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Special Issue "Oxidative Stress and Mitochondria"

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A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Toxicology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2011)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Daret K. St. Clair (Website)

Graduate Center for Toxicology, 1095 V.A. Drive, 306 Health Sciences Research Building, Lexington, KY 40536-0305, USA
Phone: 859 2573956
Fax: +1 859 323 1059
Guest Editor
Dr. Aaron K. Holley

Graduate Center for Toxicology, 1095 V.A. Drive, 448 Health Sciences Research Building, Lexington, KY 40536-0305, USA

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mitochondria are important sites for a variety of cellular processes, including amino acid and fatty acid metabolism, the citric acid cycle, nitrogen metabolism, and oxidative phosphorylation to produce ATP.  Mitochondria are also an important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS).  Myriad enzyme systems within mitochondria contribute to ROS production.  Superoxide radicals can be produced by complexes I and III of the electron transport chain, the cytochrome P450 family of enzymes localized to mitochondria, and the release of free iron cations from the catalytic centers of iron-sulfur centers of various enzymes, such as aconitase, which, are susceptible to attack by superoxide radicals. Through these processes, mitochondria also produce hydrogen peroxide from superoxide radical dismutation, the hydroxyl radical through the iron-catalyzed Haber-Weiss reaction, and the highly reactive peroxynitrite molecule (ONOO-) from the interaction between superoxide radicals with nitric oxide, an uncharged radical synthesized by nitric oxide synthase (NOS).

Under normal conditions ROS are important for regulation of various cellular processes including metabolic cell signaling. Mitochondria communicate with other organelles of the cell, such as the nucleus, through a process called retrograde signaling to maintain cellular homeostasis and adapt to changing metabolic requirements of the cell. It is well documented that ROS contribute significantly to the regulation of the activity of various signal transduction pathways and transcription factors.  For example, various members of the MAP kinase pathway are activated by ROS.  ROS play a role in growth factor receptor activation through oxidative deactivation of protein tyrosine phosphatases that maintain the growth factor receptors in an inactive state.  Multiple transcription factors, including NF-κB, AP-1, HIF-1, and p53, are sensitive to ROS.  Altered activation of these signaling pathways and transcription factors results in changes in gene expression and initiation of different cellular events, including cell proliferation, senescence, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and autophagy.

While ROS are important for normal cellular activities, aberrant production of ROS, or diminished capacity to scavenge excessive ROS, leads to an imbalance in the redox environment of the cell. Myriad ROS-scavenging enzyme systems are in place to detoxify mitochondrial ROS.  Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is the major ROS scavenger of the cell, catalyzing the dismutation of superoxide radicals to hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen.  Hydrogen peroxide, a non-radical ROS, is detoxified by multiple enzymes in mitochondria, including glutathione peroxidase, peroxiredoxin, as well as glutathione and protein thiols.  The presence of these molecules in regulation of mitochondria-centered signaling has yet to be fully investigated. The disparity from normal ROS levels can cause damage of lipids, proteins, and DNA, all of which contribute to the development of various pathologies, including age-related ailments, neurological disorders, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer.

Because of the omnipresence of ROS in cells and contribution of mitochondria in the production and removal of cellular ROS, a greater understanding of oxidative stress in mitochondria, under both normal and disease-causing conditions, and the involvement of mitochondrial ROS in global regulation of gene expression can illuminate the contribution of mitochondria in the development of disease and may lead to the advancement of new and novel therapeutic modalities that exploit mitochondria in treating many maladies.

Daret K. St. Clair
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • mitochondria
  • reactive oxygen species
  • antioxidant enzymes
  • redox regulation
  • oxidative stress
  • retrograde signaling
  • cell signaling

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Impaired Mitochondrial Respiratory Functions and Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(5), 3133-3147; doi:10.3390/ijms12053133
Received: 14 March 2011 / Revised: 11 April 2011 / Accepted: 29 April 2011 / Published: 13 May 2011
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (430 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have previously shown a tissue-specific increase in oxidative stress in the early stages of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In this study, we investigated oxidative stress-related long-term complications and mitochondrial dysfunctions in the different tissues of STZ-induced diabetic rats (>15 mM blood [...] Read more.
We have previously shown a tissue-specific increase in oxidative stress in the early stages of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In this study, we investigated oxidative stress-related long-term complications and mitochondrial dysfunctions in the different tissues of STZ-induced diabetic rats (>15 mM blood glucose for 8 weeks). These animals showed a persistent increase in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively) production. Oxidative protein carbonylation was also increased with the maximum effect observed in the pancreas of diabetic rats. The activities of mitochondrial respiratory enzymes ubiquinol: cytochrome c oxidoreductase (Complex III) and cytochrome c oxidase (Complex IV) were significantly decreased while that of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I) and succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex II) were moderately increased in diabetic rats, which was confirmed by the increased expression of the 70 kDa Complex II sub-unit. Mitochondrial matrix aconitase, a ROS sensitive enzyme, was markedly inhibited in the diabetic rat tissues. Increased expression of oxidative stress marker proteins Hsp-70 and HO-1 was also observed along with increased expression of nitric oxide synthase. These results suggest that mitochondrial respiratory complexes may play a critical role in ROS/RNS homeostasis and oxidative stress related changes in type 1 diabetes and may have implications in the etiology of diabetes and its complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Mitochondria)

