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Special Issue "Mechanism of Action and Applications of Cytokines in Immunotherapy"

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A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Diagnostics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Kamal D. Moudgil

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 685 W. Baltimore Street, HSF-1, Suite 380 Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: autoimmunity; arthritis; immune regulation; cytokines; antigen processing and presentation; natural products; targeted therapy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cytokines can be produced by a wide variety of cell types, including lymphocytes, myeloid cells, endothelial cells, and epithelial cells (under appropriate stimuli). Cytokines mediate diverse cellular, biochemical, and molecular responses in health, as well as during infection and other pathophysiological situations, including tumors and autoimmune diseases. Certain cytokines induce inflammation and tissue damage, whereas others attempt to suppress inflammation and facilitate tissue repair or recovery. Accordingly, cytokines have been broadly categorized as either pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory in nature. In regard to the cellular sources of such cytokines, for example, the T helper 17 (Th17) cells that produce IL-17 are involved in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases, whereas the T regulatory (Treg) cells that produce IL-10 and TGF-β regulate pathogenic responses. Furthermore, different cytokines may reveal cooperative or antagonistic attributes in the course of immune dysregulation, cell death, and other pathological events. In the past decade or so, many new cytokines and effector/regulatory lymphocyte subsets have been unveiled. Also described are new subsets of macrophages and other myeloid cells. These advances have prompted an enthusiastic search for the mechanisms of action of newly discovered cytokines and their inter-relationships with previously well-known (older) cytokines. The emerging information, in turn, has stimulated the development of novel cytokine-based strategies for therapeutic purposes. For example, a spectrum of biologics is either in use or under development for the treatment of various autoimmune diseases. Similarly, strategies for the modulation of cellular/cytokine activity, so as to enhance anti-tumor immunity, are being developed. This Special Issue discusses the mechanisms of action and applications of cytokines for immunotherapeutic purposes.

Prof. Dr. Kamal D. Moudgil
Guest Editor

Submission

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • arthritis
  • autoimmunity
  • biologics
  • cancer
  • cytokines
  • immunotherapy
  • infection
  • interferons
  • lupus
  • lymphokines
  • multiple sclerosis
  • rheumatoid arthritis
  • tumors
  • virus

Published Papers (23 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Serum Interleukin-18, Fetuin-A, Soluble Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1, and Endothelin-1 in Ankylosing Spondylitis, Psoriatic Arthritis, and SAPHO Syndrome
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1255; doi:10.3390/ijms17081255
Received: 1 July 2016 / Revised: 27 July 2016 / Accepted: 27 July 2016 / Published: 3 August 2016
PDF Full-text (832 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To examine serum interleukin 18 (IL-18), fetuin-A, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels in ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), and Synovitis Acne Pustulosis Hyperostosis Osteitis syndrome (SAPHO). We studied 81 AS, 76 PsA, and 34 SAPHO patients. We measured
[...] Read more.
To examine serum interleukin 18 (IL-18), fetuin-A, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels in ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), and Synovitis Acne Pustulosis Hyperostosis Osteitis syndrome (SAPHO). We studied 81 AS, 76 PsA, and 34 SAPHO patients. We measured serum IL-18, fetuin-A, sICAM-1, ET-1, IL-6, IL-23, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and epidermal growth factor (EGF). IL-18 levels were higher in AS (p = 0.001), PsA (p = 0.0003), and SAPHO (p = 0.01) than in controls, and were positively correlated with CRP (p = 0.03), VEGF (p = 0.03), and total cholesterol (TC, p = 0.006) in AS and with IL-6 (p = 0.03) in PsA. Serum fetuin-A levels were lower in AS (p = 0.001) and PsA (p = 0.001) than in controls, and negatively correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP) in AS (p = 0.04) and SAPHO (p = 0.03). sICAM-1 positively correlated with CRP (p = 0.01), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, p = 0.01), and IL-6 (p = 0.008) in AS, and with IL-6 (p = 0.001) in SAPHO. Serum ET-1 levels were lower in AS (p = 0.0005) than in controls. ET-1 positively correlated with ESR (p = 0.04) and Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28, p = 0.003) in PsA. In spondyloarthritis, markers of endothelial function correlated with disease activity and TC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanism of Action and Applications of Cytokines in Immunotherapy)
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Open AccessArticle AGEs-Induced IL-6 Synthesis Precedes RAGE Up-Regulation in HEK 293 Cells: An Alternative Inflammatory Mechanism?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(9), 20100-20117; doi:10.3390/ijms160920100
Received: 27 April 2015 / Revised: 12 June 2015 / Accepted: 6 August 2015 / Published: 25 August 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2946 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) can activate the inflammatory pathways involved in diabetic nephropathy. Understanding these molecular pathways could contribute to therapeutic strategies for diabetes complications. We evaluated the modulation of inflammatory and oxidative markers, as well as the protective mechanisms employed by
[...] Read more.
