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Special Issue "Algal Toxins II, 2017"

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2017

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. John P. Berry

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University (FIU), 354/332 Marine Science, Biscayne Bay Campus, 3000 NE 151st St., North Miami, FL 33181, USA
Website | E-Mail

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Algae are fundamental components of essentially all aquatic, including both marine and freshwater, systems.  Furthermore, both macroalgae (i.e., "seaweeds”) and microalgae—which span several eukaryotic (i.e., protist) and prokaryotic (i.e., cyanobacteria) taxa—are recognized producers of a myriad of bioactive metabolites of growing interest as both potential environmental toxins, and alternatively potential leads to novel drugs.  In this regard, bioactive compounds from algae arguably represent “two sides of a coin” whereby understanding their potential as toxins is closely linked, in turn, with understanding their biomedical potential, particularly in relation to possible leads to drugs or related applications. As such, this Special Issue will focus on algal “toxins,” and more generally bioactive metabolites, including interrelated aspects of (1) discovery of new toxic or otherwise bioactive metabolites; (2) innovative toxicological and/or pharmacological approaches to characterize biological activity; (3) advancements in our understanding of the biosynthesis of algal toxins; and (4) development and/or innovative application of analytical techniques aimed at evaluating the contribution of these bioactive molecules as toxins.

Prof. Dr. John P. Berry
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Marine Drugs is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle The Abundance of Toxic Genotypes Is a Key Contributor to Anatoxin Variability in Phormidium-Dominated Benthic Mats
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(10), 307; doi:10.3390/md15100307
Received: 29 August 2017 / Revised: 10 September 2017 / Accepted: 4 October 2017 / Published: 11 October 2017
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Abstract
The prevalence of benthic proliferations of the anatoxin-producing cyanobacterium Phormidium are increasing in cobble-bed rivers worldwide. Studies to date have shown high spatial and temporal variability in anatoxin concentrations among mats. In this study we determined anatoxin quotas (toxins per cell) in field
[...] Read more.
The prevalence of benthic proliferations of the anatoxin-producing cyanobacterium Phormidium are increasing in cobble-bed rivers worldwide. Studies to date have shown high spatial and temporal variability in anatoxin concentrations among mats. In this study we determined anatoxin quotas (toxins per cell) in field samples and compared these results to the conventionally-used concentrations (assessed per dry weight of mat). Three mats were selected at sites in two rivers and were sampled every 2–3 h for 24–26 h. The samples were lyophilized and ground to a fine homogenous powder. Two aliquots of known weights were analyzed for anatoxin congeners using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, or digital droplet PCR with Phormidium-specific anaC primers to measure absolute quantities of gene copies. Anatoxin concentrations in the mats varied 59- and 303-fold in the two rivers over the study periods. A similar pattern was observed among gene copies (53- and 2828-fold). When converted to anatoxin quotas there was markedly less variability (42- and 16-fold), but significantly higher anatoxin quotas were observed in mats from the second river (p < 0.001, Student’s t-test). There were no obvious temporal patterns with high and low anatoxin concentrations or quotas measured at each sampling time and across the study period. These results demonstrate that variability in anatoxin concentrations among mats is primarily due to the abundance of toxic genotypes. No consistent modulation in anatoxin production was observed during the study, although significant differences in anatoxin quotas among rivers suggest that site-specific physiochemical or biological factors may influence anatoxin production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algal Toxins II, 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Accumulation of Microcystin (LR, RR and YR) in Three Freshwater Bivalves in Microcystis aeruginosa Bloom Using Dual Isotope Tracer
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(7), 226; doi:10.3390/md15070226
Received: 26 March 2017 / Revised: 3 July 2017 / Accepted: 10 July 2017 / Published: 17 July 2017
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Abstract
Abstract: Stable isotope tracers were first applied to evaluate the Microcystis cell assimilation efficiency of Sinanodonta bivalves, since the past identification method has been limited to tracking the changes of each chl-a, clearity, and nutrient. The toxicity profile and accumulation
[...] Read more.
Abstract: Stable isotope tracers were first applied to evaluate the Microcystis cell assimilation efficiency of Sinanodonta bivalves, since the past identification method has been limited to tracking the changes of each chl-a, clearity, and nutrient. The toxicity profile and accumulation of MC-LR, -RR and -YR in different organs (foot and digestive organs) from the three filter-feeders (Sinanodonta woodina, Sinanodonta arcaeformis, and Unio douglasiae) were assessed under the condition of toxigenic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa) blooms through an in situ pond experiment using 13C and 15N dual isotope tracers. Chl-a concentration in the manipulated pond was dramatically decreased after the beginning of the second day, ranging from 217.5 to 15.6 μg·L−1. The highest amount of MCs was incorporated into muscle and gland tissues in U. douglasiae during the study period, at nearly 2 or 3 times higher than in S.woodiana and S. arcaeformis. In addition, the incorporated 13C and 15N atom % in the U. douglasiae bivalve showed lower values than in other bivalves. The results demonstrate that U. douglasiae has less capacity to assimilate toxic cyanobacteria derived from diet. However, the incorporated 13C and 15N atom % of S. arcaeformis showed a larger feeding capacity than U. douglasiae and S. wodiana. Our results therefore also indicate that S. arcaeformis can eliminate the toxin more rapidly than U. douglasiae, having a larger detoxification capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algal Toxins II, 2017)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Toxicity at the Edge of Life: A Review on Cyanobacterial Toxins from Extreme Environments
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(7), 233; doi:10.3390/md15070233
Received: 12 June 2017 / Revised: 6 July 2017 / Accepted: 16 July 2017 / Published: 24 July 2017
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Abstract
Cyanotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by cyanobacteria, of varied chemical nature and toxic effects. Although cyanobacteria thrive in all kinds of ecosystems on Earth even under very harsh conditions, current knowledge on cyanotoxin distribution is almost restricted to freshwaters from temperate latitudes. In
[...] Read more.
Cyanotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by cyanobacteria, of varied chemical nature and toxic effects. Although cyanobacteria thrive in all kinds of ecosystems on Earth even under very harsh conditions, current knowledge on cyanotoxin distribution is almost restricted to freshwaters from temperate latitudes. In this review, we bring to the forefront the presence of cyanotoxins in extreme environments. Cyanotoxins have been reported especially in polar deserts (both from the Arctic and Antarctica) and alkaline lakes, but also in hot deserts, hypersaline environments, and hot springs. Cyanotoxins detected in these ecosystems include neurotoxins—anatoxin-a, anatoxin-a (S), paralytic shellfish toxins, β-methylaminopropionic acid, N-(2-aminoethyl) glycine and 2,4-diaminobutyric acid- and hepatotoxins –cylindrospermopsins, microcystins and nodularins—with microcystins being the most frequently reported. Toxin production there has been linked to at least eleven cyanobacterial genera yet only three of these (Arthrospira, Synechococcus and Oscillatoria) have been confirmed as producers in culture. Beyond a comprehensive analysis of cyanotoxin presence in each of the extreme environments, this review also identifies the main knowledge gaps to overcome (e.g., scarcity of isolates and –omics data, among others) toward an initial assessment of ecological and human health risks in these amazing ecosystems developing at the very edge of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algal Toxins II, 2017)

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