Review

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Open AccessReview Impaired Iron Status in Aging Research
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(2), 2368-2386; doi:10.3390/ijms13022368
Received: 17 November 2011 / Revised: 18 February 2012 / Accepted: 20 February 2012 / Published: 22 February 2012
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (320 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aging is associated with disturbances in iron metabolism and storage. During the last decade, remarkable progress has been made toward understanding their cellular and molecular mechanisms in aging and age-associated diseases using both cultured cells and animal models. The field has moved [...] Read more.
Aging is associated with disturbances in iron metabolism and storage. During the last decade, remarkable progress has been made toward understanding their cellular and molecular mechanisms in aging and age-associated diseases using both cultured cells and animal models. The field has moved beyond descriptive studies to potential intervention studies focusing on iron chelation and removal. However, some findings remain controversial and inconsistent. This review summarizes important features of iron dyshomeostasis in aging research with a particular emphasis on current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying age-associated disorders in rodent models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Mitochondria)
Figures

Open AccessReview Effect of Polyphenols on Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Neuronal Death and Brain Edema in Cerebral Ischemia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 8181-8207; doi:10.3390/ijms12118181
Received: 19 September 2011 / Revised: 18 October 2011 / Accepted: 14 November 2011 / Published: 18 November 2011
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (288 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polyphenols are natural substances with variable phenolic structures and are elevated in vegetables, fruits, grains, bark, roots, tea, and wine. There are over 8000 polyphenolic structures identified in plants, but edible plants contain only several hundred polyphenolic structures. In addition to their [...] Read more.
Polyphenols are natural substances with variable phenolic structures and are elevated in vegetables, fruits, grains, bark, roots, tea, and wine. There are over 8000 polyphenolic structures identified in plants, but edible plants contain only several hundred polyphenolic structures. In addition to their well-known antioxidant effects, select polyphenols also have insulin-potentiating, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, anti-viral, anti-ulcer, and anti-apoptotic properties. One important consequence of ischemia is neuronal death and oxidative stress plays a key role in neuronal viability. In addition, neuronal death may be initiated by the activation of mitochondria-associated cell death pathways. Another consequence of ischemia that is possibly mediated by oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction is glial swelling, a component of cytotoxic brain edema. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature on the contribution of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction to neuronal death, cell swelling, and brain edema in ischemia. A review of currently known mechanisms underlying neuronal death and edema/cell swelling will be undertaken and the potential of dietary polyphenols to reduce such neural damage will be critically reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Mitochondria)
Open AccessReview Manganese Superoxide Dismutase: Guardian of the Powerhouse
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 7114-7162; doi:10.3390/ijms12107114
Received: 8 August 2011 / Revised: 28 September 2011 / Accepted: 8 October 2011 / Published: 21 October 2011
Cited by 51 | PDF Full-text (567 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The mitochondrion is vital for many metabolic pathways in the cell, contributing all or important constituent enzymes for diverse functions such as β-oxidation of fatty acids, the urea cycle, the citric acid cycle, and ATP synthesis. The mitochondrion is also a major [...] Read more.
The mitochondrion is vital for many metabolic pathways in the cell, contributing all or important constituent enzymes for diverse functions such as β-oxidation of fatty acids, the urea cycle, the citric acid cycle, and ATP synthesis. The mitochondrion is also a major site of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the cell. Aberrant production of mitochondrial ROS can have dramatic effects on cellular function, in part, due to oxidative modification of key metabolic proteins localized in the mitochondrion. The cell is equipped with myriad antioxidant enzyme systems to combat deleterious ROS production in mitochondria, with the mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) acting as the chief ROS scavenging enzyme in the cell. Factors that affect the expression and/or the activity of MnSOD, resulting in diminished antioxidant capacity of the cell, can have extraordinary consequences on the overall health of the cell by altering mitochondrial metabolic function, leading to the development and progression of numerous diseases. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which MnSOD protects cells from the harmful effects of overproduction of ROS, in particular, the effects of ROS on mitochondrial metabolic enzymes, may contribute to the development of novel treatments for various diseases in which ROS are an important component. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Mitochondria)
Open AccessReview Mitochondrial Peroxiredoxin III is a Potential Target for Cancer Therapy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 7163-7185; doi:10.3390/ijms12107163
Received: 29 July 2011 / Revised: 30 September 2011 / Accepted: 20 October 2011 / Published: 21 October 2011
