Special Issue "Tsunami Science and Engineering"

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A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Valentin Heller

Department of Civil Engineering, University Park, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK
Phone: +44 (0)11 574 860 49
Interests: landslide-tsunamis; landslide-generated impulse waves; scale effects; wave energy conversion; hydraulic structures; coastal engineering; experimental fluid dynamics; smoothed particle hydrodynamics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recent earthquake-tsunamis including the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, with over 230,000 casualties, and the 2011 Tōhoku Tsunami in Japan, with over 18,500 people missing or dead, serve as tragic reminders that such waves pose a major natural hazard to human beings. Landslide-tsunamis, including the 1958 Lituya Bay case, may exceed 150 m in height and if similar waves are generated in lakes or reservoirs (so-called impulse waves), then they may overtop dams and cause significant devastation downstream, such as in the 1963 Vaiont case with around 2,000 casualties.

The after-effects due to such catastrophes are not limited to the region immediately impacted by the wave; for example, the 1963 Vaiont case affected hydropower plant planning and management globally and the 2011 Tōhoku Tsunami initiated changes to nuclear power plant policies worldwide.
Active prevention of the wave generation is extremely unlikely and limited to rare cases where creeping slides could be stabilized. Scientists and engineers thus work mainly on passive methods to face this hazard. In many cases, the propagation time between generation and shoreline is sufficiently long, allowing early warning systems for evacuation to be an effective passive method. For impulse waves in smaller water bodies, however, the propagation time is too short for an adequate evacuation so further passive methods are critical. Such methods include sea walls, reinforced infrastructure and the provision of adequate freeboards of dam reservoirs. These methods require detailed knowledge of (i) the wave features as a function of the generation mechanism, (ii) the shoreline run-up and (iii) the interaction with structures.
Despite a significant increase in research activities after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, there certainly can be — and needs to be — more research with the aim to reduce the destruction caused by tsunamis to us and our environment.

This special issue “Tsunami Science and Engineering” is launched to reflect our current understanding of tsunamis and tsunami mitigation, irrespective of the mechanism by which they are generated: earthquakes, landslides, underwater slumps, asteroids etc. Welcome are research papers, reviews (state of the art) and case studies addressing tsunamis and/or impulse waves theoretically, experimentally, numerically and/or based on field studies. I sincerely look forward to receiving original and exciting contributions of high quality.

Dr. Valentin Heller
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 300 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.

Keywords

  • Earthquake-tsunamis
  • Impulse waves
  • Landslide-generated impulse waves
  • Landslide-tsunamis
  • Long wave run-up
  • Seismic tsunamis
  • Solitary waves
  • Tsunami early warning system
  • Tsunami forecasting
  • Tsunami hazard assessment
  • Tsunami hazard mitigation
  • Tsunami-induced overland flow
  • Tsunami loading on structures

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Modulation of Atmospheric Nonisothermality and Wind Shears on the Propagation of Seismic Tsunami-Excited Gravity Waves
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2016, 4(1), 4; doi:10.3390/jmse4010004
Received: 22 October 2015 / Revised: 5 January 2016 / Accepted: 7 January 2016 / Published: 15 January 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2233 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We study the modulation of atmospheric nonisothermality and wind shears on the propagation of seismic tsunami-excited gravity waves by virtue of the vertical wavenumber, m (with its imaginary and real parts, m i and m r , respectively), within a correlated characteristic [...] Read more.
