Special Issue "Termite Management and Control - Special Issue Dedicated in Memory of Dr. Kunio Tsunoda"

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A special issue of Insects (ISSN 2075-4450).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2011)

Special Issue Editor

Editor-in-Chief
Prof. Dr. Brian T. Forschler

Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, 413 Biological Sciences Building, Athens, GA 30602-2603, USA
E-Mail
Interests: termite behavior; field efficacy of termite baits; new chemistries for novel termite control tactics; determination of subterranean termite social structure using agonism, morphological characters, cuticular hydrocarbon analysis and genetic markers

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Background and Purpose: Termites are serious pests in the Pacific Rim region. Furthermore, many countries within the region have high market potential for termite management technology. Therefore, it is essential that we gain a far better and more detailed understanding of the diversity of termite related problems within the region. Several institutions in the Pacific Rim region have been conducting some international collaborative projects on termites and their management. Examples of such successful collaboration are the CSIRO Termite Group and Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere (formerly called as Wood Research Institute) of Kyoto University with scientific institutions in Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia and China. It, therefore, appeared timely and meaningful to create a forum that would allow for wider collaboration through linking all relevant universities and institutions to accelerate the pace of mutual basic and applied research. Following discussions among CSIRO and RISH scientists on the statues: structure, aim and functions, membership, and fees for membership and conference, we proposed that one way forward is to organize a Pacific Rim Termite Research Group  (hereinafter referred to as “TRG”) to initiate purposeful collaborative research projects among scientists of neighboring countries. In addition, the TRG was expected to afford Asian scientists with opportunities to attend TRG conferences for reporting their research efforts internationally. The TRG launched at the 1st conference on 8-9 March 2004 in Penang, Malaysia. Annual conferences have been held since then.

Who should be involved?: Those in universities and other scientific research institutions who are interested in termite management, biology, physiology and ecology are encouraged to join. It is hoped that companies with a commercial interest in termite management as well as the relevant academic societies and industrial associations will support the activities of the TRG.

Dr. Kunio Tsunoda
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • termite management and control
  • termite-resistance of materials
  • new termiticides
  • detection devices
  • incidence of termite infestations
  • termite biology
  • termite ecology
  • termite physiology