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (544 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mitochondria are involved either directly or indirectly in oncogenesis and the alteration of metabolism in cancer cells. Cancer cells contain large numbers of abnormal mitochondria and produce large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between [...] Read more.
Mitochondria are involved either directly or indirectly in oncogenesis and the alteration of metabolism in cancer cells. Cancer cells contain large numbers of abnormal mitochondria and produce large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between the production of ROS and the antioxidant capacity of the cell. Several cancer therapies, such as chemotherapeutic drugs and radiation, disrupt mitochondrial homeostasis and release cytochrome c, leading to apoptosome formation, which activates the intrinsic pathway. This is modulated by the extent of mitochondrial oxidative stress. The peroxiredoxin (Prx) system is a cellular defense system against oxidative stress, and mitochondria in cancer cells are known to contain high levels of Prx III. Here, we review accumulating evidence suggesting that mitochondrial oxidative stress is involved in cancer, and discuss the role of the mitochondrial Prx III antioxidant system as a potential target for cancer therapy. We hope that this review will provide the basis for new strategic approaches in the development of effective cancer treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Mitochondria)
Open AccessReview Roles of Oxidative Stress, Apoptosis, PGC-1α and Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Cerebral Ischemia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 7199-7215; doi:10.3390/ijms12107199
Received: 1 August 2011 / Revised: 12 October 2011 / Accepted: 19 October 2011 / Published: 21 October 2011
Cited by 78 | PDF Full-text (199 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The primary physiological function of mitochondria is to generate adenosine triphosphate through oxidative phosphorylation via the electron transport chain. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as byproducts generated from mitochondria have been implicated in acute brain injuries such as stroke from cerebral [...] Read more.
The primary physiological function of mitochondria is to generate adenosine triphosphate through oxidative phosphorylation via the electron transport chain. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as byproducts generated from mitochondria have been implicated in acute brain injuries such as stroke from cerebral ischemia. It was well-documented that mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway involves pro- and anti-apoptotic protein binding, release of cytochrome c, leading ultimately to neuronal death. On the other hand, mitochondria also play a role to counteract the detrimental effects elicited by excessive oxidative stress. Recent studies have revealed that oxidative stress and the redox state of ischemic neurons are also implicated in the signaling pathway that involves peroxisome proliferative activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) co-activator 1α (PGC1-α). PGC1-α is a master regulator of ROS scavenging enzymes including manganese superoxide dismutase 2 and the uncoupling protein 2, both are mitochondrial proteins, and may contribute to neuronal survival. PGC1-α is also involved in mitochondrial biogenesis that is vital for cell survival. Experimental evidence supports the roles of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress as determinants of neuronal death as well as endogenous protective mechanisms after stroke. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge focusing on the molecular mechanisms underlying cerebral ischemia involving ROS, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, mitochondrial proteins capable of ROS scavenging, and mitochondrial biogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Mitochondria)
Open AccessReview Metal-Induced Oxidative Stress and Plant Mitochondria
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6894-6918; doi:10.3390/ijms12106894
Received: 26 July 2011 / Revised: 26 September 2011 / Accepted: 5 October 2011 / Published: 18 October 2011
Cited by 38 | PDF Full-text (649 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A general status of oxidative stress in plants caused by exposure to elevated metal concentrations in the environment coincides with a constraint on mitochondrial electron transport, which enhances ROS accumulation at the mitochondrial level. As mitochondria are suggested to be involved in [...] Read more.
A general status of oxidative stress in plants caused by exposure to elevated metal concentrations in the environment coincides with a constraint on mitochondrial electron transport, which enhances ROS accumulation at the mitochondrial level. As mitochondria are suggested to be involved in redox signaling under environmental stress conditions, mitochondrial ROS can initiate a signaling cascade mediating the overall stress response, i.e., damage versus adaptation. This review highlights our current understanding of metal-induced responses in plants, with focus on the production and detoxification of mitochondrial ROS. In addition, the potential involvement of retrograde signaling in these processes will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Mitochondria)
Open AccessReview Metabolomics of Oxidative Stress in Recent Studies of Endogenous and Exogenously Administered Intermediate Metabolites
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6469-6501; doi:10.3390/ijms12106469
Received: 18 August 2011 / Revised: 13 September 2011 / Accepted: 21 September 2011 / Published: 28 September 2011
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (811 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aerobic metabolism occurs in a background of oxygen radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that originate from the incomplete reduction of molecular oxygen in electron transfer reactions. The essential role of aerobic metabolism, the generation and consumption of ATP and other high [...] Read more.