We study the modulation of atmospheric nonisothermality and wind shears on the propagation of seismic tsunami-excited gravity waves by virtue of the vertical wavenumber, m (with its imaginary and real parts, m i and m r , respectively), within a correlated characteristic range of tsunami wave periods in tens of minutes. A generalized dispersion relation of inertio-acoustic-gravity (IAG) waves is obtained by relaxing constraints on Hines’ idealized locally-isothermal, shear-free and rotation-free model to accommodate a realistic atmosphere featured by altitude-dependent nonisothermality (up to 100 K/km) and wind shears (up to 100 m/s per km). The obtained solutions recover all of the known wave modes below the 200-km altitude where dissipative terms are assumed negligible. Results include: (1) nonisothermality and wind shears divide the atmosphere into a sandwich-like structure of five layers within the 200-km altitude in view of the wave growth in amplitudes: Layer I (0–18) km, Layer II (18–87) km, Layer III (87–125) km, Layer IV (125–175) km and Layer V (175–200) km; (2) in Layers I, III and V, the magnitude of m i is smaller than Hines’ imaginary vertical wavenumber ( m i H ), referring to an attenuated growth in the amplitudes of upward propagating waves; on the contrary, in Layers II and IV, the magnitude of m i is larger than that of m i H , providing a pumped growth from Hines’ model; (3) nonisothermality and wind shears enhance m r substantially at an ∼100-km altitude for a tsunami wave period T t s longer than 30 min. While Hines’ model provides that the maximal value of m r 2 is ∼0.05 (1/km 2 ), this magnitude is doubled by the nonisothermal effect and quadrupled by the joint nonisothermal and wind shear effect. The modulations are weaker at altitudes outside 80–140-km heights; (4) nonisothermality and wind shears expand the definition of the observation-defined “damping factor”, β: relative to Hines’ classical wave growth with β = 0 , waves are “damped” from Hines’ result if β > 0 and “pumped” if β < 0 . The polarization of β is determined by the angle θ between the wind velocity and wave vector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tsunami Science and Engineering)
Open AccessArticle An Experimental and Numerical Study of Long Wave Run-Up on a Plane Beach
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2016, 4(1), 1; doi:10.3390/jmse4010001
Received: 31 July 2015 / Revised: 2 December 2015 / Accepted: 9 December 2015 / Published: 25 December 2015
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Abstract
This research is to facilitate the current understanding of long wave dynamics at coasts and during on-land propagation; experimental and numerical approaches are compared against existing analytical expressions for the long wave run-up. Leading depression sinusoidal waves are chosen to model these [...] Read more.
This research is to facilitate the current understanding of long wave dynamics at coasts and during on-land propagation; experimental and numerical approaches are compared against existing analytical expressions for the long wave run-up. Leading depression sinusoidal waves are chosen to model these dynamics. The experimental study was conducted using a new pump-driven wave generator and the numerical experiments were carried out with a one-dimensional discontinuous Galerkin non-linear shallow water model. The numerical model is able to accurately reproduce the run-up elevation and velocities predicted by the theoretical expressions. Depending on the surf similarity of the generated waves and due to imperfections of the experimental wave generation, riding waves are observed in the experimental results. These artifacts can also be confirmed in the numerical study when the data from the physical experiments is assimilated. Qualitatively, scale effects associated with the experimental setting are discussed. Finally, shoreline velocities, run-up and run-down are determined and shown to largely agree with analytical predictions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tsunami Science and Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Geological and Sedimentological Evidence of a Large Tsunami Occurring ~1100 Year BP from a Small Coastal Lake along the Bay of La Paz in Baja California Sur, Mexico
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(4), 1544-1567; doi:10.3390/jmse3041544
Received: 30 July 2015 / Revised: 17 November 2015 / Accepted: 30 November 2015 / Published: 10 December 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (12469 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The importance of small-scale seismic events in enclosed water bodies, which can result in large tsunami waves capable of affecting comprehensive damage over small, geographically-confined areas are generally overlooked, although recognizing the occurrence of such events is a necessary element in adequately [...] Read more.
