Special Issue "Phylogeographic Syntheses"

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A special issue of Insects (ISSN 2075-4450).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2011)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Ryan C. Garrick

Department of Biology, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677-1848, USA
Interests: insect evolution; molecular ecology; biogeography; population genetics; conservation biology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Population-level molecular datasets now exist for suites of co-distributed insects (and other arthropods) from numerous landscapes settings across the globe. Given that these taxon sets are usually composed of distantly-related species that play different ecological roles, an assessment of some general unifying principals (i.e., ‘phylogeographic consensus‘) is now possible. For this special issue of Insects, authors are invited to contribute original review articles that synthesize ideas and data from several empirical phylogeographic studies conducted in the same landscape system. When considering multiple taxa, review papers could leverage the power of comparative data to identify the recurrent historical processes that had taxonomically far-reaching impacts on the spatial distribution of biodiversity, as well as idiosyncratic (species-specific) inferences. Alternatively, where a series of interrelated studies have focused on the same species or species complex (e.g., genetics, morphology, behavior, ecology, etc), review papers could synthesize the current understanding long-term population history for that particular organismal group.

Dr. Ryan C. Garrick
Guest Editor

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Exploring Phylogeographic Congruence in a Continental Island System
Insects 2011, 2(3), 369-399; doi:10.3390/insects2030369
Received: 8 June 2011 / Revised: 4 July 2011 / Accepted: 11 July 2011 / Published: 3 August 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (2955 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A prediction in phylogeographic studies is that patterns of lineage diversity and timing will be similar within the same landscape under the assumption that these lineages have responded to past environmental changes in comparable ways. Eight invertebrate taxa from four different orders [...] Read more.
A prediction in phylogeographic studies is that patterns of lineage diversity and timing will be similar within the same landscape under the assumption that these lineages have responded to past environmental changes in comparable ways. Eight invertebrate taxa from four different orders were included in this study of mainland New Zealand and Chatham Islands lineages to explore outcomes of island colonization. These comprised two orthopteran genera, one an endemic forest-dwelling genus of cave weta (Rhaphidophoridae, Talitropsis) and the other a grasshopper (Acrididae, Phaulacridum) that inhabits open grassland; four genera of Coleoptera including carabid beetles (Mecodema), stag beetles (Geodorcus), weevils (Hadramphus) and clickbeetles (Amychus); the widespread earwig genus Anisolabis (Dermaptera) that is common on beaches in New Zealand and the Chatham Islands, and an endemic and widespread cockroach genus Celatoblatta (Blattodea). Mitochondrial DNA data were used to reconstruct phylogeographic hypotheses to compare among these taxa. Strikingly, despite a maximum age of the Chathams of ~4 million years there is no concordance among these taxa, in the extent of genetic divergence and partitioning between Chatham and Mainland populations. Some Chatham lineages are represented by insular endemics and others by haplotypes shared with mainland populations. These diverse patterns suggest that combinations of intrinsic (taxon ecology) and extrinsic (extinction and dispersal) factors can result in apparently very different biogeographic outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phylogeographic Syntheses)

Review

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Open AccessReview What is Next in Bark Beetle Phylogeography?
Insects 2012, 3(2), 453-472; doi:10.3390/insects3020453
Received: 16 April 2012 / Revised: 25 April 2012 / Accepted: 26 April 2012 / Published: 7 May 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (124 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bark beetle species within the scolytid genera Dendroctonus, Ips, Pityogenes and Tomicus are known to cause extensive ecological and economical damage in spruce and pine forests during epidemic outbreaks all around the world. Dendroctonus ponderosae poses the most recent example [...] Read more.
