conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotic and Abiotic Stress)
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Open AccessReview Post-transcriptional Regulation of Gene Expression in Plants during Abiotic Stress
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(7), 3168-3185; doi:10.3390/ijms10073168
Received: 9 June 2009 / Revised: 4 July 2009 / Accepted: 9 July 2009 / Published: 10 July 2009
Cited by 44 | PDF Full-text (422 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Land plants are anchored in one place for most of their life cycle and therefore must constantly adapt their growth and metabolism to abiotic stresses such as light intensity, temperature and the availability of water and essential minerals. Thus, plants’ subsistence depends [...] Read more.
Land plants are anchored in one place for most of their life cycle and therefore must constantly adapt their growth and metabolism to abiotic stresses such as light intensity, temperature and the availability of water and essential minerals. Thus, plants’ subsistence depends on their ability to regulate rapidly gene expression in order to adapt their physiology to their environment. Recent studies indicate that post-transcriptional regulations of gene expression play an important role in how plants respond to abiotic stresses. We will review the different mechanisms of post-transcriptional regulation of nuclear genes expression including messenger RNA (mRNA) processing, stability, localization and protein translation, and discuss their relative importance for plant adaptation to abiotic stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotic and Abiotic Stress)
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Open AccessReview Bacterial Stressors in Minimally Processed Food
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10(7), 3076-3105; doi:10.3390/ijms10073076
Received: 10 June 2009 / Revised: 29 June 2009 / Accepted: 29 June 2009 / Published: 8 July 2009
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (247 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Stress responses are of particular importance to microorganisms, because their habitats are subjected to continual changes in temperature, osmotic pressure, and nutrients availability. Stressors (and stress factors), may be of chemical, physical, or biological nature. While stress to microorganisms is frequently caused [...] Read more.
Stress responses are of particular importance to microorganisms, because their habitats are subjected to continual changes in temperature, osmotic pressure, and nutrients availability. Stressors (and stress factors), may be of chemical, physical, or biological nature. While stress to microorganisms is frequently caused by the surrounding environment, the growth of microbial cells on its own may also result in induction of some kinds of stress such as starvation and acidity. During production of fresh-cut produce, cumulative mild processing steps are employed, to control the growth of microorganisms. Pathogens on plant surfaces are already stressed and stress may be increased during the multiple mild processing steps, potentially leading to very hardy bacteria geared towards enhanced survival. Cross-protection can occur because the overlapping stress responses enable bacteria exposed to one stress to become resistant to another stress. A number of stresses have been shown to induce cross protection, including heat, cold, acid and osmotic stress. Among other factors, adaptation to heat stress appears to provide bacterial cells with more pronounced cross protection against several other stresses. Understanding how pathogens sense and respond to mild stresses is essential in order to design safe and effective minimal processing regimes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotic and Abiotic Stress)
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