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Resistance of Particleboards Made from Fast-Growing Wood Species to Subterranean Termite Attack
Insects 2012, 3(2), 532-537; doi:10.3390/insects3020532
Received: 8 April 2012 / Revised: 23 April 2012 / Accepted: 14 May 2012 / Published: 29 May 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (62 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Laboratory-made particleboards were tested for their resistance to subterranean termite, Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren (Order Isoptera, Family Termitidae) by Indonesian standard SNI 01.7207–2006, during four weeks and at the end of the test their mass loss percentage and feeding rate were determined. Particleboards consisted
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Laboratory-made particleboards were tested for their resistance to subterranean termite, Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren (Order Isoptera, Family Termitidae) by Indonesian standard SNI 01.7207–2006, during four weeks and at the end of the test their mass loss percentage and feeding rate were determined. Particleboards consisted of: jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba, Family Rubiacea) with a density of 0.41 g/cm3; sungkai (Peronema canescens, Family Verbenaceae) with a density of 0.46 g/cm3; mangium (Acacia mangium, Family Rhamnaceae) with a density of 0.60 g/cm3 separately and the three species mixture at a rate of 1:1:1. Densities of the boards were targetted at 0.60 g/cm3 and 0.80 g/cm3 by using 12% urea formaldehyde as binder with 2% paraffin as additive based on oven dry wood particle weight. The hand-formed mats and hot-pressing at 130 °C and 2.45 MPa for 10 min were applied. The results showed that particleboards density did not affect mass loss and feeding rate, but the particleboards made from higher density wood resulted in higher resistance to subterranean termite attack. The most resistant particleboards were made of magium, followed by sungkai, mixed species, and jabon. Full article
Open AccessArticle Termite-Susceptible Species of Wood for Inclusion as a Reference in Indonesian Standardized Laboratory Testing
Insects 2012, 3(2), 396-401; doi:10.3390/insects3020396
Received: 17 February 2012 / Revised: 24 February 2012 / Accepted: 19 March 2012 / Published: 28 March 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (129 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Standardized laboratory testing of wood and wood-based products against subterranean termites in Indonesia (SNI 01.7207-2006) (SNI) has no requirement for the inclusion of a comparative reference species of wood (reference control). This is considered a weakness of the Indonesian standard. Consequently, a study
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Standardized laboratory testing of wood and wood-based products against subterranean termites in Indonesia (SNI 01.7207-2006) (SNI) has no requirement for the inclusion of a comparative reference species of wood (reference control). This is considered a weakness of the Indonesian standard. Consequently, a study was undertaken to identify a suitable Indonesian species of community wood that could be used as a reference control. Four candidate species of community woods: Acacia mangium, Hevea brasiliensis, Paraserianthes falcataria and Pinus merkusii were selected for testing their susceptibility to feeding by Coptotermes formosanus. Two testing methods (SNI and the Japanese standard method JIS K 1571-2004) were used to compare the susceptibility of each species of wood. Included in the study was Cryptomeria japonica, the reference control specified in the Japanese standard. The results of the study indicated that P. merkusii is a suitable reference species of wood for inclusion in laboratory tests against subterranean termites, conducted in accordance with the Indonesian standard (SNI 01.7207-2006). Full article
Open AccessArticle Termite Resistance of Thermally-Modified Dendrocalamus asper (Schultes f.) Backer ex Heyne
Insects 2012, 3(2), 390-395; doi:10.3390/insects3020390
Received: 8 February 2012 / Revised: 15 March 2012 / Accepted: 16 March 2012 / Published: 27 March 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (147 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effects of thermal modification on the resistance of Dendrocalamus asper against Microcerotermes losbañosensis were investigated after exposure to virgin coconut oil at 140–200 °C for 30–120 min. The results showed that heat treatment significantly improved bamboo’s resistance to termites based on mass
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The effects of thermal modification on the resistance of Dendrocalamus asper against Microcerotermes losbañosensis were investigated after exposure to virgin coconut oil at 140–200 °C for 30–120 min. The results showed that heat treatment significantly improved bamboo’s resistance to termites based on mass losses and visual observations. The enhancement was highest at 200 °C. Prolonged treatment had a positive effect on the resistance at lower temperatures only. Full article
Open AccessArticle Resistance of Wood Wool Cement Board to the Attack of Philippine Termites
Insects 2012, 3(1), 18-24; doi:10.3390/insects3010018
Received: 28 October 2011 / Revised: 14 November 2011 / Accepted: 18 November 2011 / Published: 28 December 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (155 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The resistance of yemane (Gmelina arborea Roxb.)-based wood wool cement board (WWCB) against Philippine termites was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Tests were conducted following the FPRDI standard procedures in determining the resistance of WWCB against subterranean and drywood
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The resistance of yemane (Gmelina arborea Roxb.)-based wood wool cement board (WWCB) against Philippine termites was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Tests were conducted following the FPRDI standard procedures in determining the resistance of WWCB against subterranean and drywood termites. Results of the laboratory tests showed that WWCB was resistant to both Microcerotermes losbañosensis Oshima and Cryptotermes dudleyi Banks. Under field conditions, WWCB was highly resistant to subterranean termites. There was no remarkable termite damage except for the normal nibbling or initial termite feeding on the board during the 8-year exposure period. Full article
Open AccessArticle Seasonal and Daily Patterns in Activity of the Western Drywood Termite, Incisitermes minor (Hagen)
Insects 2011, 2(4), 555-563; doi:10.3390/insects2040555
Received: 29 October 2011 / Revised: 24 November 2011 / Accepted: 30 November 2011 / Published: 12 December 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (455 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Activity of colonies of the western drywood termite, Incisitermes minor, was measured with acoustic emission (AE) technology in five loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) logs. Termite activity, whether it was feeding, excavation or movement, was monitored for 11 months under ambient conditions