Bark beetle species within the scolytid genera Dendroctonus, Ips, Pityogenes and Tomicus are known to cause extensive ecological and economical damage in spruce and pine forests during epidemic outbreaks all around the world. Dendroctonus ponderosae poses the most recent example having destroyed almost 100,000 km2 of conifer forests in North America. The success and effectiveness of scolytid species lies mostly in strategies developed over the course of time. Among these, a complex system of semiochemicals promotes the communication and aggregation on the spot of infestation facilitating an en masse attack against a host tree’s defenses; or an association with fungi that evolved either in the form of nutrition (ambrosia fungi) or even by reducing the resistance of host trees (blue-stain fungi). Although often specific to a tree genus or species, some bark beetles are polyphagous and have the ability to switch on to new hosts and extend their host range (i.e., between conifer genera such as Pityogenes chalcographus or even from conifer to deciduous trees as Polygraphus grandiclava). A combination of these capabilities in concert with life history or ecological traits explains why bark beetles are considered interesting subjects in evolutionary studies. Several bark beetle species appear in phylogeographic investigations, in an effort to improve our understanding of their ecology, epidemiology and evolution. In this paper investigations that unveil the phylogeographic history of bark beetles are reviewed. A close association between refugial areas and postglacial migration routes that insects and host trees have followed in the last 15,000 BP has been suggested in many studies. Finally, a future perspective of how next generation sequencing will influence the resolution of phylogeographic patterns in the coming years is presented. Utilization of such novel techniques will provide a more detailed insight into the genome of scolytids facilitating at the same time the application of neutral and non-neutral markers. The latter markers in particular promise to enhance the study of eco-physiological reaction types like the so-called pioneer beetles or obligate diapausing individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phylogeographic Syntheses)
Open AccessReview Phylogeography of Saproxylic and Forest Floor Invertebrates from Tallaganda, South-eastern Australia
Insects 2012, 3(1), 270-294; doi:10.3390/insects3010270
Received: 3 January 2012 / Revised: 21 February 2012 / Accepted: 22 February 2012 / Published: 29 February 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (917 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The interaction between physiogeographic landscape context and certain life history characteristics, particularly dispersal ability, can generate predictable outcomes for how species responded to Pleistocene (and earlier) climatic changes. Furthermore, the extent to which impacts of past landscape-level changes ‘scale-up’ to whole communities [...] Read more.
The interaction between physiogeographic landscape context and certain life history characteristics, particularly dispersal ability, can generate predictable outcomes for how species responded to Pleistocene (and earlier) climatic changes. Furthermore, the extent to which impacts of past landscape-level changes ‘scale-up’ to whole communities has begun to be addressed via comparative phylogeographic analyses of co-distributed species. Here we present an overview of a body of research on flightless low-mobility forest invertebrates, focusing on two springtails and two terrestrial flatworms, from Tallaganda on the Great Dividing Range of south-eastern Australia. These species are distantly-related, and represent contrasting trophic levels (i.e., slime-mold-grazers vs. higher-level predators). However, they share an association with the dead wood (saproxylic) habitat. Spatial patterns of intraspecific genetic diversity partly conform to topography-based divisions that circumscribe five ‘microgeographic regions’ at Tallaganda. In synthesizing population processes and past events that generated contemporary spatial patterns of genetic diversity in these forest floor invertebrates, we highlight cases of phylogeographic congruence, pseudo-congruence, and incongruence. Finally, we propose conservation-oriented recommendations for the prioritisation of areas for protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phylogeographic Syntheses)
Open AccessReview Aquatic Insects in Eastern Australia: A Window on Ecology and Evolution of Dispersal in Streams
Insects 2011, 2(4), 447-461; doi:10.3390/insects2040447
Received: 21 September 2011 / Revised: 6 October 2011 / Accepted: 10 October 2011 / Published: 20 October 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (739 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Studies of connectivity of natural populations are often conducted at different timescales. Studies that focus on contemporary timescales ask questions about dispersal abilities and dispersal behavior of their study species. In contrast, studies conducted at historical timescales are usually more focused on [...] Read more.