Aerobic metabolism occurs in a background of oxygen radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that originate from the incomplete reduction of molecular oxygen in electron transfer reactions. The essential role of aerobic metabolism, the generation and consumption of ATP and other high energy phosphates, sustains a balance of approximately 3000 essential human metabolites that serve not only as nutrients, but also as antioxidants, neurotransmitters, osmolytes, and participants in ligand-based and other cellular signaling. In hypoxia, ischemia, and oxidative stress, where pathological circumstances cause oxygen radicals to form at a rate greater than is possible for their consumption, changes in the composition of metabolite ensembles, or metabolomes, can be associated with physiological changes. Metabolomics and metabonomics are a scientific disciplines that focuse on quantifying dynamic metabolome responses, using multivariate analytical approaches derived from methods within genomics, a discipline that consolidated innovative analysis techniques for situations where the number of biomarkers (metabolites in our case) greatly exceeds the number of subjects. This review focuses on the behavior of cytosolic, mitochondrial, and redox metabolites in ameliorating or exacerbating oxidative stress. After reviewing work regarding a small number of metabolites—pyruvate, ethyl pyruvate, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate—whose exogenous administration was found to ameliorate oxidative stress, a subsequent section reviews basic multivariate statistical methods common in metabolomics research, and their application in human and preclinical studies emphasizing oxidative stress. Particular attention is paid to new NMR spectroscopy methods in metabolomics and metabonomics. Because complex relationships connect oxidative stress to so many physiological processes, studies from different disciplines were reviewed. All, however, shared the common goal of ultimately developing “omics”-based, diagnostic tests to help influence therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Mitochondria)
Open AccessReview Sirt3, Mitochondrial ROS, Ageing, and Carcinogenesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6226-6239; doi:10.3390/ijms12096226
Received: 21 July 2011 / Revised: 14 September 2011 / Accepted: 20 September 2011 / Published: 23 September 2011
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (303 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
One fundamental observation in cancer etiology is that the rate of malignancies in any mammalian population increases exponentially as a function of age, suggesting a mechanistic link between the cellular processes governing longevity and carcinogenesis. In addition, it is well established that [...] Read more.
One fundamental observation in cancer etiology is that the rate of malignancies in any mammalian population increases exponentially as a function of age, suggesting a mechanistic link between the cellular processes governing longevity and carcinogenesis. In addition, it is well established that aberrations in mitochondrial metabolism, as measured by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), are observed in both aging and cancer. In this regard, genes that impact upon longevity have recently been characterized in S. cerevisiae and C. elegans, and the human homologs include the Sirtuin family of protein deacetylases. Interestingly, three of the seven sirtuin proteins are localized into the mitochondria suggesting a connection between the mitochondrial sirtuins, the free radical theory of aging, and carcinogenesis. Based on these results it has been hypothesized that Sirt3 functions as a mitochondrial fidelity protein whose function governs both aging and carcinogenesis by modulating ROS metabolism. Sirt3 has also now been identified as a genomically expressed, mitochondrial localized tumor suppressor and this review will outline potential relationships between mitochondrial ROS/superoxide levels, aging, and cell phenotypes permissive for estrogen and progesterone receptor positive breast carcinogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Mitochondria)
Open AccessReview p66Shc Aging Protein in Control of Fibroblasts Cell Fate
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(8), 5373-5389; doi:10.3390/ijms12085373
Received: 6 July 2011 / Revised: 2 August 2011 / Accepted: 15 August 2011 / Published: 22 August 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (586 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are wieldy accepted as one of the main factors of the aging process. These highly reactive compounds modify nucleic acids, proteins and lipids and affect the functionality of mitochondria in the first case and ultimately of the cell. [...] Read more.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are wieldy accepted as one of the main factors of the aging process. These highly reactive compounds modify nucleic acids, proteins and lipids and affect the functionality of mitochondria in the first case and ultimately of the cell. Any agent or genetic modification that affects ROS production and detoxification can be expected to influence longevity. On the other hand, genetic manipulations leading to increased longevity can be expected to involve cellular changes that affect ROS metabolism. The 66-kDa isoform of the growth factor adaptor Shc (p66Shc) has been recognized as a relevant factor to the oxygen radical theory of aging. The most recent data indicate that p66Shc protein regulates life span in mammals and its phosphorylation on serine 36 is important for the initiation of cell death upon oxidative stress. Moreover, there is strong evidence that apart from aging, p66Shc may be implicated in many oxidative stress-associated pathologies, such as diabetes, mitochondrial and neurodegenerative disorders and tumorigenesis. This article summarizes recent knowledge about the role of p66Shc in aging and senescence and how this protein can influence ROS production and detoxification, focusing on studies performed on skin and skin fibroblasts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Mitochondria)

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