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Activity of colonies of the western drywood termite, Incisitermes minor, was measured with acoustic emission (AE) technology in five loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) logs. Termite activity, whether it was feeding, excavation or movement, was monitored for 11 months under ambient conditions in a small wooden structure maintained at the University of California Richmond Field Station. AE, temperature, and humidity data were measured in 3-minute increments. Termite activity was greater during the warmer summer months compared to the cooler winter months. Termites in all five logs displayed a similar daily cycle of activity, peaking in the late afternoon. Seasonal and daily fluctuations in termite activity were significantly associated with temperature, whereas humidity did not appear to have a noticeable effect on termite activity. Possible mechanisms that drive the seasonal and daily cycles in termite activity, as measured by AE technology, and the possible implications for inspections and post-treatment analysis are discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle Preferences of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae) among Three Commercial Wood Species
Insects 2011, 2(4), 499-508; doi:10.3390/insects2040499
Received: 13 October 2011 / Revised: 3 November 2011 / Accepted: 8 November 2011 / Published: 25 November 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1070 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, and the Asian subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann), are both pests of wood in service in Hawaii and Florida. We conducted a laboratory study using method modified from those described in standard E1-09 of the American
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The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, and the Asian subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann), are both pests of wood in service in Hawaii and Florida. We conducted a laboratory study using method modified from those described in standard E1-09 of the American Wood Protection Association (AWPA 2009) to assess the termite resistance of three commercially available wood species used in regions of the USA where both termite species occur: Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menziessii, southern yellow pine, Pinus spp. and redwood, Sequoia sempervirens. A multiple-choice (three-choice) assay was used for four weeks (28 days) in order to simulate field conditions of food choice and assess termite feeding preferences under 28 °C and 72–80% RH. 400 termites (360 workers: 40 soldiers) were released into each test jar. Five replicates and two controls of each wood species were used with each termite species. Termite mortality was recorded at the end of the test; and wood wafers were oven-dried and weighed before and after termite exposure to determine the mass loss due to termite feeding, and rated visually on a 0 (failure) to 10 (sound) scale. There were significant differences in mean mass loss values among the three wood species and between two termite species. The mean mass loss value for redwood was significantly lower than Douglas fir and southern yellow pine with both termite species. However, C. formosanus showed increased feeding on Douglas fir and southern yellow pine compared to C. gestroi. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Efficacy of Organo-Complex-Based Wood Preservative Formula Against Dry-Wood Termite Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light
Insects 2011, 2(4), 491-498; doi:10.3390/insects2040491
Received: 29 August 2011 / Revised: 2 November 2011 / Accepted: 3 November 2011 / Published: 15 November 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (160 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The utilization of pesticides often leaves residues which potentially pollute the environment. This journal issue has been encouraging some researchers to find an environmentally friendly insecticide by a cheaper wood preservative method. The International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures 15 (ISPM 15) [1] that
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The utilization of pesticides often leaves residues which potentially pollute the environment. This journal issue has been encouraging some researchers to find an environmentally friendly insecticide by a cheaper wood preservative method. The International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures 15 (ISPM 15) [1] that is adopted in wood packaging protection in Europe is not suitable for tropical countries like Indonesia. Therefore, the treatment by Organo-Complex-based wood preservation, which consists of copper chromium combined with natural organic compounds, is proposed for effective treatment at a lower cost. The bioassay test was subjected to dry wood termite Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light. The result showed that wood materials treated by 10 ppm Organo-Complex formula gave good results which were indicated by the low consumption and the fast termination of the termites. The toxicity analysis of C-C organic compound solution is classified as grade IV (WHO, 2003) [2], or not harmful. Analysis of the residual content four weeks after the spraying treatment showed a significant reduction in the inorganic content (copper chromate complex), in the range of 35%, and in extracts of natural materials (natural extracts), above 80%. Full article
Open AccessArticle Comparative Study of the Resistance of Six Hawaii-Grown Bamboo Species to Attack by the Subterranean Termites Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae)
Insects 2011, 2(4), 475-485; doi:10.3390/insects2040475
Received: 13 October 2011 / Revised: 25 October 2011 / Accepted: 26 October 2011 / Published: 3 November 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (288 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bamboo is widely grown and utilized as a construction material around the world, particularly in the tropics. At present, there are about 70 bamboo species and varieties recorded from Hawaii. The objective of our study was to determine the relative resistance of six
