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Special Issue "Marine Carotenoids and Oxidative Stress"

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A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Graziano Riccioni

Studio Medico Polispecialistico, Via Magenta 106, San Severo, 71016 Foggia, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +39 882227022
Interests: atherosclerosis; statins; ivabradine; ischemic cardiac disease; antioxidants; endothelial dyfunction and metabolities; carotenoids

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Oxidative stress (OS) induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays an important role in the aetiology of many diseases. Dietary phytochemical products such bioactive food components (alpha- and beta-carotene) and marine carotenoids (asthaxantin, lutein, β-carotene, fucoxanthin) have shown an antioxidant effect in reducing both oxidative markers stress. Scientifical evidences support the beneficial roles of phytochemicals in the prevention of some chronic diseases. Many carotenoids with great antioxidant properties have shown both in epidemiological studies and supplementation human trials a reduction of disease risk. However, controlled clinical trials and dietary intervention studies using well-defined subjects population haven't been provided a clear evidence of these substances in the prevention of diseases. In this special issue, the most important aspects will regard the synthesis, biological activities, and clinical applications of these carotenoids.

Dr. Graziano Riccioni
Guest Edito

Keywords

  • oxidative stress
  • reactive oxygen species
  • oxidation
  • marine carotenoids
  • lycopene
  • lutein
  • astaxanthin
  • zeaxanthin
  • β-carotene
  • fucoxanthin

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Marine Carotenoids and Oxidative Stress
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(1), 116-118; doi:10.3390/md10010116
Received: 6 January 2012 / Accepted: 11 January 2012 / Published: 16 January 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (133 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species plays an important role in the etiology of many diseases. Dietary phytochemical products, such as bioactive food components and marine carotenoids (asthaxantin, lutein, β-carotene, fucoxanthin), have shown an antioxidant effect in reducing oxidative markers stress. Scientific
[...] Read more.
Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species plays an important role in the etiology of many diseases. Dietary phytochemical products, such as bioactive food components and marine carotenoids (asthaxantin, lutein, β-carotene, fucoxanthin), have shown an antioxidant effect in reducing oxidative markers stress. Scientific evidence supports the beneficial role of phytochemicals in the prevention of some chronic diseases. Many carotenoids with high antioxidant properties have shown a reduction in disease risk both in epidemiological studies and supplementation human trials. However, controlled clinical trials and dietary intervention studies using well-defined subjects population have not provided clear evidence of these substances in the prevention of diseases. The most important aspects of this special issue will cover the synthesis, biological activities, and clinical applications of marine carotenoids, with particular attention to recent evidence regarding anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids and Oxidative Stress)