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) can activate the inflammatory pathways involved in diabetic nephropathy. Understanding these molecular pathways could contribute to therapeutic strategies for diabetes complications. We evaluated the modulation of inflammatory and oxidative markers, as well as the protective mechanisms employed by human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293) upon exposure to 200 μg/mL bovine serum albumine (BSA) or AGEs–BSA for 12, 24 and 48 h. The mRNA and protein expression levels of AGEs receptor (RAGE) and heat shock proteins (HSPs) 27, 60 and 70, the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the expression levels of eight cytokines were analysed. Cell damage via oxidative mechanisms was evaluated by glutathione and malondialdehyde levels. The data revealed two different time scale responses. First, the up-regulation of interleukin-6 (IL-6), HSP 27 and high catalase activity were detected as early as 12 h after exposure to AGEs–BSA, while the second response, after 24 h, consisted of NF-κB p65, RAGE, HSP 70 and inflammatory cytokine up-regulation, glutathione depletion, malondialdehyde increase and the activation of antioxidant enzymes. IL-6 might be important in the early ignition of inflammatory responses, while the cellular redox imbalance, RAGE activation and NF-κB p65 increased expression further enhance inflammatory signals in HEK 293 cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanism of Action and Applications of Cytokines in Immunotherapy)
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Open AccessArticle 14-3-3γ Regulates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses and Lactation in Dairy Cow Mammary Epithelial Cells by Inhibiting NF-κB and MAPKs and Up-Regulating mTOR Signaling
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(7), 16622-16641; doi:10.3390/ijms160716622
Received: 17 April 2015 / Revised: 5 July 2015 / Accepted: 14 July 2015 / Published: 22 July 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (6689 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As a protective factor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced injury, 14-3-3γ has been the subject of recent research. Nevertheless, whether 14-3-3γ can regulate lactation in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells (DCMECs) induced by LPS remains unknown. Here, the anti-inflammatory effect and lactation regulating ability of
[...] Read more.
As a protective factor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced injury, 14-3-3γ has been the subject of recent research. Nevertheless, whether 14-3-3γ can regulate lactation in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells (DCMECs) induced by LPS remains unknown. Here, the anti-inflammatory effect and lactation regulating ability of 14-3-3γ in LPS-induced DCMECs are investigated for the first time, and the molecular mechanisms responsible for their effects are explored. The results of qRT-PCR showed that 14-3-3γ overexpression significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis revealed that 14-3-3γ overexpression also suppressed the production of TNF-α and IL-6 in cell culture supernatants. Meanwhile, CASY-TT Analyser System showed that 14-3-3γ overexpression clearly increased the viability and proliferation of cells. The results of kit methods and western blot analysis showed that 14-3-3γ overexpression promoted the secretion of triglycerides and lactose and the synthesis of β-casein. Furthermore, the expression of genes relevant to nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) and lactation-associated proteins were assessed by western blot, and the results suggested that 14-3-3γ overexpression inactivated the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways by down-regulating extracellular signal regulated protein kinase (ERK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) phosphorylation levels, as well as by inhibiting NF-κB translocation. Meanwhile, 14-3-3γ overexpression enhanced the expression levels of β-casein, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), serine/threonine protein kinase Akt 1 (AKT1), sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). These results suggest that 14-3-3γ was able to attenuate the LPS-induced inflammatory responses and promote proliferation and lactation in LPS-induced DCMECs by inhibiting the activation of the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways and up-regulating mTOR signaling pathways to protect against LPS-induced injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanism of Action and Applications of Cytokines in Immunotherapy)
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Open AccessArticle Escherichia coli Maltose-Binding Protein Induces M1 Polarity of RAW264.7 Macrophage Cells via a TLR2- and TLR4-Dependent Manner
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(5), 9896-9909; doi:10.3390/ijms16059896
Received: 7 March 2015 / Revised: 23 April 2015 / Accepted: 24 April 2015 / Published: 30 April 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1876 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Maltose-binding protein (MBP) is a critical player of the maltose/maltodextrin transport system in Escherichia coli. Our previous studies have revealed that MBP nonspecifically induces T helper type 1 (Th1) cell activation and activates peritoneal macrophages obtained from mouse. In the present study,
[...] Read more.
Maltose-binding protein (MBP) is a critical player of the maltose/maltodextrin transport system in Escherichia coli. Our previous studies have revealed that MBP nonspecifically induces T helper type 1 (Th1) cell activation and activates peritoneal macrophages obtained from mouse. In the present study, we reported a direct stimulatory effect of MBP on RAW264.7 cells, a murine macrophage cell line. When stimulated with MBP, the production of nitric oxide (NO), IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12p70, and the expressions of CD80, MHC class II and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were all increased in RAW264.7 cells, indicating the activation and polarization of RAW264.7 cells into M1 macrophages induced by MBP. Further study showed that MBP stimulation upregulated the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 on RAW264.7 cells, which was accompanied by subsequent phosphorylation of IκB-α and p38 MAPK. Pretreatment with anti-TLR2 or anti-TLR4 antibodies largely inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB-α and p38 MAPK, and greatly reduced MBP-induced NO and IL-12p70 production, suggesting that the MBP-induced macrophage activation and polarization were mediated by TLR2 and TLR4 signaling pathways. The observed results were independent of lipopolysaccharide contamination. Our study provides a new insight into a mechanism by which MBP enhances immune responses and warrants the potential application of MBP as an immune adjuvant in immune therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanism of Action and Applications of Cytokines in Immunotherapy)
Open AccessArticle Addition of Interleukin-21 for Expansion of T-Cells for Adoptive Immunotherapy of Murine Melanoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(4), 8744-8760; doi:10.3390/ijms16048744
Received: 9 March 2015 / Revised: 11 April 2015 / Accepted: 14 April 2015 / Published: 20 April 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1366 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We previously demonstrated that interleukin (IL)-7/15 was superior to IL-2 for expansion of T cells in vitro for adoptive immunotherapy. We sought to ascertain whether IL-21 would further improve yield and therapeutic efficacy of T cells in culture. Naïve T cell receptor (TcR)
[...] Read more.
