Special Issue "Mechanics of Cells in Context with Biomaterials"

Quicklinks

A special issue of Journal of Functional Biomaterials (ISSN 2079-4983).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2011)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Edie C. Goldsmith (Website)

Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of South Carolina School of Medicine Columbia, SC 29209, USA
Interests: cardiac fibroblasts; collagen remodeling; extracellular matrix; nanomaterials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

With advances in tissue engineering and the goal of developing patches and/or replacement tissues which seamlessly integrate within the native environment, understanding how cells interact with and respond to natural or engineered matrices is crucial for directing cell behavior. Cells are mechanically complex; exhibiting viscoelastic behavior, deforming in response to externally applied mechanical stimuli and regulating dynamic changes cytoskeletal components which contribute to cellular material properties. The mechanical properties of cells are not only dependent upon the cell itself, but also on the local environment. The extracellular matrix, which surrounds cells in their native environment, provides fundamental cues which drive a multitude of cellular functions including differentiation, migration and proliferation. For example, the response of stem cells to the mechanical stiffness of the extracellular matrix has been shown to direct their differentiation down specific lineages. This issue of The Journal of Functional Biomaterials will highlight advances in our understanding of how cells interact with and mechanically probe their environment. Of particular interest are articles which describe methods for assessing cell-matrix interactions or articles dealing with measuring mechanical properties of individual cells or small cell populations. The development of model systems which will allow for the evaluation of environmental factors which effect cell mechanics are also of great interest.

Dr. Edie C. Goldsmith
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • cell mechanics
  • xxtracellular matrix
  • biopolymers/biomaterials
  • models
  • mechanotransduction
  • deformation
  • cell adhesion
  • atomic force microscopy

Published Papers (3 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-3
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle Effects of Medium and Temperature on Cellular Responses in the Superficial Zone of Hypo-Osmotically Challenged Articular Cartilage
J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(3), 544-555; doi:10.3390/jfb3030544
Received: 26 June 2012 / Revised: 19 July 2012 / Accepted: 27 July 2012 / Published: 9 August 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (323 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Osmotic loading of articular cartilage has been used to study cell-tissue interactions and mechanisms in chondrocyte volume regulation in situ. Since cell volume changes are likely to affect cell’s mechanotransduction, it is important to understand how environmental factors, such as composition [...] Read more.
Osmotic loading of articular cartilage has been used to study cell-tissue interactions and mechanisms in chondrocyte volume regulation in situ. Since cell volume changes are likely to affect cell’s mechanotransduction, it is important to understand how environmental factors, such as composition of the immersion medium and temperature affect cell volume changes in situ in osmotically challenged articular cartilage. In this study, chondrocytes were imaged in situ with a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) through cartilage surface before and 3 min and 120 min after a hypo-osmotic challenge. Samples were measured either in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, without glucose and Ca2+) or in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM, with glucose and Ca2+), and at 21 °C or at 37 °C. In all groups, cell volumes increased shortly after the hypotonic challenge and then recovered back to the original volumes. At both observation time points, cell volume changes as a result of the osmotic challenge were similar in PBS and DMEM in both temperatures. Our results indicate that the initial chondrocyte swelling and volume recovery as a result of the hypo-osmotic challenge of cartilage are not dependent on commonly used immersion media or temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanics of Cells in Context with Biomaterials)
Open AccessArticle Finite-Element Modeling of Viscoelastic Cells During High-Frequency Cyclic Strain
J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(1), 209-224; doi:10.3390/jfb3010209
Received: 22 January 2012 / Revised: 6 March 2012 / Accepted: 13 March 2012 / Published: 22 March 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (968 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mechanotransduction refers to the mechanisms by which cells sense and respond to local loads and forces. The process of mechanotransduction plays an important role both in maintaining tissue viability and in remodeling to repair damage; moreover, it may be involved in the [...] Read more.
Mechanotransduction refers to the mechanisms by which cells sense and respond to local loads and forces. The process of mechanotransduction plays an important role both in maintaining tissue viability and in remodeling to repair damage; moreover, it may be involved in the initiation and progression of diseases such as osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. An understanding of the mechanisms by which cells respond to surrounding tissue matrices or artificial biomaterials is crucial in regenerative medicine and in influencing cellular differentiation. Recent studies have shown that some cells may be most sensitive to low-amplitude, high-frequency (i.e., 1–100 Hz) mechanical stimulation. Advances in finite-element modeling have made it possible to simulate high-frequency mechanical loading of cells. We have developed a viscoelastic finite-element model of an osteoblastic cell (including cytoskeletal actin stress fibers), attached to an elastomeric membrane undergoing cyclic isotropic radial strain with a peak value of 1,000 µstrain. The results indicate that cells experience significant stress and strain amplification when undergoing high-frequency strain, with peak values of cytoplasmic strain five times higher at 45 Hz than at 1 Hz, and peak Von Mises stress in the nucleus increased by a factor of two. Focal stress and strain amplification in cells undergoing high-frequency mechanical stimulation may play an important role in mechanotransduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanics of Cells in Context with Biomaterials)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Biomechanical Conditioning Enhanced Matrix Synthesis in Nucleus Pulposus Cells Cultured in Agarose Constructs with TGFβ
J. Funct. Biomater. 2012, 3(1), 23-36; doi:10.3390/jfb3010023
Received: 30 November 2011 / Revised: 23 December 2011 / Accepted: 28 December 2011 / Published: 5 January 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (368 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biomechanical signals play an important role in normal disc metabolism and pathology. For instance, nucleus pulposus (NP) cells will regulate metabolic activities and maintain a balance between the anabolic and catabolic cascades. The former involves factors such as transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) [...] Read more.
Biomechanical signals play an important role in normal disc metabolism and pathology. For instance, nucleus pulposus (NP) cells will regulate metabolic activities and maintain a balance between the anabolic and catabolic cascades. The former involves factors such as transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) and mechanical stimuli, both of which are known to regulate matrix production through autocrine and paracrine mechanisms. The present study examined the combined effect of TGFβ and mechanical loading on anabolic activities in NP cells cultured in agarose constructs. Stimulation with TGFβ and dynamic compression reduced nitrite release and increased matrix synthesis and gene expression of aggrecan and collagen type II. The findings from this work has the potential for developing regenerative treatment strategies which could either slow down or stop the degenerative process and/or promote healing mechanisms in the intervertebral disc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanics of Cells in Context with Biomaterials)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
JFB Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
jfb@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to JFB
Back to Top