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Special Issue "Marine Bioactive Compounds Acting on Animal Reproduction"

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A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2009)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Elisabetta Tosti

Department of Biology and Evolution of Marine Organisms, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, 8012, Naples, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +39 081 5833288
Fax: +39 081 7641355
Interests: marine animals; reproduction; fertilization; ion currents; environmental stress

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Reproduction is a step by step process that starts at the production of gametes (gametogenesis), proceeds with their activation and interaction (fertilization) and virtually ends when full embryo development leads to the formation of a new adult individual. Electrical, morphological and biochemical modifications occurring through all the steps of the reproductive process involve ion channels activity, calcium release and oscillations, molecules, metabolites and messengers of different natures. Although it is known that marine-derived bioactive substances act on a series of biological processes, little is known on marine drugs affecting specific reproductive molecular dynamics. On the contrary, many information are available on marine natural products whose target molecules play a key role in the main steps of gametogenesis, fertilization and embryo development. The aim of this special issue is to report respectively i) the recognized impact of marine drugs of different origin on the reproductive process in animals; ii) their potential but unexplored role on the molecular mechanisms involved in the animal reproduction.

Elisabetta Tosti, Ph. D.
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • animal reproduction
  • gametes maturation
  • fertilization
  • gametes activation
  • embryo development
  • marine animal health/reproduction
  • environmental risk
  • marine natural products

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Fucoidan from Marine Brown Algae Inhibits Lipid Accumulation
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(8), 1359-1367; doi:10.3390/md9081359
Received: 6 July 2011 / Revised: 2 August 2011 / Accepted: 3 August 2011 / Published: 10 August 2011
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (360 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we elucidated the inhibitory effect of fucoidan from marine brown algae on the lipid accumulation in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and its mechanism. The treatment of fucoidan in a dose-dependent manner was examined on lipid inhibition in 3T3-L1 cells by using
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In this study, we elucidated the inhibitory effect of fucoidan from marine brown algae on the lipid accumulation in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and its mechanism. The treatment of fucoidan in a dose-dependent manner was examined on lipid inhibition in 3T3-L1 cells by using Oil Red O staining. Fucoidan showed high lipid inhibition activity at 200 µg/mL concentration (P < 0.001). Lipolytic activity in adipocytes is highly dependent on hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), which is one of the most important targets of lipolytic regulation. Here, we examined the biological response of fucoidan on the protein level of lipolysis pathway. The expressed protein levels of total hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and its activated form, phosphorylated-HSL were significantly increased at concentration of 200 µg/mL fucoidan. Furthermore, insulin-induced 2-deoxy-D-[3H] glucose uptake was decreased up to 51% in fucoidan-treated cells as compared to control. Since increase of HSL and p-HSL expression and decrease of glucose uptake into adipocytes are known to lead to stimulation of lipolysis, our results suggest that fucoidan reduces lipid accumulation by stimulating lipolysis. Therefore, these results suggest that fucoidan can be useful for the prevention or treatment of obesity due to its stimulatory lipolysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Bioactive Compounds Acting on Animal Reproduction)
Open AccessArticle Teratogenic Effects of Diatom Metabolites on Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus Embryos
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(4), 950-967; doi:10.3390/md8040950
Received: 24 February 2010 / Revised: 6 March 2010 / Accepted: 24 March 2010 / Published: 30 March 2010
Cited by 33 | PDF Full-text (440 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The diatom-derived polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs), 2-trans,4-trans-decadienal, 2-trans,4-trans-octadienal, 2-trans,4-trans,7-octatrienal, 2-trans,4-trans-heptadienal, as well as tridecanal were tested on early and later larval development in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus
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The diatom-derived polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs), 2-trans,4-trans-decadienal, 2-trans,4-trans-octadienal, 2-trans,4-trans,7-octatrienal, 2-trans,4-trans-heptadienal, as well as tridecanal were tested on early and later larval development in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. We also tested the effect of some of the more abundant diatom polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on development, in particular 5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), one of the main precursors of diatom PUAs, as well as 4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 6,9,12,15-octadecatetraenoic acid (stearidonic acid), 6,9,12-octadecatrienoic acid (γ-linolenic acid) and 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (linoleic acid). PUAs blocked sea urchin cell cleavage in a dose dependent manner and with increasing chain length from C7 to C10 PUAs, with arrest occurring at 27.27 µM with heptadienal, 16.13 µM with octadienal, 11.47 µM with octatrienal and 5.26 mM with decadienal. Of the PUFAs tested, only EPA and stearidonic acid blocked cleavage, but at much higher concentrations compared to PUAs (331 μM for EPA and 181 μM for stearidonic acid). Sub-lethal concentrations of decadienal (1.32–5.26 μM) delayed development of embryos and larvae which showed various degrees of malformations depending on the concentrations tested. Sub-lethal concentrations also increased the proportion of TUNEL-positive cells indicating imminent death in embryos and larvae. Using decadienal as a model PUA, we show that this aldehyde can be detected spectrophotometrically for up to 14 days in f/2 medium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Bioactive Compounds Acting on Animal Reproduction)
Open AccessArticle Primary Screening of the Bioactivity of Brackishwater Cyanobacteria: Toxicity of Crude Extracts to Artemia salina Larvae and Paracentrotus lividus Embryos
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(3), 471-482; doi:10.3390/md8030471
Received: 30 December 2009 / Revised: 18 February 2010 / Accepted: 3 March 2010 / Published: 5 March 2010
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (343 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of Gram-negative bacteria that produce an array of secondary compounds with selective bioactivity against vertebrates, invertebrates, plants, microalgae, fungi, bacteria, viruses and cell lines. The aim of this study was to assess the toxic effects of aqueous, methanolic
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Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of Gram-negative bacteria that produce an array of secondary compounds with selective bioactivity against vertebrates, invertebrates, plants, microalgae, fungi, bacteria, viruses and cell lines. The aim of this study was to assess the toxic effects of aqueous, methanolic and hexane crude extracts of benthic and picoplanktonic cyanobacteria isolated from estuarine environments, towards the nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina and embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. The A. salina lethality test was used as a frontline screen and then complemented by the more specific sea urchin embryo-larval assay. Eighteen cyanobacterial isolates, belonging to the genera Cyanobium, Leptolyngbya, Microcoleus, Phormidium, Nodularia, Nostoc and Synechocystis, were tested. Aqueous extracts of cyanobacteria strains showed potent toxicity against A. salina, whereas in P. lividus, methanolic and aqueous extracts showed embryo toxicity, with clear effects on development during early stages. The results suggest that the brackishwater cyanobacteria are producers of bioactive compounds with toxicological effects that may interfere with the dynamics of invertebrate populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Bioactive Compounds Acting on Animal Reproduction)