Research

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Open AccessArticle Effect of Solvent System on Extractability of Lipidic Components of Scenedesmus obliquus (M2-1) and Gloeothece sp. on Antioxidant Scavenging Capacity Thereof
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(10), 6453-6471; doi:10.3390/md13106453
Received: 20 July 2015 / Revised: 3 September 2015 / Accepted: 18 September 2015 / Published: 20 October 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (312 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microalgae are well known for their biotechnological potential, namely with regard to bioactive lipidic components—especially carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), well-known for therapeutic applications based on their antioxidant capacity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of four distinct
[...] Read more.
Microalgae are well known for their biotechnological potential, namely with regard to bioactive lipidic components—especially carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), well-known for therapeutic applications based on their antioxidant capacity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of four distinct food-grade solvents upon extractability of specific lipidic components, and on the antioxidant capacity exhibited against both synthetic (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS+•)) and biological reactive species (O2- and NO-). A eukaryotic microalga (Scenedesmus obliquus (M2-1)) and a prokaryotic one (Gloeothece sp.) were used as case studies. Concerning total antioxidant capacity, the hexane:isopropanol (3:2) and acetone extracts of Sc. obliquus (M2-1) were the most effective against DPPH and ABTS+•, respectively. Gloeothece sp. ethanol extracts were the most interesting scavengers of O2-, probably due the high content of linolenic acid. On the other hand, acetone and hexane:isopropanol (3:2) extracts were the most interesting ones in NO- assay. Acetone extract exhibited the best results for the ABTS assay, likely associated to its content of carotenoids, in both microalgae. Otherwise, ethanol stood out in PUFA extraction. Therefore, profiles of lipidic components extracted are critical for evaluating the antioxidant performance—which appears to hinge, in particular, on the balance between carotenoids and PUFAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids and Oxidative Stress)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Photo-Oxidative Stress-Driven Mutagenesis and Adaptive Evolution on the Marine Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum for Enhanced Carotenoid Accumulation
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(10), 6138-6151; doi:10.3390/md13106138
Received: 19 August 2015 / Revised: 12 September 2015 / Accepted: 15 September 2015 / Published: 29 September 2015
PDF Full-text (883 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Marine diatoms have recently gained much attention as they are expected to be a promising resource for sustainable production of bioactive compounds such as carotenoids and biofuels as a future clean energy solution. To develop photosynthetic cell factories, it is important to improve
[...] Read more.
Marine diatoms have recently gained much attention as they are expected to be a promising resource for sustainable production of bioactive compounds such as carotenoids and biofuels as a future clean energy solution. To develop photosynthetic cell factories, it is important to improve diatoms for value-added products. In this study, we utilized UVC radiation to induce mutations in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum and screened strains with enhanced accumulation of neutral lipids and carotenoids. Adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) was also used in parallel to develop altered phenotypic and biological functions in P. tricornutum and it was reported for the first time that ALE was successfully applied on diatoms for the enhancement of growth performance and productivity of value-added carotenoids to date. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was utilized to study the composition of major pigments in the wild type P. tricornutum, UV mutants and ALE strains. UVC radiated strains exhibited higher accumulation of fucoxanthin as well as neutral lipids compared to their wild type counterpart. In addition to UV mutagenesis, P. tricornutum strains developed by ALE also yielded enhanced biomass production and fucoxanthin accumulation under combined red and blue light. In short, both UV mutagenesis and ALE appeared as an effective approach to developing desired phenotypes in the marine diatoms via electromagnetic radiation-induced oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids and Oxidative Stress)
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Open AccessArticle Fucoxanthinol, Metabolite of Fucoxanthin, Improves Obesity-Induced Inflammation in Adipocyte Cells
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(8), 4799-4813; doi:10.3390/md13084799
Received: 22 June 2015 / Revised: 13 July 2015 / Accepted: 28 July 2015 / Published: 4 August 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1378 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fucoxanthin (Fx) is a marine carotenoid found in edible brown seaweeds. We previously reported that dietary Fx metabolite into fucoxanthinol (FxOH), attenuates the weight gain of white adipose tissue of diabetic/obese KK-Ay mice. In this study, to evaluate anti-diabetic effects of
[...] Read more.
Fucoxanthin (Fx) is a marine carotenoid found in edible brown seaweeds. We previously reported that dietary Fx metabolite into fucoxanthinol (FxOH), attenuates the weight gain of white adipose tissue of diabetic/obese KK-Ay mice. In this study, to evaluate anti-diabetic effects of Fx, we investigated improving the effect of insulin resistance on the diabetic model of KK-Ay mice. Furthermore, preventing the effect of FxOH on low-grade chronic inflammation related to oxidative stress was evaluated on 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells and a RAW264.7 macrophage cell co-culture system. A diet containing 0.1% Fx was fed to diabetic model KK-Ay mice for three weeks, then glucose tolerance was observed. Fx diet significantly improved glucose tolerance compared with the control diet group.  In in vitro studies, FxOH showed suppressed tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) mRNA expression and protein levels in a co-culture of adipocyte and macrophage cells. These findings suggest that Fx ameliorates glucose tolerance in the diabetic model mice. Furthermore, FxOH, a metabolite of Fx, suppresses low-grade chronic inflammation in adipocyte cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids and Oxidative Stress)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Scavenging Capacity of Marine Carotenoids against Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species in a Membrane-Mimicking System