The importance of small-scale seismic events in enclosed water bodies, which can result in large tsunami waves capable of affecting comprehensive damage over small, geographically-confined areas are generally overlooked, although recognizing the occurrence of such events is a necessary element in adequately assessing the risk of natural hazards at specific locations. Here we present evidence for a probable large localized tsunami that occurred within the Bay of La Paz, Baja California Sur, ~1100 year before present (BP), which resulted in the creation of a shelly ridge at an elevation of ~2 m above mean high water (MHW). This ridge consists of a continuous wedge of poorly mixed marine sands and shells ~50 cm in depth deposited along the entire seaward edge of the lake. The marine shells collected from terrestrial environments around the lake include species from a variety of environments, including offshore species with minimum preferred depths of >13 m. The evidence suggests that this material was likely deposited by a tsunami with a runup of 2–3.6 m above MHW, probably associated with the slumping of an island along the tectonically active eastern edge of the bay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tsunami Science and Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Time Evolution of Man-Made Harbor Modifications in San Diego: Effects on Tsunamis
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(4), 1382-1403; doi:10.3390/jmse3041382
Received: 13 July 2015 / Revised: 6 November 2015 / Accepted: 6 November 2015 / Published: 19 November 2015
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Abstract
San Diego, one of the largest ports on the U.S. West Coast and home to the largest U.S. Navy base, is exposed to various local and distant tsunami sources. During the first half of the twentieth century, extensive modifications to the port [...] Read more.
San Diego, one of the largest ports on the U.S. West Coast and home to the largest U.S. Navy base, is exposed to various local and distant tsunami sources. During the first half of the twentieth century, extensive modifications to the port included but were not limited to dredging, expansion of land near the airport and previous tidal flats, as well as creation of jetties. Using historical nautical charts and available Digital Elevation Models, this study gives an overview of changes to San Diego harbor in the last 150+ years due to human intervention and examines the effects of these changes on tsunamis. Two distant and two local scenarios were selected to demonstrate the impact of modified nearshore topography and bathymetry to incoming tsunamis. Inundation pattern, flow depths, and flooded localities vary greatly from year to year in the four scenarios. Specifically, flooded areas shift from the inner harbor to outer locations. Currents induced by the distant tsunamis intensify with modifications and shift from locations primarily outside the harbor to locations inside. A new characteristic in tsunami dynamics associated with port modifications is the introduction of high current spots. Numerical results also show that the introduction of high currents could threaten navigation, vessels, and facilities at narrow openings and also along the harbor “throat”—therefore, at an increased number of locations. Modifications in the port show that changes could have a negative but also a positive impact through constraint of flooding outside of the harbor and shifting of high currents to locations of minimal impact. The results of this study may be used as a first step toward future harbor design plans to reduce tsunami damages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tsunami Science and Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Ionospheric Electron Density Perturbations Driven by Seismic Tsunami-Excited Gravity Waves: Effect of Dynamo Electric Field
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(4), 1194-1226; doi:10.3390/jmse3041194
Received: 9 June 2015 / Accepted: 21 September 2015 / Published: 14 October 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1373 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effect of an ionospheric dynamo electric field on the electron density and total electron content (TEC) perturbations in the F layer (150–600 km altitudes) is investigated at two arbitrarily selected locations (noted as 29° N and 60° N in latitudes) in [...] Read more.
The effect of an ionospheric dynamo electric field on the electron density and total electron content (TEC) perturbations in the F layer (150–600 km altitudes) is investigated at two arbitrarily selected locations (noted as 29° N and 60° N in latitudes) in the presence of seismic tsunami-excited gravity waves propagating in a stratified, nondissipative atmosphere where vertical gradients of atmospheric properties are taken into consideration. Generalized ion momentum and continuity equations are solved, followed by an analysis of the dynamo electric field (E). The E -strength is within several mV/m, determined by the zonal neutral wind and meridional geomagnetic field. It is found that, at the mid-latitude location, n0 e is dominated by the atmospheric meridional wind when E = 0, while it is determined by the zonal wind when E ≠ 0. The perturbed TEC over its unperturbed magnitude lies in around 10% at all altitudes for E = 0, while it keeps the same percentage at most altitudes for E ≠ 0, except a jump to >25% in the F2-peak layer (300–340 km in height). By contrast, at the low-latitude location, the TEC jump is eliminated by the locally enhanced background electron density. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tsunami Science and Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Tsunamigenic Earthquakes at Along-dip Double Segmentation and Along-strike Single Segmentation near Japan
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(4), 1178-1193; doi:10.3390/jmse3041178
Received: 7 September 2015 / Accepted: 18 September 2015 / Published: 29 September 2015
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Abstract
A distinct difference of the earthquake activity in megathrust subduction zones is pointed out, concerning seismic segmentations in the vicinity of Japan—that is, the apparent distribution of earthquake hypocenters characterized by Along-dip Double Segmentation (ADDS) and Along-strike Single Segmentation (ASSS). ADDS is [...] Read more.