We previously demonstrated that interleukin (IL)-7/15 was superior to IL-2 for expansion of T cells in vitro for adoptive immunotherapy. We sought to ascertain whether IL-21 would further improve yield and therapeutic efficacy of T cells in culture. Naïve T cell receptor (TcR) transgenic splenocytes or antigen-sensitized lymph node cells were harvested from PMEL-1 mice and exposed to bryostatin-1 and ionomycin (B/I) for 18 h. Cells were then cultured in IL-2, IL-21, IL-7/15 or IL-7/15/21 for six days. Harvested cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and used to treat C57Bl/6 mice injected intravenously with B16 melanoma. Lungs were harvested and metastases counted 14 days after treatment. Culturing lymphocytes in IL-7/15/21 increased expansion compared to IL-2 or IL-7/15. IL-21 and IL-7/15/21 increased CD8+ cells compared to IL-2 or IL-7/15. IL-21 preferentially expanded a CD8+CD44−CD62L+ T “naïve” population, whereas IL-7/15/21 increased CD8+CD44+CD62Lhigh central-memory T cells. T cells grown in IL-7/15/21 were more effective at reducing metastases than IL-2. The addition of IL-21 to IL-7/15 induced greater expansion of lymphocytes in culture and increased the yield of CD8+ T central-memory cells vs. IL-7/15 alone. This may have significant impact on future clinical trials of adoptive immunotherapy, particularly for generating adequate numbers of lymphocytes for treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanism of Action and Applications of Cytokines in Immunotherapy)
Open AccessArticle Helper T Lymphocyte Response in the Peripheral Blood of Patients with Intraepithelial Neoplasia Submitted to Immunotherapy with Pegylated Interferon-α
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(3), 5497-5509; doi:10.3390/ijms16035497
Received: 16 November 2014 / Revised: 19 February 2015 / Accepted: 27 February 2015 / Published: 10 March 2015
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Abstract
Immunotherapy in cancer patients is a very promising treatment and the development of new protocols and the study of the mechanisms of regression is imperative. The objective of this study was to evaluate the production of cytokines in helper T (CD4+)
[...] Read more.
Immunotherapy in cancer patients is a very promising treatment and the development of new protocols and the study of the mechanisms of regression is imperative. The objective of this study was to evaluate the production of cytokines in helper T (CD4+) lymphocytes during immunotherapy with pegylated IFN-α in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). We conducted a prospective study with 17 patients with CIN II-III using immunotherapy with pegylated IFN-α subcutaneouly weekly, and using flow cytometry we evaluated the peripheric CD4+ T lymphocytes. The results show that in the regression group the patients presented a significant increase in the amount of IFN-γ during the entire immunotherapy, compared with the group without a response. The amount of CD4+ T lymphocytes positive for IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β is significantly lower in patients with good clinical response. The results also demonstrate that patients with regression have a higher amount of intracellular TNF-α in CD4+ T lymphocytes before the start of treatment. Analyzing these data sets, it can be concluded that immunotherapy is a viable clinical treatment for patients with high-grade CIN and that the regression is dependent on the change in the immune response to a Th1 pattern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanism of Action and Applications of Cytokines in Immunotherapy)
Open AccessArticle Expression of IL-8, IL-6 and IL-1β in Tears as a Main Characteristic of the Immune Response in Human Microbial Keratitis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(3), 4850-4864; doi:10.3390/ijms16034850
Received: 16 November 2014 / Revised: 19 February 2015 / Accepted: 24 February 2015 / Published: 3 March 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2912 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Corneal infections are frequent and potentially vision-threatening diseases, and despite the significance of the immunological response in animal models of microbial keratitis (MK), it remains unclear in humans. The aim of this study was to describe the cytokine profile of tears in patients
[...] Read more.
Corneal infections are frequent and potentially vision-threatening diseases, and despite the significance of the immunological response in animal models of microbial keratitis (MK), it remains unclear in humans. The aim of this study was to describe the cytokine profile of tears in patients with MK. Characteristics of ocular lesions such as size of the epithelial defect, stromal infiltration, and hypopyon were analyzed. Immunological evaluation included determination of interleukine (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in tear samples obtained from infected eyes of 28 patients with MK and compared with their contralateral non-infected eyes. Additionally, frequency of CD4+, CD8+, CD19+ and CD3CD56+ cells was also determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with MK, and compared with 48 healthy controls. Non-significant differences were observed in the size of the epithelial defect, stromal infiltration, and hypopyon. Nevertheless, we found an immunological profile apparently related to MK etiology. IL-8 > IL-6 in patients with bacterial keratitis; IL-8 > IL-6 > IL-1β and increased frequency of circulating CD3CD56+ NK cells in patients with gram-negative keratitis; and IL-8 = IL-6 > IL-1β in patients with fungal keratitis. Characterization of tear cytokines from patients with MK could aid our understanding of the immune pathophysiological mechanisms underlying corneal damage in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanism of Action and Applications of Cytokines in Immunotherapy)
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Open AccessArticle Blocking the Function of Inflammatory Cytokines and Mediators by Using IL-10 and TGF-β: A Potential Biological Immunotherapy for Intervertebral Disc Degeneration in a Beagle Model
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(10), 17270-17283; doi:10.3390/ijms151017270
Received: 29 July 2014 / Revised: 11 September 2014 / Accepted: 23 September 2014 / Published: 26 September 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2773 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The debilitating effects of lower back pain are a major health issue worldwide. A variety of factors contribute to this, and oftentimes intervertebral disk degeneration (IDD) is an underlying cause of this disorder. Inflammation contributes to IDD, and inflammatory cytokines such as tumor
[...] Read more.
