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Special Issue "New Non (Limited)-Toxic Antifouling Solutions"

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A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Green Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 April 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Daniel Rittschof

Duke Marine Lab, 135 Duke Marine Lab Road, Beaufort, NC 28516, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: environmentally benign fouling management; biological glues; peptide phermones and signals; chemcial ecology; toxicolog; environment androgens and estrogens; plastic leachates and terratogenicity; conservation coupling between whooping cranes and blue crab prey; blue crab ecology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As we modify and limit natural ecosystems, the nature that remains is more vulnerable to perturbation. Inexorably our world is in transition from settlements in a wilderness to civilizations in an agricultural, aquacultural and global transport landscape. In this new global structure, environmental stewardship is increasingly important if we are to continue our fragile ability to maintain and support human populations. A major interface between man and his environments is management of undesirable biological activities that impact energy use, generation and delivery of sustenance and services essential to survival. Environmetnally benign biofouling management is of critical importance as we approach global carrying capacity for human populations. Our future depends upon environmentally appropriate management of fouling. This volume will address state-of-the-art research and the next generation of environmentally appropriate management.

Professor Daniel Rittschof
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs).


Keywords

  • low toxicity fouling management
  • aquaculture fouling management
  • ballast water management
  • hull fouling management
  • net fouling
  • membrane fouling