A distinct difference of the earthquake activity in megathrust subduction zones is pointed out, concerning seismic segmentations in the vicinity of Japan—that is, the apparent distribution of earthquake hypocenters characterized by Along-dip Double Segmentation (ADDS) and Along-strike Single Segmentation (ASSS). ADDS is double aligned seismic-segmentation of trench-ward seismic segments along the Japan Trench and island-ward seismic segments along the Pacific coast of the Japan Islands. The 2011 Tohoku-oki megathrust earthquake of Mw9.0 occurred in ADDS. In the meantime, the subduction zone along the Nankai Trough, the western part of Japan, is the source region of a multiple rupture of seismic segments by the 1707 Houei earthquake, the greatest earthquake in the history of Japan. This subduction zone is narrow under the Japan Islands, which is composed of single aligned seismic-segmentation side by side along the Nankai Trough, which is typical of ASSS. Looking at the world seismicity, the 1960 and 2010 Chile megathrusts, for example, occurred in ASSS, whereas the 1952 Kamchatka and the 1964 Alaska megathrusts occurred in ADDS. These megathrusts in ADDS result from the rupture of strong asperity in the trench-ward seismic segments. Since the asperity of earthquakes in ASSS is concentrated in the shallow part of subduction zones and the asperity of frequent earthquakes in ADDS is in deeper parts of the island-ward seismic segments than those of ASSS, there must be a difference in tsunami excitations due to earthquakes in ADDS and ASSS. An analysis was made in detail of tsunami and seismic excitations of earthquakes in the vicinity of Japan. Tsunami heights of ASSS earthquakes are about two times larger than those of ADDS earthquakes with the same value of seismic moment. The reason for this different tsunami excitation is also considered in relation to the seismic segmentations of ADDS and ASSS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tsunami Science and Engineering)
Open AccessArticle The Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment of Urban Environments through Freely Available Datasets: The Case Study of Napoli City (Southern Italy)
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(3), 981-1005; doi:10.3390/jmse3030981
Received: 19 June 2015 / Accepted: 24 August 2015 / Published: 1 September 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (10956 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The analysis of tsunami catalogues and of data published on the NOAA web site pointed out that in the Mediterranean basin, from 2000 B.C. to present, about 480 tsunamis occurred, of which at least a third involved the Italian peninsula. Within this [...] Read more.
The analysis of tsunami catalogues and of data published on the NOAA web site pointed out that in the Mediterranean basin, from 2000 B.C. to present, about 480 tsunamis occurred, of which at least a third involved the Italian peninsula. Within this framework, a GIS-aided procedure that takes advantage of spatial analysis to apply the Papathoma Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment model of urban environments is presented, with the main purpose of assessing the vulnerability of wide areas at spatial resolution of the census district. The method was applied to the sector of Napoli city enclosed between Posillipo Hill and the Somma-Vesuvio volcano because of the high population rates (apex value of 5000 inh/km2) and potential occurrence of hazardous events such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and mass failures that can trigger tsunamis. The vulnerability status of the urban environment was depicted on a map. About 21% of the possibly inundated area, corresponding with the lowlands along the shoreline, shows a very high tsunami vulnerability. High vulnerability characterizes 26% of inundable zones while medium-low vulnerability typifies a wide area of the Sebeto-Volla plain, ca 800 m away from the shoreline. This map represents a good tool to plan the actions aimed at reducing risk and promoting resilience of the territory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tsunami Science and Engineering)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Long Wave Flow Interaction with a Single Square Structure on a Sloping Beach
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(3), 821-844; doi:10.3390/jmse3030821
Received: 21 June 2015 / Accepted: 29 July 2015 / Published: 5 August 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (11996 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the context of dam breaks, tsunami, and flash floods, it is paramount to quantify the time-history of forces by the rapidly transient flow to vertical structures and the characteristics of the induced flow patterns. To resemble on-land tsunami-induced flow, a free-surface-piercing [...] Read more.