The debilitating effects of lower back pain are a major health issue worldwide. A variety of factors contribute to this, and oftentimes intervertebral disk degeneration (IDD) is an underlying cause of this disorder. Inflammation contributes to IDD, and inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β, play key roles in the pathology of IDD. Therefore, the development of treatments that inhibit the expression and/or effects of TNF-α and IL-1β in IDD patients should be a promising therapeutic approach to consider. This study characterized the potential to suppress inflammatory cytokine production in degenerative intervertebral disc (NP) cells by treatment with IL-10 and TGF-β in a canine model of IDD. IDD was induced surgically in six male beagles, and degenerative NP cells were isolated and cultured for in vitro studies on cytokine production. Cultured degenerative NP cells were divided into four experimental treatment groups: untreated control, IL-10-treated, TGF-β-treated, and IL-10- plus TGF-β-treated cells. Cultured normal NP cells served as a control group. TNF-α expression was evaluated by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); moreover, ELISA and real-time PCR were also performed to evaluate the effect of IL-10 and TGF-β on NP cell cytokine expression in vitro. Our results demonstrated that IL-10 and TGF-β treatment suppressed the expression of IL-1β and TNF-α and inhibited the development of inflammatory responses. These data suggest that IL-10 and TGF-β should be evaluated as therapeutic approaches for the treatment of lower back pain mediated by IDD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanism of Action and Applications of Cytokines in Immunotherapy)
Open AccessArticle Data Mining of Atherosclerotic Plaque Transcriptomes Predicts STAT1-Dependent Inflammatory Signal Integration in Vascular Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(8), 14313-14331; doi:10.3390/ijms150814313
Received: 12 June 2014 / Revised: 29 July 2014 / Accepted: 1 August 2014 / Published: 18 August 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3887 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Atherosclerotic plaque development involves multiple extra- and intra-cellular signals engaging cells from the immune system and from the vasculature. Pro-inflammatory pathways activated by interferon gamma (IFNγ) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) ligands are profoundly involved in plaque formation and have been shown to
[...] Read more.
Atherosclerotic plaque development involves multiple extra- and intra-cellular signals engaging cells from the immune system and from the vasculature. Pro-inflammatory pathways activated by interferon gamma (IFNγ) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) ligands are profoundly involved in plaque formation and have been shown to involve cross-talk in all atheroma-interacting cell types leading to increased activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1) and elevated expression of pro-inflammatory mediators. Here we demonstrate that in Gene Expression Omnibus repository (GEO) deposited microarray datasets, obtained from human coronary and carotid atherosclerotic plaques, a significant increase in expression of pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory genes can be detected. Moreover, increased expression of multiple chemokines, adhesion molecules and matrix-remodeling molecules was commonly detected in both plaque types and correlated with the presence of putative STAT1 binding sites in their promoters, suggesting strong involvement of STAT1 in plaque development. We also provide evidence to suggest that STAT1-nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) or STAT1-interferon-regulated factor (IRF) regulatory modules are over-represented in the promoters of these inflammatory genes, which points to a possible contribution of IFNγ and TLR4 cross-talk in the process of atherogenesis. Finally, a subset of these genes encodes for secreted proteins that could serve as a basis of a non-invasive diagnostic assay. The results of our in silico analysis in vitro provide potential evidence that STAT1-dependent IFNγ-TLR4 cross-talk plays a crucial role in coronary and carotid artery plaque development and identifies a STAT1-dependent gene signature that could represent a novel diagnostic tool to monitor and diagnose plaque progression in human atherosclerosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanism of Action and Applications of Cytokines in Immunotherapy)
Open AccessArticle Transgene IL-6 Enhances DC-Stimulated CTL Responses by Counteracting CD4+25+Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cell Suppression via IL-6-Induced Foxp3 Downregulation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(4), 5508-5521; doi:10.3390/ijms15045508
Received: 24 December 2013 / Revised: 25 February 2014 / Accepted: 6 March 2014 / Published: 31 March 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (694 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dendritic cells (DCs), the most potent antigen-presenting cells have been extensively applied in clinical trials for evaluation of antitumor immunity. However, the efficacy of DC-mediated cancer vaccines is still limited as they are unable to sufficiently break the immune tolerance. In this study,
[...] Read more.