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Marketing Netcoatings for Aquaculture
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(10), 18742-18746; doi:10.3390/ijms151018742
Received: 21 July 2014 / Revised: 18 September 2014 / Accepted: 29 September 2014 / Published: 17 October 2014
PDF Full-text (621 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Unsustainable harvesting of natural fish stocks is driving an ever growing marine aquaculture industry. Part of the aquaculture support industry is net suppliers who provide producers with nets used in confining fish while they are grown to market size. Biofouling must be addressed
[...] Read more.
Unsustainable harvesting of natural fish stocks is driving an ever growing marine aquaculture industry. Part of the aquaculture support industry is net suppliers who provide producers with nets used in confining fish while they are grown to market size. Biofouling must be addressed in marine environments to ensure maximum product growth by maintaining water flow and waste removal through the nets. Biofouling is managed with copper and organic biocide based net coatings. The aquaculture industry provides a case study for business issues related to entry of improved fouling management technology into the marketplace. Several major hurdles hinder entry of improved novel technologies into the market. The first hurdle is due to the structure of business relationships. Net suppliers can actually cut their business profits dramatically by introducing improved technologies. A second major hurdle is financial costs of registration and demonstration of efficacy and quality product with a new technology. Costs of registration are prohibitive if only the net coatings market is involved. Demonstration of quality product requires collaboration and a team approach between formulators, net suppliers and farmers. An alternative solution is a vertically integrated business model in which the support business and product production business are part of the same company. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Non (Limited)-Toxic Antifouling Solutions)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle Comparing Biofouling Control Treatments for Use on Aquaculture Nets
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 22142-22154; doi:10.3390/ijms151222142
Received: 18 August 2014 / Revised: 20 October 2014 / Accepted: 6 November 2014 / Published: 2 December 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2646 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Test panels comprised of uncoated, copper coated and silicone coated 7/8'' (22 mm) mesh knitted nylon net were evaluated to compare their properties and the effectiveness to prevent biofouling. This paper describes test procedures that were developed to quantify the performance in terms
[...] Read more.
Test panels comprised of uncoated, copper coated and silicone coated 7/8'' (22 mm) mesh knitted nylon net were evaluated to compare their properties and the effectiveness to prevent biofouling. This paper describes test procedures that were developed to quantify the performance in terms of antifouling, cleanability, drag and cost. The copper treatment was the most effective at controlling fouling, however, the silicone treated nets were the easiest to clean. The drag forces on the net were a function of twine diameter, twine roughness and fouling. After immersion, the uncoated nets had the most drag followed by the silicone and copper treatments. The cost of applying silicone to nets is high; however, improved formulations may provide a non-toxic alternative to control fouling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Non (Limited)-Toxic Antifouling Solutions)
Open AccessArticle Concentration of Antifouling Biocides and Metals in Sediment Core Samples in the Northern Part of Hiroshima Bay
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 9991-10004; doi:10.3390/ijms15069991
Received: 3 March 2014 / Revised: 15 April 2014 / Accepted: 23 April 2014 / Published: 4 June 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1104 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Accumulation of Ot alternative antifoulants in sediment is the focus of this research. Much research had been done on surface sediment, but in this report, the accumulation in the sediment core was studied. The Ot alternative antifoulants, Diuron, Sea-Nine211, and Irgarol 1051, and
[...] Read more.
Accumulation of Ot alternative antifoulants in sediment is the focus of this research. Much research had been done on surface sediment, but in this report, the accumulation in the sediment core was studied. The Ot alternative antifoulants, Diuron, Sea-Nine211, and Irgarol 1051, and the latter’s degradation product, M1, were investigated in five samples from the northern part of Hiroshima Bay. Ot compounds (tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT)) were also investigated for comparison. In addition, metal (Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn) levels and chronology were measured to better understand what happens after accumulation on the sea floor. It was discovered that Ot alternative antifoulant accumulation characteristics in sediment were like Ot compounds, with the concentration in the sediment core being much higher than surface sediment. The concentration in sediment seems to have been affected by the regulation of Ot compounds in 1990, due to the concentration of Ot alternative antifoulants and Ot compounds at the survey point in front of the dock, showing an increase from almost the same layer after the regulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Non (Limited)-Toxic Antifouling Solutions)
Open AccessArticle Searching for “Environmentally-Benign” Antifouling Biocides
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(6), 9255-9284; doi:10.3390/ijms15069255
Received: 31 March 2014 / Revised: 1 May 2014 / Accepted: 9 May 2014 / Published: 26 May 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (622 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As the result of the ecological impacts from the use of tributyltins (TBT) in shipping, environmental legislation for the registration of chemicals for use in the environment has grown to a monumental challenge requiring product dossiers to include information on the environmental fate
[...] Read more.
As the result of the ecological impacts from the use of tributyltins (TBT) in shipping, environmental legislation for the registration of chemicals for use in the environment has grown to a monumental challenge requiring product dossiers to include information on the environmental fate and behavior of any chemicals. Specifically, persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity, collectively known as PBT, are properties of concern in the assessment of chemicals. However, existing measurements of PBT properties are a cumbersome and expensive process, and thus not applied in the early stages of the product discovery and development. Inexpensive methods for preliminary PBT screening would minimize risks arising with the subsequent registration of products. In this article, we evaluated the PBT properties of compounds reported to possess anti-fouling properties using QSAR (quantitative structure-activity relationship) prediction programs such as BIOWIN™ (a biodegradation probability program), KOWWIN™ (log octanol-water partition coefficient calculation program) and ECOSAR™ (Ecological Structure Activity Relationship Programme). The analyses identified some small (Mr < 400) synthetic and natural products as potential candidates for environmentally benign biocides. We aim to demonstrate that while these methods of estimation have limitations, when applied with discretion, they are powerful tools useful in the early stages of research for compound selection for further development as anti-foulants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Non (Limited)-Toxic Antifouling Solutions)
Open AccessArticle Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Biofouling Bacteria and Profiling of Quorum Sensing Signal Molecules from Membrane Bioreactor Activated Sludge
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(2), 2255-2273; doi:10.3390/ijms15022255
Received: 16 December 2013 / Revised: 17 January 2014 / Accepted: 23 January 2014 / Published: 4 February 2014
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (1368 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The formation of biofilm in a membrane bioreactor depends on the production of various signaling molecules like N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). In the present study, a total of 200 bacterial strains were isolated from membrane bioreactor activated sludge and screened for AHLs
[...] Read more.
The formation of biofilm in a membrane bioreactor depends on the production of various signaling molecules like N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). In the present study, a total of 200 bacterial strains were isolated from membrane bioreactor activated sludge and screened for AHLs production using two biosensor systems, Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136. A correlation between AHLs production and biofilm formation has been made among screened AHLs producing strains. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed the dominance of Aeromonas and Enterobacter sp. in AHLs production; however few a species of Serratia, Leclercia, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Raoultella and Citrobacter were also identified. The chromatographic characterization of sludge extract showed the presence of a broad range of quorum sensing signal molecules. Further identification of sludge AHLs by thin layer chromatography bioassay and high performance liquid chromatography confirms the presence of C4-HSL, C6-HSL, C8-HSL, 3-oxo-C8-HSL, C10-HSL, C12-HSL, 3-oxo-C12-HSL and C14-HSL. The occurrence of AHLs in sludge extract and dominance of Aeromonas and Enterobacter sp. in activated sludge suggests the key role of these bacterial strains in AHLs production and thereby membrane fouling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Non (Limited)-Toxic Antifouling Solutions)
Open AccessArticle Anti-Biofilm Performance of Three Natural Products against Initial Bacterial Attachment
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21757-21780; doi:10.3390/ijms141121757
Received: 18 September 2013 / Revised: 13 October 2013 / Accepted: 15 October 2013 / Published: 4 November 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1145 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Marine bacteria contribute significantly towards the fouling consortium, both directly (modern foul release coatings fail to prevent “slime” attachment) and indirectly (biofilms often excrete chemical cues that attract macrofouling settlement). This study assessed the natural product anti-biofilm performance of an extract of the
[...] Read more.
Marine bacteria contribute significantly towards the fouling consortium, both directly (modern foul release coatings fail to prevent “slime” attachment) and indirectly (biofilms often excrete chemical cues that attract macrofouling settlement). This study assessed the natural product anti-biofilm performance of an extract of the seaweed, Chondrus crispus, and two isolated compounds from terrestrial sources, (+)-usnic acid and juglone, against two marine biofilm forming bacteria, Cobetia marina and Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus. Bioassays were developed using quantitative imaging and fluorescent labelling to test the natural products over a range of concentrations against initial bacterial attachment. All natural products affected bacterial attachment; however, juglone demonstrated the best anti-biofilm performance against both bacterial species at a concentration range between 5–20 ppm. In addition, for the first time, a dose-dependent inhibition (hormetic) response was observed for natural products against marine biofilm forming bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Non (Limited)-Toxic Antifouling Solutions)

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