Studies of connectivity of natural populations are often conducted at different timescales. Studies that focus on contemporary timescales ask questions about dispersal abilities and dispersal behavior of their study species. In contrast, studies conducted at historical timescales are usually more focused on evolutionary or biogeographic questions. In this paper we present a synthesis of connectivity studies that have addressed both these timescales in Australian Trichoptera and Ephemeroptera. We conclude that: (1) For both groups, the major mechanism of dispersal is by adult flight, with larval drift playing a very minor role and with unusual patterns of genetic structure at fine scales explained by the “patchy recruitment hypothesis”; (2) There is some evidence presented to suggest that at slightly larger spatial scales (~100 km) caddisflies may be slightly more connected than mayflies; (3) Examinations of three species at historical timescales showed that, in southeast Queensland Australia, despite there being no significant glaciation during the Pleistocene, there are clear impacts of Pleistocene climate changes on their genetic structure; and (4) The use of mitochondrial DNA sequence data has uncovered a number of cryptic species complexes in both trichopterans and ephemeropterans. We conclude with a number of suggestions for further work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phylogeographic Syntheses)
Open AccessReview Biogeography and Phylogeny of Wood-feeding Cockroaches in the Genus Cryptocercus
Insects 2011, 2(3), 354-368; doi:10.3390/insects2030354
Received: 25 May 2011 / Revised: 8 July 2011 / Accepted: 11 July 2011 / Published: 19 July 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (11259 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Subsocial, xylophagous cockroaches of the genus Cryptocercus exhibit a disjunct distribution, with representatives in mature montane forests of North America, China, Korea and the Russian Far East. All described species are wingless and dependent on rotting wood for food and shelter at [...] Read more.
Subsocial, xylophagous cockroaches of the genus Cryptocercus exhibit a disjunct distribution, with representatives in mature montane forests of North America, China, Korea and the Russian Far East. All described species are wingless and dependent on rotting wood for food and shelter at all stages of their life cycle; consequently, their distribution is tied to that of forests and strongly influenced by palaeogeographical events. Asian and American lineages form distinct monophyletic groups, comprised of populations with complex geographic substructuring. We review the phylogeny and distribution of Cryptocercus, and discuss splitting events inferred from molecular data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phylogeographic Syntheses)
Open AccessReview The Invertebrate Life of New Zealand: A Phylogeographic Approach
Insects 2011, 2(3), 297-325; doi:10.3390/insects2030297
Received: 11 May 2011 / Revised: 16 June 2011 / Accepted: 17 June 2011 / Published: 1 July 2011
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (2235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Phylogeography contributes to our knowledge of regional biotas by integrating spatial and genetic information. In New Zealand, comprising two main islands and hundreds of smaller ones, phylogeography has transformed the way we view our biology and allowed comparison with other parts of [...] Read more.
Phylogeography contributes to our knowledge of regional biotas by integrating spatial and genetic information. In New Zealand, comprising two main islands and hundreds of smaller ones, phylogeography has transformed the way we view our biology and allowed comparison with other parts of the world. Here we review studies on New Zealand terrestrial and freshwater invertebrates. We find little evidence of congruence among studies of different taxa; instead there are signatures of partitioning in many different regions and expansion in different directions. A number of studies have revealed unusually high genetic distances within putative species, and in those where other data confirm this taxonomy, the revealed phylogeographic structure contrasts with northern hemisphere continental systems. Some taxa show a signature indicative of Pliocene tectonic events encompassing land extension and mountain building, whereas others are consistent with range expansion following the last glacial maximum (LGM) of the Pleistocene. There is some indication that montane taxa are more partitioned than lowland ones, but this observation is obscured by a broad range of patterns within the sample of lowland/forest taxa. We note that several geophysical processes make similar phylogeographic predictions for the same landscape, rendering confirmation of the drivers of partitioning difficult. Future multi-gene analyses where applied to testable alternative hypotheses may help resolve further the rich evolutionary history of New Zealand’s invertebrates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phylogeographic Syntheses)
Open AccessReview Phylogeography of the Cactophilic Drosophila and Other Arthropods Associated with Cactus Necroses in the Sonoran Desert
Insects 2011, 2(2), 218-231; doi:10.3390/insects2020218
Received: 19 March 2011 / Revised: 23 April 2011 / Accepted: 3 May 2011 / Published: 5 May 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (340 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Studies on the population genetics, phylogenetic relationships, systematics and evolution of arthropods that inhabit necrotic tissue of cacti in the Sonoran Desert of North America are reviewed. These studies have focused upon several species of insects (orders Diptera and Coleoptera) and arachnids [...] Read more.