Dendritic cells (DCs), the most potent antigen-presenting cells have been extensively applied in clinical trials for evaluation of antitumor immunity. However, the efficacy of DC-mediated cancer vaccines is still limited as they are unable to sufficiently break the immune tolerance. In this study, we constructed a recombinant adenoviral vector (AdVIL-6) expressing IL-6, and generated IL-6 transgene-engineered DC vaccine (DCOVA/IL-6) by transfection of murine bone marrow-derived ovalbumin (OVA)-pulsed DCs (DCOVA) with AdVIL-6. We then assessed DCOVA/IL-6-stimulated cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses and antitumor immunity in OVA-specific animal tumor model. We demonstrate that DCOVA/IL-6 vaccine up-regulates expression of DC maturation markers, secretes transgene-encoded IL-6, and more efficiently stimulates OVA-specific CTL responses and therapeutic immunity against OVA-expressing B16 melanoma BL6-10OVA in vivo than the control DCOVA/Null vaccine. Moreover, DCOVA/IL-6-stimulated CTL responses were relatively maintained in mice with transfer of CD4+25+Foxp3+ Tr-cells, but significantly reduced when treated with anti-IL-6 antibody. In addition, we demonstrate that IL-6 down-regulates Foxp3-expression of CD4+25+Foxp3+ Tr-cells in vitro. Taken together, our results demonstrate that AdV-mediated IL-6 transgene-engineered DC vaccine stimulates potent CTL responses and antitumor immunity by counteracting CD4+25+ Tr immunosuppression via IL-6-induced Foxp3 down-regulation. Thus, IL-6 may be a good candidate for engineering DCs for cancer immunotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanism of Action and Applications of Cytokines in Immunotherapy)
Open AccessArticle Influence of Interferon-Alpha Combined with Chemo (Radio) Therapy on Immunological Parameters in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(3), 4104-4125; doi:10.3390/ijms15034104
Received: 13 December 2013 / Revised: 6 February 2014 / Accepted: 14 February 2014 / Published: 7 March 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (466 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Prognosis of patients with carcinoma of the exocrine pancreas is particularly poor. A combination of chemotherapy with immunotherapy could be an option for treatment of pancreatic cancer. The aim of this study was to perform an immunomonitoring of 17 patients with pancreatic cancer
[...] Read more.
Prognosis of patients with carcinoma of the exocrine pancreas is particularly poor. A combination of chemotherapy with immunotherapy could be an option for treatment of pancreatic cancer. The aim of this study was to perform an immunomonitoring of 17 patients with pancreatic cancer from the CapRI-2 study, and tumor-bearing mice treated with combination of chemo (radio) therapies with interferon-2α. Low doses of interferon-2α led to a decrease in total leukocyte and an increase in monocyte counts. Furthermore, we observed a positive effect of interferon-2α therapy on the dendritic cells and NK (natural killer) cell activation immediately after the first injection. In addition, we recorded an increased amount of interferon-γ and IL-10 in the serum following the interferon-2α therapy. These data clearly demonstrate that pancreatic carcinoma patients also show an immunomodulatory response to interferon-2α therapy. Analysis of immunosuppressive cells in the Panc02 orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer revealed an accumulation of the myeloid-derived suppressor cells in spleens and tumors of the mice treated with interferon-2α and 5-fluorouracil. The direct effect of the drugs on myeloid-derived suppressor cells was also registered in vitro. These data expose the importance of immunosuppressive mechanisms induced by combined chemo-immunotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanism of Action and Applications of Cytokines in Immunotherapy)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Cytokines and MicroRNAs as Candidate Biomarkers for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(10), 24194-24218; doi:10.3390/ijms161024194
Received: 22 July 2015 / Revised: 10 September 2015 / Accepted: 25 September 2015 / Published: 13 October 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1076 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease, with varied course and symptoms. Its etiology is very complex and not clearly understood. There is growing evidence of the important role of cytokines in SLE pathogenesis, as well as their utility as biomarkers
[...] Read more.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease, with varied course and symptoms. Its etiology is very complex and not clearly understood. There is growing evidence of the important role of cytokines in SLE pathogenesis, as well as their utility as biomarkers and targets in new therapies. Other potential new SLE biomarkers are microRNAs. Recently, over one hundred different microRNAs have been demonstrated to have a significant impact on the immune system. Various alterations in these microRNAs, associated with disease pathogenesis, have been described. They influence the signaling pathways and functions of immune response cells. Here, we aim to review the emerging new data on SLE etiology and pathogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanism of Action and Applications of Cytokines in Immunotherapy)
Open AccessReview To Extinguish the Fire from Outside the Cell or to Shutdown the Gas Valve Inside? Novel Trends in Anti-Inflammatory Therapies
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(9), 21277-21293; doi:10.3390/ijms160921277
Received: 30 June 2015 / Revised: 19 August 2015 / Accepted: 31 August 2015 / Published: 7 September 2015
PDF Full-text (1558 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cytokines are the most important soluble mediators of inflammation. Rare pediatric diseases provided exemplar conditions to study the anti-inflammatory efficacy of new generation therapies (biologics/biopharmaceuticals) selectively targeting single cytokines. Monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins have revolutionized anti-inflammatory therapies in the last two decades,
[...] Read more.
Cytokines are the most important soluble mediators of inflammation. Rare pediatric diseases provided exemplar conditions to study the anti-inflammatory efficacy of new generation therapies (biologics/biopharmaceuticals) selectively targeting single cytokines. Monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins have revolutionized anti-inflammatory therapies in the last two decades, allowing the specific targeting of single cytokines. They are very effective in extinguishing inflammation from outside the cell, even with the risk of an excessive and prolonged immunosuppression. Small molecules can enter the cell and shutdown the valve of inflammation by directly targeting signal proteins involved in cytokine release or in response to cytokines. They are orally-administrable drugs whose dosage can be easily adjusted to obtain the desired anti-inflammatory effect. This could make these drugs more suitable for a wide range of diseases as stroke, gout, or neurological impairment, where inflammatory activation plays a pivotal role as trigger. Autoinflammatory diseases, which have previously put anti-cytokine proteins in the limelight, can again provide a valuable model to measure the real potential of small inhibitors as anti-inflammatory agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanism of Action and Applications of Cytokines in Immunotherapy)
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Open AccessReview Th17 Cells as Potential Probiotic Therapeutic Targets in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(9), 20841-20858; doi:10.3390/ijms160920841
Received: 19 June 2015 / Revised: 19 August 2015 / Accepted: 25 August 2015 / Published: 1 September 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (739 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterized by wasting and chronic intestinal inflammation triggered by various cytokine-mediated pathways. In recent years, it was shown that T helper 17 (Th17) cells are involved in the pathogenesis of IBD, which makes them an attractive therapeutic target.