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(8), 1784-1798; doi:10.3390/md10081784
Received: 5 May 2012 / Revised: 7 July 2012 / Accepted: 25 July 2012 / Published: 20 August 2012
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (445 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Carotenoid intake has been associated with the decrease of the incidence of some chronic diseases by minimizing the in vivo oxidative damages induced by reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS). The carotenoids are well-known singlet oxygen quenchers; however, their capacity to scavenge
[...] Read more.
Carotenoid intake has been associated with the decrease of the incidence of some chronic diseases by minimizing the in vivo oxidative damages induced by reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS). The carotenoids are well-known singlet oxygen quenchers; however, their capacity to scavenge other reactive species, such as peroxyl radical (ROO), hydroxyl radical (HO), hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and anion peroxynitrite (ONOO), still needs to be more extensively studied, especially using membrane-mimicking systems, such as liposomes. Moreover, the identification of carotenoids possessing high antioxidant capacity can lead to new alternatives of drugs or nutritional supplements for prophylaxis or therapy of pathological conditions related to oxidative damages, such as cardiovascular diseases. The capacity to scavenge ROO, HO, HOCl and ONOO of seven carotenoids found in marine organisms was determined in liposomes based on the fluorescence loss of a fluorescent lipid (C11-BODIPY581/591) due to its oxidation by these reactive species. The carotenoid-bearing hydroxyl groups were generally more potent ROS scavengers than the carotenes, whilst β-carotene was the most efficient ONOO scavenger. The role of astaxanthin as an antioxidant should be highlighted, since it was a more potent scavenger of ROO, HOCl and ONOO than α-tocopherol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids and Oxidative Stress)
Open AccessArticle Pigmentation and Spectral Absorbance Signatures in Deep-Water Corals from the Trondheimsfjord, Norway
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(6), 1400-1411; doi:10.3390/md10061400
Received: 3 April 2012 / Revised: 23 May 2012 / Accepted: 13 June 2012 / Published: 20 June 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3118 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The pigmentation and corresponding in vivo and in vitro absorption characteristics in three different deep-water coral species: white and orange Lophelia pertusa, Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis, collected from the Trondheimsfjord are described. Pigments were isolated and characterized by High-Performance Liquid
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The pigmentation and corresponding in vivo and in vitro absorption characteristics in three different deep-water coral species: white and orange Lophelia pertusa, Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis, collected from the Trondheimsfjord are described. Pigments were isolated and characterized by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (LC-TOF MS). The main carotenoids identified for all three coral species were astaxanthin and a canthaxanthin-like carotenoid. Soft tissue and skeleton of orange L. pertusa contained 2 times more astaxanthin g−1 wet weight compared to white L. pertusa. White and orange L. pertusa were characterized with in vivo absorbance peaks at 409 and 473 nm, respectively. In vivo absorbance maxima for P. arborea and P. resedaeformis was typically at 475 nm. The shapes of the absorbance spectra (400–700 nm) were species-specific, indicated by in vivo, in vitro and the corresponding difference spectra. The results may provide important chemotaxonomic information for pigment when bonded to their proteins in vivo, bio-prospecting, and for in situ identification, mapping and monitoring of corals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids and Oxidative Stress)
Open AccessArticle Anti-Oxidative, Anti-Tumor-Promoting, and Anti-Carcinogensis Activities of Nitroastaxanthin and Nitrolutein, the Reaction Products of Astaxanthin and Lutein with Peroxynitrite
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(6), 1391-1399; doi:10.3390/md10061391
Received: 29 March 2012 / Revised: 7 June 2012 / Accepted: 13 June 2012 / Published: 18 June 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (295 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Astaxanthin captured peroxynitrite to form nitroastaxanthins. 15-Nitroastaxanthin was a major reaction product of astaxanthin with peroxynitrite. Here, the anti-oxidative, anti-tumor-promoting, and anti-carcinogensis activities of 15-nitroastaxanthin were investigated. In addition to astaxanthin, 15-nitroastaxanthin showed excellent singlet oxygen quenching activity. Furthermore, 15-nitroastaxanthin showed inhibitory effects
[...] Read more.
Astaxanthin captured peroxynitrite to form nitroastaxanthins. 15-Nitroastaxanthin was a major reaction product of astaxanthin with peroxynitrite. Here, the anti-oxidative, anti-tumor-promoting, and anti-carcinogensis activities of 15-nitroastaxanthin were investigated. In addition to astaxanthin, 15-nitroastaxanthin showed excellent singlet oxygen quenching activity. Furthermore, 15-nitroastaxanthin showed inhibitory effects of in vitro Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation and two-stage carcinogensis on mouse skin papillomas. These activities were slightly higher than those of astaxanthin. Similar results were obtained for the 15-nitrolutein, a major reaction product of lutein with peroxynitrite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids and Oxidative Stress)