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Bamboo is widely grown and utilized as a construction material around the world, particularly in the tropics. At present, there are about 70 bamboo species and varieties recorded from Hawaii. The objective of our study was to determine the relative resistance of six Hawaii-grown bamboo species to attack by Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann). Four-week laboratory feeding trials were performed as described in standard E1-09 of the American Wood Protection Association (AWPA 2009). Samples of each of the six bamboo species were individually exposed to 200 termites (with 10% soldiers); and termite mortality, wood mass loss, and visual appearance of the samples (on a scale of 0–10) were recorded at the conclusion of the trail. Mean mass losses of the six species as a result of termite feeding ranged from 13–29%; with the two most resistant bamboo species, Gigantocholoa pseudoarundinacea and Bambusa oldhamii, demonstrating significantly greater resistance to termite attack than the most susceptible bamboo species, Guadua anguistifolia, with both termite species. Dendrocalamus brandisii, Dendrocalamus latiflorus, and Bambusa hirose were intermediate in their termite resistance. Overall, we observed very little difference in wood preference between C. formosanus and C. gestroi. Although bamboo is a very promising construction material, and species clearly differ in their susceptibility to termite attack, all six species evaluated in the present study would require additional protection for use under conditions of high termite pressure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Termite Incidence on an Araucaria Plantation Forest in Teluk Bahang, Penang
Insects 2011, 2(4), 469-474; doi:10.3390/insects2040469
Received: 8 September 2011 / Revised: 4 October 2011 / Accepted: 11 October 2011 / Published: 2 November 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (81 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A study was carried out to evaluate the incidence of termite attack on an Araucaria cunninghamii plantation at Teluk Bahang Forest Park (TBFP), Penang. The hilly plantation area was surveyed to determine the diversity of termite species present. Termite specimens were collected from
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A study was carried out to evaluate the incidence of termite attack on an Araucaria cunninghamii plantation at Teluk Bahang Forest Park (TBFP), Penang. The hilly plantation area was surveyed to determine the diversity of termite species present. Termite specimens were collected from standin Araucaria trees, underground monitoring (aggregation) stations, fallen logs, forest litter and mounds (nests). Seven species of termites were identified from 6 genera; Coptotermes curvignathus, Schedorhinotermes medioobscurus, Schedorhinotermes malaccensis, Odontotermes sarawakensis Parrhinotermes aequalis, Macrotermes malaccensis and Hospitalitermes hospitalis. A total of 289 Araucaria trees were inspected for signs of termite attack. Termite infestation of trees was determined mainly by the presence of mud on the trunk, but particularly around their butts at ground line. The most dominant termite species discovered infesting the Araucaria trees was Coptotermes curvignathus; accountable for 74% of all infestations. Schedorhinotermes medioobscurus and Odontotermes sarawakensis were commonly found infesting dead trees and/or tree stumps. Approximately 21.5% of all Araucaria trees in the plantation forest at Teluk Bahang were infested by termites. Full article
Open AccessArticle Termite Resistant Properties of Sisal Fiberboards
Insects 2011, 2(4), 462-468; doi:10.3390/insects2040462
Received: 9 September 2011 / Revised: 17 October 2011 / Accepted: 18 October 2011 / Published: 31 October 2011
PDF Full-text (155 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A study was carried out to test sisal (Agave sisalana Perrine) fiberboards properties as building materials against Asian subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann). Evaluation was in the laboratory according to the JWPA Standard-TW-S.1-1992. To improve mechanical properties of fiberboards made from sisal
[...] Read more.
A study was carried out to test sisal (Agave sisalana Perrine) fiberboards properties as building materials against Asian subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann). Evaluation was in the laboratory according to the JWPA Standard-TW-S.1-1992. To improve mechanical properties of fiberboards made from sisal fibers, the boards were overlaid by rubber veneer, betung bamboo matting or formica. Result showed that the formica-overlaid sisal fiberboards performed better than other overlaid fiberboards against C. gestroi. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Development of Silafluofen-Based Termiticides in Japan and Thailand
Insects 2011, 2(4), 532-539; doi:10.3390/insects2040532
Received: 3 October 2011 / Revised: 29 October 2011 / Accepted: 30 November 2011 / Published: 8 December 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (152 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the advancement from natural pyrethrins to synthetic pyrethroids, their applications have expanded from household insecticides for indoor use against sanitary pests to outdoor use for agriculture, forestry, animal health, termite control, and many other pest situations. However, high fish toxicity and development
[...] Read more.
With the advancement from natural pyrethrins to synthetic pyrethroids, their applications have expanded from household insecticides for indoor use against sanitary pests to outdoor use for agriculture, forestry, animal health, termite control, and many other pest situations. However, high fish toxicity and development of pyrethroid resistance in some pests have been cited as common shortcomings of pyrethroids. To overcome these pyrethroid problems such as high fish toxicity, Katsuda and fellow scientists invented silafluofen by introducing a silicone atom into the pyrethroidal chemical structure in 1984. In addition to the high insecticidal activity and low mammalian toxicity, this compound features low fish toxicity, chemical stability under sunlight, in the soil and under alkaline environments. These features make silafluofen unique among pyrethroids. In Japan, silafluofen has been used as an agricultural insecticide for 15 years since 1995 for various plants, especially useful for paddy rice protection because of its low fish toxicity. Over the last 20 years, silafluofen-based termiticides including emulsifiable concentrate (EC) and oil formulations have been widely used in Japan for soil treatment and timber treatments. Additional silafluofen product lines include anti-termitic plastic sheets which are laid under buildings. In this paper, literature on the development of silafluofen and its use in Japan are reviewed. On the other hand, in Thailand, we proceeded with development works of silafluofen-based termiticides from 2005 by starting laboratory efficacy tests and field efficacy tests in Phuket. Both laboratory and field tests showed good efficacy as a soil termiticide, suggesting that the material will perform well for commercial use in high biological hazard environments such as Thailand and can be used in environments close to water where fish toxicity might be a concern with other pyrethroids. Full article