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Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterized by wasting and chronic intestinal inflammation triggered by various cytokine-mediated pathways. In recent years, it was shown that T helper 17 (Th17) cells are involved in the pathogenesis of IBD, which makes them an attractive therapeutic target. Th17 cells preferentially produce interleukin (IL)-17A–F as signature cytokines. The role of the interplay between host genetics and intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of IBD was demonstrated. Probiotics are live microorganisms that when orally ingested in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the host by modulating the enteric flora or by stimulating the local immune system. Several studies indicated the effectiveness of probiotics in preventing and treating IBD (ulcerative colitis, and Crohn’s disease). Furthermore, there is mounting evidence of probiotics selectively targeting the Th17 lineage in the prevention and management of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases such as IBD. This review highlights critical roles of Th17 cells in the pathogenesis of IBD and the rationale for using probiotics as a novel therapeutic approach for IBD through manipulation of Th17 cells. The potential molecular mechanisms by which probiotics modulate Th17 cells differentiation and production are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanism of Action and Applications of Cytokines in Immunotherapy)
Open AccessReview New Immunosuppressive Therapies in Uveitis Treatment
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(8), 18778-18795; doi:10.3390/ijms160818778
Received: 29 June 2015 / Revised: 3 August 2015 / Accepted: 6 August 2015 / Published: 11 August 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1416 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Uveitis is an inflammatory process that initially starts in the uvea, but can also affect other adjacent eye structures, and is currently the fourth cause of blindness in developed countries. Corticoids are probably the most widespread treatment, but resorting to other immunosuppressive treatments
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Uveitis is an inflammatory process that initially starts in the uvea, but can also affect other adjacent eye structures, and is currently the fourth cause of blindness in developed countries. Corticoids are probably the most widespread treatment, but resorting to other immunosuppressive treatments is a frequent practice. Since the implication of different cytokines in uveitis has been well demonstrated, the majority of recent treatments for this disease include inhibitors or antibodies against these. Nevertheless, adequate treatment for each uveitis type entails a difficult therapeutic decision as no clear recommendations are found in the literature, despite the few protocolized clinical assays and many case-control studies done. This review aims to present, in order, the mechanisms and main indications of the most modern immunosuppressive drugs against cytokines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanism of Action and Applications of Cytokines in Immunotherapy)
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Open AccessReview Scanning for Therapeutic Targets within the Cytokine Network of Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(8), 18683-18713; doi:10.3390/ijms160818683
Received: 16 June 2015 / Revised: 13 July 2015 / Accepted: 15 July 2015 / Published: 11 August 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (777 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) constitute a heterogeneous group of chronic disorders that include dermatomyositis (DM), polymyositis (PM), sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM) and necrotizing autoimmune myopathy (NAM). They represent distinct pathological entities that, most often, share predominant inflammation in muscle tissue. Many
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The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) constitute a heterogeneous group of chronic disorders that include dermatomyositis (DM), polymyositis (PM), sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM) and necrotizing autoimmune myopathy (NAM). They represent distinct pathological entities that, most often, share predominant inflammation in muscle tissue. Many of the immunopathogenic processes behind the IIM remain poorly understood, but the crucial role of cytokines as essential regulators of the intramuscular build-up of inflammation is undisputed. This review describes the extensive cytokine network within IIM muscle, characterized by strong expression of Tumor Necrosis Factors (TNFα, LTβ, BAFF), Interferons (IFNα/β/γ), Interleukins (IL-1/6/12/15/18/23) and Chemokines (CXCL9/10/11/13, CCL2/3/4/8/19/21). Current therapeutic strategies and the exploration of potential disease modifying agents based on manipulation of the cytokine network are provided. Reported responses to anti-TNFα treatment in IIM are conflicting and new onset DM/PM has been described after administration of anti-TNFα agents to treat other diseases, pointing to the complex effects of TNFα neutralization. Treatment with anti-IFNα has been shown to suppress the IFN type 1 gene signature in DM/PM patients and improve muscle strength. Beneficial effects of anti-IL-1 and anti-IL-6 therapy have also been reported. Cytokine profiling in IIM aids the development of therapeutic strategies and provides approaches to subtype patients for treatment outcome prediction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanism of Action and Applications of Cytokines in Immunotherapy)
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Open AccessReview Chemokine-Derived Peptides: Novel Antimicrobial and Antineoplasic Agents
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(6), 12958-12985; doi:10.3390/ijms160612958
Received: 7 December 2014 / Revised: 3 May 2015 / Accepted: 8 May 2015 / Published: 8 June 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1298 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chemokines are a burgeoning family of chemotactic cytokines displaying a broad array of functions such as regulation of homeostatic leukocyte traffic and development, as well as activating the innate immune system. Their role in controlling early and late inflammatory stages is now well