Open AccessArticle Dietary Carotenoids Regulate Astaxanthin Content of Copepods and Modulate Their Susceptibility to UV Light and Copper Toxicity
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(5), 998-1018; doi:10.3390/md10050998
Received: 12 March 2012 / Revised: 18 April 2012 / Accepted: 24 April 2012 / Published: 27 April 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (658 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High irradiation and the presence of xenobiotics favor the formation of reactive oxygen species in marine environments. Organisms have developed antioxidant defenses, including the accumulation of carotenoids that must be obtained from the diet. Astaxanthin is the main carotenoid in marine crustaceans where,
[...] Read more.
High irradiation and the presence of xenobiotics favor the formation of reactive oxygen species in marine environments. Organisms have developed antioxidant defenses, including the accumulation of carotenoids that must be obtained from the diet. Astaxanthin is the main carotenoid in marine crustaceans where, among other functions, it scavenges free radicals thus protecting cell compounds against oxidation. Four diets with different carotenoid composition were used to culture the meiobenthic copepod Amphiascoides atopus to assess how its astaxanthin content modulates the response to prooxidant stressors. A. atopus had the highest astaxanthin content when the carotenoid was supplied as astaxanthin esters (i.e., Haematococcus meal). Exposure to short wavelength UV light elicited a 77% to 92% decrease of the astaxanthin content of the copepod depending on the culture diet. The LC50 values of A. atopus exposed to copper were directly related to the initial astaxanthin content. The accumulation of carotenoids may ascribe competitive advantages to certain species in areas subjected to pollution events by attenuating the detrimental effects of metals on survival, and possibly development and fecundity. Conversely, the loss of certain dietary items rich in carotenoids may be responsible for the amplification of the effects of metal exposure in consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids and Oxidative Stress)
Open AccessArticle Astaxanthin Treatment Reduced Oxidative Induced Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Secretion in U937: SHP-1 as a Novel Biological Target
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(4), 890-899; doi:10.3390/md10040890
Received: 7 February 2012 / Revised: 22 March 2012 / Accepted: 1 April 2012 / Published: 10 April 2012
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (352 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It has been suggested that oxidative stress activates various intracellular signaling pathways leading to secretion of a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. SHP-1 is a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) which acts as a negative regulator of immune cytokine signaling. However, intracellular hydrogen
[...] Read more.
It has been suggested that oxidative stress activates various intracellular signaling pathways leading to secretion of a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. SHP-1 is a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) which acts as a negative regulator of immune cytokine signaling. However, intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), generated endogenously upon stimulation and exogenously from environmental oxidants, has been known to be involved in the process of intracellular signaling through inhibiting various PTPs, including SHP-1. In this study, we investigated the potential role of astaxanthin, an antioxidant marine carotenoid, in re-establishing SHP-1 negative regulation on pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion in U-937 cell line stimulated with oxidative stimulus. ELISA measurement suggested that ASTA treatment (10 µM) reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) induced through H2O2, (100 µM). Furthermore, this property is elicited by restoration of basal SHP-1 protein expression level and reduced NF-κB (p65) nuclear expression, as showed by western blotting experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids and Oxidative Stress)
Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Activity of Hawaiian Marine Algae
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(2), 403-416; doi:10.3390/md10020403
Received: 5 December 2011 / Revised: 6 February 2012 / Accepted: 6 February 2012 / Published: 15 February 2012
Cited by 39 | PDF Full-text (683 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Marine algae are known to contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, many of which have commercial applications in pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food and agricultural industries. Natural antioxidants, found in many algae, are important bioactive compounds that play an important role against
[...] Read more.
Marine algae are known to contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, many of which have commercial applications in pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food and agricultural industries. Natural antioxidants, found in many algae, are important bioactive compounds that play an important role against various diseases and ageing processes through protection of cells from oxidative damage. In this respect, relatively little is known about the bioactivity of Hawaiian algae that could be a potential natural source of such antioxidants. The total antioxidant activity of organic extracts of 37 algal samples, comprising of 30 species of Hawaiian algae from 27 different genera was determined. The activity was determined by employing the FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) assays. Of the algae tested, the extract of Turbinaria ornata was found to be the most active. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of a variety of different carotenoids as the active principles. The major bioactive antioxidant compound was identified as the carotenoid fucoxanthin. These results show, for the first time, that numerous Hawaiian algae exhibit significant antioxidant activity, a property that could lead to their application in one of many useful healthcare or related products as well as in chemoprevention of a variety of diseases including cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids and Oxidative Stress)