In the context of dam breaks, tsunami, and flash floods, it is paramount to quantify the time-history of forces by the rapidly transient flow to vertical structures and the characteristics of the induced flow patterns. To resemble on-land tsunami-induced flow, a free-surface-piercing structure is exposed to long leading depression waves in a tsunami flume where long waves run up and down a 1:40 smooth and impermeable sloping beach after its generation by a volume-driven wave maker. The structure and its surrounding were monitored with force transducers, pressure gauges and cameras. Preparatory steady-state experiments were accomplished to determine the drag force coefficient of the square cylinder at various water depths. The flow during wave run-up and draw-down acting on the structure resulted in distinct flow pattern which were characteristic for the type of flow-structure interaction. Besides bow wave propagating upstream, a standing or partially-standing wave was observed in front of the structure together with a wake formation downstream, while a von Kármán vortex street developed during the deceleration phase of the flow motion and during draw-down. Force measurements indicated a sudden increase in the stream-wise total force starting with the arrival of the flow front during initial run-up. Lateral velocities showed significant oscillations in correlation with the von Kármán vortex street development. A comparison of the total measured base force with the analytically-calculated share of the drag force revealed that forces were prevailingly drag-dominated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tsunami Science and Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle A Numerical Modelling Study on the Potential Role of Tsunamis in the Biblical Exodus
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(3), 745-771; doi:10.3390/jmse3030745
Received: 1 June 2015 / Accepted: 13 July 2015 / Published: 28 July 2015
PDF Full-text (1573 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The reliability of the narrative of the Biblical Exodus has been subject of heated debate for decades. Recent archaeological studies seem to provide new insight of the exodus path, and although with a still controversial chronology, the effects of the Minoan Santorini [...] Read more.
The reliability of the narrative of the Biblical Exodus has been subject of heated debate for decades. Recent archaeological studies seem to provide new insight of the exodus path, and although with a still controversial chronology, the effects of the Minoan Santorini eruption have been proposed as a likely explanation of the biblical plagues. Particularly, it has been suggested that flooding by the associated tsunamis could explain the first plague and the sea parting. Recent modelling studies have shown that Santorini’s tsunami effects were negligible in the eastern Nile Delta, but the released tectonic stress could have triggered local tsunamigenic sources in sequence. This paper is aimed to a quantitative assessment of the potential role of tsunamis in the biblical parting of the sea. Several “best case” scenarios are tested through the application of a numerical model for tsunami propagation that has been previously validated. The former paleogeographic conditions of the eastern Nile Delta have been implemented based upon recent geological studies; and several feasible local sources for tsunamis are proposed. Tsunamis triggered by submarine landslides of 10–30 km3 could have severely impacted the northern Sinai and southern Levantine coasts but with weak effects in the eastern Nile Delta coastline. The lack of noticeable flooding in this area under the most favorable conditions for tsunamis, along with the time sequence of water elevations, make difficult to accept them as a plausible and literally explanation of the first plague and of the drowning of the Egyptian army in the surroundings of the former Shi-Hor Lagoon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tsunami Science and Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Impulse Wave Generation: Comparison of Free Granular with Mesh-Packed Slides
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(1), 100-110; doi:10.3390/jmse3010100
Received: 14 October 2014 / Accepted: 12 February 2015 / Published: 4 March 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1586 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Slides generating impulse waves are currently generated using either block models or free granular material impacting a water body. These procedures were mainly developed to study plane impulse waves, i.e., wave generation in a rectangular channel. The current VAW, ETH Zurich, [...] Read more.