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Chemokines are a burgeoning family of chemotactic cytokines displaying a broad array of functions such as regulation of homeostatic leukocyte traffic and development, as well as activating the innate immune system. Their role in controlling early and late inflammatory stages is now well recognized. An improper balance either in chemokine synthesis or chemokine receptor expression contributes to various pathological disorders making chemokines and their receptors a useful therapeutic target. Research in this area is progressing rapidly, and development of novel agents based on chemokine/ chemokine receptors antagonist functions are emerging as attractive alternative drugs. Some of these novel agents include generation of chemokine-derived peptides (CDP) with potential agonist and antagonist effects on inflammation, cancer and against bacterial infections. CDP have been generated mainly from N- and C-terminus chemokine sequences with subsequent modifications such as truncations or elongations. In this review, we present a glimpse of the different pharmacological actions reported for CDP and our current understanding regarding the potential use of CDP alone or as part of the novel therapies proposed in the treatment of microbial infections and cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanism of Action and Applications of Cytokines in Immunotherapy)
Open AccessReview Mechanism of Action of IL-7 and Its Potential Applications and Limitations in Cancer Immunotherapy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(5), 10267-10280; doi:10.3390/ijms160510267
Received: 12 March 2015 / Revised: 16 April 2015 / Accepted: 29 April 2015 / Published: 6 May 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1030 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a non-hematopoietic cell-derived cytokine with a central role in the adaptive immune system. It promotes lymphocyte development in the thymus and maintains survival of naive and memory T cell homeostasis in the periphery. Moreover, it is important for the organogenesis
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Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a non-hematopoietic cell-derived cytokine with a central role in the adaptive immune system. It promotes lymphocyte development in the thymus and maintains survival of naive and memory T cell homeostasis in the periphery. Moreover, it is important for the organogenesis of lymph nodes (LN) and for the maintenance of activated T cells recruited into the secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs). The immune capacity of cancer patients is suppressed that is characterized by lower T cell counts, less effector immune cells infiltration, higher levels of exhausted effector cells and higher levels of immunosuppressive cytokines, such as transforming growth factor β (TGF-β). Recombinant human IL-7 (rhIL-7) is an ideal solution for the immune reconstitution of lymphopenia patients by promoting peripheral T cell expansion. Furthermore, it can antagonize the immunosuppressive network. In animal models, IL-7 has been proven to prolong the survival of tumor-bearing hosts. In this review, we will focus on the mechanism of action and applications of IL-7 in cancer immunotherapy and the potential restrictions for its usage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanism of Action and Applications of Cytokines in Immunotherapy)
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Open AccessReview Interleukin-27 in T Cell Immunity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(2), 2851-2863; doi:10.3390/ijms16022851
Received: 27 December 2014 / Revised: 19 January 2015 / Accepted: 22 January 2015 / Published: 27 January 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1101 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Interleukin (IL)-27, a member of IL-12/IL-23 heterodimeric family of cytokines, has pleiotropic properties that can enhance or limit immune responses. IL-27 acts on various cell types, including T cells, B cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer (NK) cells and non-hematopoietic cells. Intensive studies
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Interleukin (IL)-27, a member of IL-12/IL-23 heterodimeric family of cytokines, has pleiotropic properties that can enhance or limit immune responses. IL-27 acts on various cell types, including T cells, B cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer (NK) cells and non-hematopoietic cells. Intensive studies have been conducted especially on T cells, revealing that various subsets of T cells respond uniquely to IL-27. IL-27 induces expansion of Th1 cells by activating signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1-mediated T-bet signaling pathway. On the other hand, IL-27 suppresses immune responses through inhibition of the development of T helper (Th) 17 cells and induction of IL-10 production in a STAT1- and STAT3-dependent manner. IL-27 is a potentially promising cytokine for therapeutic approaches on various human diseases. Here, we provide an overview of the biology of IL-27 related to T cell subsets, its structure, and production mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanism of Action and Applications of Cytokines in Immunotherapy)
Open AccessReview Mechanisms and Αpplications of Ιnterleukins in Cancer Immunotherapy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 1691-1710; doi:10.3390/ijms16011691
Received: 15 November 2014 / Accepted: 5 January 2015 / Published: 13 January 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (962 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Over the past years, advances in cancer immunotherapy have resulted in innovative and novel approaches in molecular cancer diagnostics and cancer therapeutic procedures. However, due to tumor heterogeneity and inter-tumoral discrepancy in tumor immunity, the clinical benefits are quite restricted. The goal of
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Over the past years, advances in cancer immunotherapy have resulted in innovative and novel approaches in molecular cancer diagnostics and cancer therapeutic procedures. However, due to tumor heterogeneity and inter-tumoral discrepancy in tumor immunity, the clinical benefits are quite restricted. The goal of this review is to evaluate the major cytokines-interleukins involved in cancer immunotherapy and project their basic biochemical and clinical applications. Emphasis will be given to new cytokines in pre-clinical development, and potential directions for future investigation using cytokines. Furthermore, current interleukin-based approaches and clinical trial data from combination cancer immunotherapies will also be discussed. It appears that continuously increasing comprehension of cytokine-induced effects, cancer stemness, immunoediting, immune-surveillance as well as understanding of molecular interactions emerging in the tumor microenvironment and involving microRNAs, autophagy, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), inflammation, and DNA methylation processes may hold much promise in improving anti-tumor immunity. To this end, the emerging in-depth knowledge supports further studies on optimal synergistic combinations and additional adjuvant therapies to realize the full potential of cytokines as immunotherapeutic agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanism of Action and Applications of Cytokines in Immunotherapy)
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Open AccessReview Cytokine-Modulating Strategies and Newer Cytokine Targets for Arthritis Therapy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 887-906; doi:10.3390/ijms16010887
Received: 10 November 2014 / Accepted: 25 December 2014 / Published: 31 December 2014