Review

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Open AccessReview Marine Carotenoids against Oxidative Stress: Effects on Human Health
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(10), 6226-6246; doi:10.3390/md13106226
Received: 29 May 2015 / Revised: 17 September 2015 / Accepted: 22 September 2015 / Published: 30 September 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (395 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carotenoids are lipid-soluble pigments that are produced in some plants, algae, fungi, and bacterial species, which accounts for their orange and yellow hues. Carotenoids are powerful antioxidants thanks to their ability to quench singlet oxygen, to be oxidized, to be isomerized, and to
[...] Read more.
Carotenoids are lipid-soluble pigments that are produced in some plants, algae, fungi, and bacterial species, which accounts for their orange and yellow hues. Carotenoids are powerful antioxidants thanks to their ability to quench singlet oxygen, to be oxidized, to be isomerized, and to scavenge free radicals, which plays a crucial role in the etiology of several diseases. Unusual marine environments are associated with a great chemical diversity, resulting in novel bioactive molecules. Thus, marine organisms may represent an important source of novel biologically active substances for the development of therapeutics. In this respect, various novel marine carotenoids have recently been isolated from marine organisms and displayed several utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Marine carotenoids (astaxanthin, fucoxanthin, β-carotene, lutein but also the rare siphonaxanthin, sioxanthin, and myxol) have recently shown antioxidant properties in reducing oxidative stress markers. This review aims to describe the role of marine carotenoids against oxidative stress and their potential applications in preventing and treating inflammatory diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids and Oxidative Stress)
Open AccessReview Carotenoids from Haloarchaea and Their Potential in Biotechnology
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5508-5532; doi:10.3390/md13095508
Received: 29 June 2015 / Revised: 2 August 2015 / Accepted: 10 August 2015 / Published: 25 August 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2037 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The production of pigments by halophilic archaea has been analysed during the last half a century. The main reasons that sustains this research are: (i) many haloarchaeal species possess high carotenoids production availability; (ii) downstream processes related to carotenoid isolation from haloarchaea is
[...] Read more.
The production of pigments by halophilic archaea has been analysed during the last half a century. The main reasons that sustains this research are: (i) many haloarchaeal species possess high carotenoids production availability; (ii) downstream processes related to carotenoid isolation from haloarchaea is relatively quick, easy and cheap; (iii) carotenoids production by haloarchaea can be improved by genetic modification or even by modifying several cultivation aspects such as nutrition, growth pH, temperature, etc.; (iv) carotenoids are needed to support plant and animal life and human well-being; and (v) carotenoids are compounds highly demanded by pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food markets. Several studies about carotenoid production by haloarchaea have been reported so far, most of them focused on pigments isolation or carotenoids production under different culture conditions. However, the understanding of carotenoid metabolism, regulation, and roles of carotenoid derivatives in this group of extreme microorganisms remains mostly unrevealed. The uses of those haloarchaeal pigments have also been poorly explored. This work summarises what has been described so far about carotenoids production by haloarchaea and their potential uses in biotechnology and biomedicine. In particular, new scientific evidence of improved carotenoid production by one of the better known haloarchaeon (Haloferax mediterranei) is also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids and Oxidative Stress)
Open AccessReview Fucoxanthin and Its Metabolite Fucoxanthinol in Cancer Prevention and Treatment
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(8), 4784-4798; doi:10.3390/md13084784
Received: 4 June 2015 / Revised: 25 June 2015 / Accepted: 27 July 2015 / Published: 31 July 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (456 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fucoxanthin is a carotenoid present in the chloroplasts of brown seaweeds. When ingested, it is metabolized mainly to fucoxanthinol by digestive enzymes of the gastrointestinal tract. These compounds have been shown to have many beneficial health effects, including anti-mutagenic, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory and
[...] Read more.
Fucoxanthin is a carotenoid present in the chloroplasts of brown seaweeds. When ingested, it is metabolized mainly to fucoxanthinol by digestive enzymes of the gastrointestinal tract. These compounds have been shown to have many beneficial health effects, including anti-mutagenic, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory and anti-neoplastic actions. In every cancer tested, modulatory actions of fucoxanthinol on viability, cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis and members of the NF-κB pathway were more pronounced than that of fucoxanthin. Anti-proliferative and cancer preventing influences of fucoxanthin and fucoxanthinol are mediated through different signalling pathways, including the caspases, Bcl-2 proteins, MAPK, PI3K/Akt, JAK/STAT, AP-1, GADD45, and several other molecules that are involved in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, anti-angiogenesis or inhibition of metastasis. In this review, we address the mechanisms of action of fucoxanthin and fucoxanthinol according to different types of cancers. Current findings suggest that these compounds could be effective for treatment and/or prevention of cancer development and aggressiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids and Oxidative Stress)
Open AccessReview Multiple Mechanisms of Anti-Cancer Effects Exerted by Astaxanthin
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(7), 4310-4330; doi:10.3390/md13074310