Slides generating impulse waves are currently generated using either block models or free granular material impacting a water body. These procedures were mainly developed to study plane impulse waves, i.e., wave generation in a rectangular channel. The current VAW, ETH Zurich, research is directed to the spatial impulse wave features, i.e., waves propagating in a wave basin. The two wave generation mechanisms mentioned above complicate this process for various reasons, including experimental handling, collection of slide material in the wave basin, poor representation of prototype conditions for the block model, and excessive temporal duration for free granular slides. Impulse waves originating from slides with free granular material and mesh-packed slides are compared in this paper. Detailed test series are presented, so that the resulting main wave features can be compared. The results highlight whether the simplified procedure involving mesh-packed slides really applies in future research, and specify advantages in terms of impulse wave experimentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tsunami Science and Engineering)
Open AccessArticle A Methodology for a Comprehensive Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment: Multiple Sources and Short-Term Interactions
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(1), 23-51; doi:10.3390/jmse3010023
Received: 22 August 2014 / Accepted: 18 December 2014 / Published: 15 January 2015
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Abstract
We propose a methodological approach for a comprehensive and total probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (TotPTHA), in which many different possible source types concur to the definition of the total tsunami hazard at given target sites. In a multi-hazard and multi-risk [...] Read more.
We propose a methodological approach for a comprehensive and total probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (TotPTHA), in which many different possible source types concur to the definition of the total tsunami hazard at given target sites. In a multi-hazard and multi-risk perspective, the approach allows us to consider all possible tsunamigenic sources (seismic events, slides, volcanic eruptions, asteroids, etc.). In this respect, we also formally introduce and discuss the treatment of interaction/cascade effects in the TotPTHA analysis and we demonstrate how the triggering events may induce significant temporary variations in short-term analysis of the tsunami hazard. In two target sites (the city of Naples and the island of Ischia in Italy) we prove the feasibility of the TotPTHA methodology in the multi—source case considering near submarine seismic sources and submarine mass failures in the study area. The TotPTHA indicated that the tsunami hazard increases significantly by considering both the potential submarine mass failures and the submarine seismic events. Finally, the importance of the source interactions is evaluated by applying a triggering seismic event that causes relevant changes in the short-term TotPTHA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tsunami Science and Engineering)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview A Universal Parameter to Predict Subaerial Landslide Tsunamis?
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2(2), 400-412; doi:10.3390/jmse2020400
Received: 18 February 2014 / Revised: 11 March 2014 / Accepted: 31 March 2014 / Published: 29 April 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (925 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The significance of the impulse product parameter P is reviewed, which is believed to be the most universal parameter for subaerial landslide tsunami (impulse wave) prediction. This semi-empirical parameter is based on the streamwise slide momentum flux component and it was refined [...] Read more.
The significance of the impulse product parameter P is reviewed, which is believed to be the most universal parameter for subaerial landslide tsunami (impulse wave) prediction. This semi-empirical parameter is based on the streamwise slide momentum flux component and it was refined with a multiple regression laboratory data analysis. Empirical equations based on P allow for a simple prediction of wave features under diverse conditions (landslides and ice masses, granular and block slides, etc.). Analytical evidence reveals that a mass sliding down a hill slope of angle 51.6° results in the highest waves. The wave height “observed” in the 1958 Lituya Bay case was well predicted using P. Other real-world case studies illustrate how efficient empirical equations based on P deliver wave estimates which support hazard assessment. Future applications are hoped to further confirm the applicability of P to cases with more complex water body geometries and bathymetries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tsunami Science and Engineering)

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