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (766 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cytokines are the key mediators of inflammation in the course of autoimmune arthritis and other immune-mediated diseases. Uncontrolled production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-17 can promote autoimmune pathology, whereas anti-inflammatory cytokines
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Cytokines are the key mediators of inflammation in the course of autoimmune arthritis and other immune-mediated diseases. Uncontrolled production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-17 can promote autoimmune pathology, whereas anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL-4, IL-10, and IL-27 can help control inflammation and tissue damage. The pro-inflammatory cytokines are the prime targets of the strategies to control rheumatoid arthritis (RA). For example, the neutralization of TNFα, either by engineered anti-cytokine antibodies or by soluble cytokine receptors as decoys, has proven successful in the treatment of RA. The activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines can also be downregulated either by using specific siRNA to inhibit the expression of a particular cytokine or by using small molecule inhibitors of cytokine signaling. Furthermore, the use of anti-inflammatory cytokines or cytokine antagonists delivered via gene therapy has proven to be an effective approach to regulate autoimmunity. Unexpectedly, under certain conditions, TNFα, IFN-γ, and few other cytokines can display anti-inflammatory activities. Increasing awareness of this phenomenon might help develop appropriate regimens to harness or avoid this effect. Furthermore, the relatively newer cytokines such as IL-32, IL-34 and IL-35 are being investigated for their potential role in the pathogenesis and treatment of arthritis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanism of Action and Applications of Cytokines in Immunotherapy)
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Open AccessReview Low-Dose Interleukin-2 Therapy: A Driver of an Imbalance between Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(10), 18574-18592; doi:10.3390/ijms151018574
Received: 22 August 2014 / Revised: 22 September 2014 / Accepted: 8 October 2014 / Published: 15 October 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (698 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For many years, the role of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in autoimmune responses was established as a cytokine possessing strong pro-inflammatory activity. Studies of the past few years have changed our knowledge on IL-2 in autoimmune chronic inflammation, suggesting its protective role, when administered at
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For many years, the role of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in autoimmune responses was established as a cytokine possessing strong pro-inflammatory activity. Studies of the past few years have changed our knowledge on IL-2 in autoimmune chronic inflammation, suggesting its protective role, when administered at low-doses. The disrupted balance between regulatory and effector T cells (Tregs and Teffs, respectively) is a characteristic of autoimmune diseases, and is dependent on homeostatic cytokines, including IL-2. Actually, inherent defects in the IL-2 signaling pathway and/or levels leading to Treg compromised function and numbers as well as Th17 expansion have been attributed to autoimmune disorders. In this review, we discuss the role of IL-2 in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. In particular, we highlight the impact of the dysregulated IL-2 pathway on disruption of the Treg/Th17 balance, reversal of which appears to be a possible mechanism of the low-dose IL-2 treatment. The negative effects of IL-2 on the differentiation of follicular helper T cells (Tfh) and pathogenic Th17 cells, both of which contribute to autoimmunity, is emphasized in the paper as well. We also compare the current IL-2-based therapies of animal and human subjects with immune-mediated diseases aimed at boosting the Treg population, which is the most IL-2-dependent cell subset desirable for sufficient control of autoimmunity. New perspectives of therapeutic approaches focused on selective delivery of IL-2 to inflamed tissues, thus allowing local activity of IL-2 to be combined with its reduced systemic and pleiotropic toxicity, are also proposed in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanism of Action and Applications of Cytokines in Immunotherapy)
Open AccessReview Adoptive Immunotherapy Strategies with Cytokine-Induced Killer (CIK) Cells in the Treatment of Hematological Malignancies
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(8), 14632-14648; doi:10.3390/ijms150814632
Received: 20 June 2014 / Revised: 14 July 2014 / Accepted: 11 August 2014 / Published: 21 August 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (725 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are a heterogeneous population of immune effector cells that feature a mixed T- and Natural killer (NK) cell-like phenotype in their terminally-differentiated CD3+CD56+ subset. The easy availability, high proliferation rate and widely major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-unrestricted
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Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are a heterogeneous population of immune effector cells that feature a mixed T- and Natural killer (NK) cell-like phenotype in their terminally-differentiated CD3+CD56+ subset. The easy availability, high proliferation rate and widely major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-unrestricted antitumor activity of CIK cells contribute to their particularly advantageous profile, making them an attractive approach for adoptive immunotherapy. CIK cells have shown considerable cytotoxicity against both solid tumors and hematological malignancies in vitro and in animal studies. Recently, initial clinical experiences demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of CIK cell immunotherapy in cancer patients, even at advanced disease stages. Likewise, the clinical application of CIK cells in combination with standard therapeutic procedures revealed synergistic antitumor effects. In this report, we will focus our consideration on CIK cells in the treatment of hematological malignancies. We will give insight into the latest advances and future perspectives and outline the most prominent results obtained in 17 clinical studies. Overall, CIK cells demonstrated a crucial impact on the treatment of patients with hematological malignancies, as evidenced by complete remissions, prolonged survival durations and improved quality of life. However, up to now, the optimal application schedule eventually favoring their integration into clinical practice has still to be developed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanism of Action and Applications of Cytokines in Immunotherapy)

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