Received: 21 May 2015 / Revised: 6 July 2015 / Accepted: 7 July 2015 / Published: 14 July 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (547 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Astaxanthin (ATX) is a xanthophyll carotenoid which has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) as food colorant in animal and fish feed. It is widely found in algae and aquatic animals and has powerful anti-oxidative activity. Previous studies
[...] Read more.
Astaxanthin (ATX) is a xanthophyll carotenoid which has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) as food colorant in animal and fish feed. It is widely found in algae and aquatic animals and has powerful anti-oxidative activity. Previous studies have revealed that ATX, with its anti-oxidative property, is beneficial as a therapeutic agent for various diseases without any side effects or toxicity. In addition, ATX also shows preclinical anti-tumor efficacy both in vivo and in vitro in various cancer models. Several researches have deciphered that ATX exerts its anti-proliferative, anti-apoptosis and anti-invasion influence via different molecules and pathways including signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Hence, ATX shows great promise as chemotherapeutic agents in cancer. Here, we review the rapidly advancing field of ATX in cancer therapy as well as some molecular targets of ATX. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids and Oxidative Stress)
Open AccessReview Marine Bioactives: Pharmacological Properties and Potential Applications against Inflammatory Diseases
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(4), 812-833; doi:10.3390/md10040812
Received: 13 February 2012 / Revised: 15 March 2012 / Accepted: 23 March 2012 / Published: 5 April 2012
Cited by 47 | PDF Full-text (235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Inflammation is a hot topic in medical research, because it plays a key role in inflammatory diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other forms of arthritis, diabetes, heart diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, allergies, asthma, even cancer and many others. Over
[...] Read more.
Inflammation is a hot topic in medical research, because it plays a key role in inflammatory diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other forms of arthritis, diabetes, heart diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, allergies, asthma, even cancer and many others. Over the past few decades, it was realized that the process of inflammation is virtually the same in different disorders, and a better understanding of inflammation may lead to better treatments for numerous diseases. Inflammation is the activation of the immune system in response to infection, irritation, or injury, with an influx of white blood cells, redness, heat, swelling, pain, and dysfunction of the organs involved. Although the pathophysiological basis of these conditions is not yet fully understood, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have often been implicated in their pathogenesis. In fact, in inflammatory diseases the antioxidant defense system is compromised, as evidenced by increased markers of oxidative stress, and decreased levels of protective antioxidant enzymes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). An enriched diet containing antioxidants, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, β-carotene and phenolic substances, has been suggested to improve symptoms by reducing disease-related oxidative stress. In this respect, the marine world represents a largely untapped reserve of bioactive ingredients, and considerable potential exists for exploitation of these bioactives as functional food ingredients. Substances such as n-3 oils, carotenoids, vitamins, minerals and peptides provide a myriad of health benefits, including reduction of cardiovascular diseases, anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory activities. New marine bioactives are recently gaining attention, since they could be helpful in combating chronic inflammatory degenerative conditions. The aim of this review is to examine the published studies concerning the potential pharmacological properties and application of many marine bioactives against inflammatory diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids and Oxidative Stress)
Open AccessReview Fucoxantin: A Treasure from the Sea
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(3), 604-616; doi:10.3390/md10030604
Received: 29 December 2011 / Revised: 21 February 2012 / Accepted: 27 February 2012 / Published: 7 March 2012
Cited by 68 | PDF Full-text (183 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 2.3 billion people will be overweight and 700 million obese in 2015. The reasons for this disastrous trend are attributed to the global tendency toward the reduced magnitude of exercise and physical activity and the increased
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The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 2.3 billion people will be overweight and 700 million obese in 2015. The reasons for this disastrous trend are attributed to the global tendency toward the reduced magnitude of exercise and physical activity and the increased dietary intake of fats, sugars and calories with reduced amount of vitamins and minerals. To prevent life-style-related diseases, like Metabolic Syndrome (MS), researchers’ attention is increasingly focusing on some of the so called “functional foods” which may be useful for their prevention and treatment. One of these functional ingredients is fucoxanthin (FX), a characteristic carotenoid present in edible brown seaweeds, such as Undaria pinnatifida (Wakame), Hijikia fusiformis (Hijiki), Laminaria japonica (Ma-Kombu) and Sargassum fulvellum. The increasing popularity of this molecule is certainly due to its anti-obesity effect, primarily detected by murine studies. These works revealed FX mediated induction of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) in abdominal white adipose tissue (WAT) mitochondria, leading to the oxidation of fatty acids and heat production in WAT. Beyond this important role, in recent studies FX has shown a great antioxidant activity, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic and anti-photoaging properties. The aim of this review is to highlight the main effects of FX on human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids and Oxidative Stress)

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