Studies on the population genetics, phylogenetic relationships, systematics and evolution of arthropods that inhabit necrotic tissue of cacti in the Sonoran Desert of North America are reviewed. These studies have focused upon several species of insects (orders Diptera and Coleoptera) and arachnids (order Pseudoscorpiones). For most taxa studied, little genetic structure and high dispersal ability are found in populations inhabiting the mainland and Baja California peninsula regions of the Sonoran Desert, consistent with the availability of the rotting cactus microhabitat which is patchily distributed and ephemeral. There is evidence, however, that the Gulf of California, which bisects the Sonoran Desert, has played a role in limiting gene flow and promoting speciation in several taxa, including histerid beetles, whereas other taxa, especially Drosophila nigrospiracula and D. mettleri, apparently are able to freely cross the Gulf, probably by taking advantage of the Midriff Islands in the northern Gulf as dispersal “stepping stones”. Genetic evidence has also been found for historical population expansions dating to the Pleistocene and late Pliocene in several taxa. Overall, these studies have provided important insights into how arthropods with different life history traits, but generally restricted to a necrotic cactus microhabitat, have evolved in an environmentally harsh and tectonically active region. In addition, they suggest some taxa for further, and more detailed, hypothesis driven studies of speciation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phylogeographic Syntheses)
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Open AccessReview Speciation, Divergence, and the Origin of Gryllus rubens: Behavior, Morphology, and Molecules
Insects 2011, 2(2), 195-209; doi:10.3390/insects2020195
Received: 30 March 2011 / Revised: 22 April 2011 / Accepted: 26 April 2011 / Published: 4 May 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (346 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The last 25 years or so has seen a huge resurgence of interest in speciation research. This has coincided with the development and widespread use of new tools in molecular genetics, especially DNA sequencing, to inform ecological and evolutionary questions. Here I [...] Read more.
The last 25 years or so has seen a huge resurgence of interest in speciation research. This has coincided with the development and widespread use of new tools in molecular genetics, especially DNA sequencing, to inform ecological and evolutionary questions. Here I review about a decade of work on the sister species of field crickets Gryllus texensis and G. rubens. This work has included analysis of morphology, behavior, and the mitochondrial DNA molecule. The molecular work in particular has dramatically re-shaped my interpretation of the speciational history of these taxa, suggesting that rather than ‘sister’ species we should consider these taxa as ‘mother-daughter’ species with G. rubens derived from within a subset of ancestral G. texensis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phylogeographic Syntheses)
Open AccessReview Phylogeography of Phytophagous Weevils and Plant Species in Broadleaved Evergreen Forests: A Congruent Genetic Gap between Western and Eastern Parts of Japan
Insects 2011, 2(2), 128-150; doi:10.3390/insects2020128
Received: 28 February 2011 / Accepted: 15 April 2011 / Published: 21 April 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (816 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Quaternary climate cycles played an important role in shaping the distribution of biodiversity among current populations, even in warm-temperate zones, where land was not covered by ice sheets. We focused on the Castanopsis-type broadleaved evergreen forest community in Japan, which [...] Read more.
The Quaternary climate cycles played an important role in shaping the distribution of biodiversity among current populations, even in warm-temperate zones, where land was not covered by ice sheets. We focused on the Castanopsis-type broadleaved evergreen forest community in Japan, which characterizes the biodiversity and endemism of the warm-temperate zone. A comparison of the phylogeographic patterns of three types of phytophagous weevils associated with Castanopsis (a host-specific seed predator, a generalist seed predator, and a host-specific leaf miner) and several other plant species inhabiting the forests revealed largely congruent patterns of genetic differentiation between western and eastern parts of the main islands of Japan. A genetic gap was detected in the Kii Peninsula to Chugoku-Shikoku region, around the Seto Inland Sea. The patterns of western-eastern differentiation suggest past fragmentation of broadleaved evergreen forests into at least two separate refugia consisting of the southern parts of Kyushu to Shikoku and of Kii to Boso Peninsula. Moreover, the congruent phylogeographic patterns observed in Castanopsis and the phytophagous insect species imply that the plant-herbivore relationship has been largely maintained since the last glacial periods. These results reinforce the robustness of the deduced glacial and postglacial histories of Castanopsis-associated organisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phylogeographic Syntheses)
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Open AccessReview Origin and Diversification of Dung Beetles in Madagascar
Insects 2011, 2(2), 112-127; doi:10.3390/insects2020112
Received: 25 February 2011 / Revised: 8 April 2011 / Accepted: 13 April 2011 / Published: 20 April 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (621 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Madagascar has a rich fauna of dung beetles (Scarabaeinae and Aphodiinae) withalmost 300 species described to date. Like most other taxa in Madagascar, dung beetles exhibit an exceptionally high level of endemism (96% of the species). Here,we review the current knowledge of [...] Read more.