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessProduct Review A Preliminary Study on Elimination of Colonies of the Mound Building Termite Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen) Using a Chlorfluazuron Termite Bait in the Philippines
Insects 2011, 2(4), 486-490; doi:10.3390/insects2040486
Received: 25 August 2011 / Revised: 1 November 2011 / Accepted: 2 November 2011 / Published: 10 November 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (152 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effectiveness of a chlorfluazuron termite bait in eliminating colonies of the termite species Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen) was evaluated under field conditions. Three active termite mounds were chosen for this study, two acted as test mounds and the other as the control. Four
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The effectiveness of a chlorfluazuron termite bait in eliminating colonies of the termite species Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen) was evaluated under field conditions. Three active termite mounds were chosen for this study, two acted as test mounds and the other as the control. Four In-Ground Stations (IGS) were installed around each mound. Interception occurred almost immediately in all the stations, which were subsequently baited. The control mound was fed a bait matrix lacking the active ingredient. Stations were re-baited every 2 weeks for 10–12 weeks until bait consumption ceased in the test mounds. The mounds were left undisturbed for four more weeks before being destructively sampled. The desiccated remains of workers, soldiers, late instars and queen were found upon sampling the treated mounds. A few live termites were located in one treated mound but were darkly pigmented indicating bait consumption. The control mound remained healthy and did not show any visible sign of negative impact. The bait successfully suppressed or eliminated both M. gilvus colonies within 16 weeks from commencement of feeding. Full article

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