Madagascar has a rich fauna of dung beetles (Scarabaeinae and Aphodiinae) withalmost 300 species described to date. Like most other taxa in Madagascar, dung beetles exhibit an exceptionally high level of endemism (96% of the species). Here,we review the current knowledge of the origin and diversification of Malagasy dung beetles. Based on molecular phylogenies, the extant dung beetles originate from eight colonizations, of which four have given rise to extensive radiations. These radiations have occurred in wet forests, while the few extant species in the less successfulradiations occur in open and semi-open habitats. We discuss the likely mechanisms of speciation and the ecological characteristics of the extant communities, emphasizing the role of adaptation along environmental gradients and allopatric speciation in generating the exceptionally high beta diversity in Malagasy dung beetles. Phylogeographic analyses of selected species reveal complex patterns with evidence for genetic introgression between old taxa. The introduction of cattle to Madagascar 1500 years ago created a new abundant resource, onto which a few species haveshifted and thereby been able to greatly expand their geographical ranges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phylogeographic Syntheses)
Open AccessReview Extreme Glacial Legacies: A Synthesis of the Antarctic Springtail Phylogeographic Record
Insects 2011, 2(2), 62-82; doi:10.3390/insects2020062
Received: 23 December 2010 / Revised: 15 February 2011 / Accepted: 2 April 2011 / Published: 6 April 2011
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (850 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We review current phylogeographic knowledge from across the Antarctic terrestrial landscape with a focus on springtail taxa. We describe consistent patterns of high genetic diversity and structure among populations which have persisted in glacial refugia across Antarctica over both short (10 Mya) [...] Read more.
We review current phylogeographic knowledge from across the Antarctic terrestrial landscape with a focus on springtail taxa. We describe consistent patterns of high genetic diversity and structure among populations which have persisted in glacial refugia across Antarctica over both short (10 Mya) timescales. Despite a general concordance of results among species, we explain why location is important in determining population genetic patterns within bioregions. We complete our review by drawing attention to the main limitations in the field of Antarctic phylogeography, namely that the scope of geographic focus is often lacking within studies, and that large gaps remain in our phylogeographic knowledge for most terrestrial groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phylogeographic Syntheses)
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Open AccessReview Chromosomal Speciation Revisited: Modes of Diversification in Australian Morabine Grasshoppers (Vandiemenella, viatica Species Group)
Insects 2011, 2(1), 49-61; doi:10.3390/insects2010049
Received: 16 February 2011 / Revised: 10 March 2011 / Accepted: 15 March 2011 / Published: 18 March 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (482 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chromosomal rearrangements can alter the rate and patterns of gene flow within or between species through a reduction in the fitness of chromosomal hybrids or by reducing recombination rates in rearranged areas of the genome. This concept, together with the observation that [...] Read more.
Chromosomal rearrangements can alter the rate and patterns of gene flow within or between species through a reduction in the fitness of chromosomal hybrids or by reducing recombination rates in rearranged areas of the genome. This concept, together with the observation that many species have structural variation in chromosomes, has led to the theory that the rearrangements may play a direct role in promoting speciation. Australian morabine grasshoppers (genus Vandiemenella, viatica species group) are an excellent model for studying the role of chromosomal rearrangement in speciation because they show extensive chromosomal variation, parapatric distribution patterns, and narrow hybrid zones at their boundaries. This species group stimulated development of one of the classic chromosomal speciation models, the stasipatric speciation model proposed by White in 1968. Our population genetic and phylogeographic analyses revealed extensive non-monophyly of chromosomal races along with historical and on-going gene introgression between them. These findings suggest that geographical isolation leading to the fixation of chromosomal variants in different geographic regions, followed by secondary contact, resulted in the present day parapatric distributions of chromosomal races. The significance of chromosomal rearrangements in the diversification of the viatica species group can be explored by comparing patterns of genetic differentiation between rearranged and co-linear parts of the genome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phylogeographic Syntheses)

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