Review

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Open AccessReview Impact of Marine Drugs on Cytoskeleton-Mediated Reproductive Events
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(4), 881-915; doi:10.3390/md8040881
Received: 16 February 2010 / Revised: 2 March 2010 / Accepted: 23 March 2010 / Published: 25 March 2010
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (254 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Marine organisms represent an important source of novel bioactive compounds, often showing unique modes of action. Such drugs may be useful tools to study complex processes such as reproduction; which is characterized by many crucial steps that start at gamete maturation and activation
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Marine organisms represent an important source of novel bioactive compounds, often showing unique modes of action. Such drugs may be useful tools to study complex processes such as reproduction; which is characterized by many crucial steps that start at gamete maturation and activation and virtually end at the first developmental stages. During these processes cytoskeletal elements such as microfilaments and microtubules play a key-role. In this review we describe: (i) the involvement of such structures in both cellular and in vitro processes; (ii) the toxins that target the cytoskeletal elements and dynamics; (iii) the main steps of reproduction and the marine drugs that interfere with these cytoskeleton-mediated processes. We show that marine drugs, acting on microfilaments and microtubules, exert a wide range of impacts on reproductive events including sperm maturation and motility, oocyte maturation, fertilization, and early embryo development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Bioactive Compounds Acting on Animal Reproduction)
Open AccessReview Effects of Marine Toxins on the Reproduction and Early Stages Development of Aquatic Organisms
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(1), 59-79; doi:10.3390/md8010059
Received: 4 December 2009 / Revised: 4 January 2010 / Accepted: 18 January 2010 / Published: 19 January 2010
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (258 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Marine organisms, and specially phytoplankton species, are able to produce a diverse array of toxic compounds that are not yet fully understood in terms of their main targets and biological function. Toxins such as saxitoxins, tetrodotoxin, palytoxin, nodularin, okadaic acid, domoic acid, may
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Marine organisms, and specially phytoplankton species, are able to produce a diverse array of toxic compounds that are not yet fully understood in terms of their main targets and biological function. Toxins such as saxitoxins, tetrodotoxin, palytoxin, nodularin, okadaic acid, domoic acid, may be produced in large amounts by dinoflagellates, cyanobacteria, bacteria and diatoms and accumulate in vectors that transfer the toxin along food chains. These may affect top predator organisms, including human populations, leading in some cases to death. Nevertheless, these toxins may also affect the reproduction of aquatic organisms that may be in contact with the toxins, either by decreasing the amount or quality of gametes or by affecting embryonic development. Adults of some species may be insensitive to toxins but early stages are more prone to intoxication because they lack effective enzymatic systems to detoxify the toxins and are more exposed to the toxins due to a higher metabolic growth rate. In this paper we review the current knowledge on the effects of some of the most common marine toxins on the reproduction and development of early stages of some organisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Bioactive Compounds Acting on Animal Reproduction)
Open AccessReview The Influence of Bioactive Oxylipins from Marine Diatoms on Invertebrate Reproduction and Development
Mar. Drugs 2009, 7(3), 367-400; doi:10.3390/md7030367
Received: 16 July 2009 / Revised: 6 August 2009 / Accepted: 19 August 2009 / Published: 21 August 2009
Cited by 53 | PDF Full-text (710 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Diatoms are one of the main primary producers in aquatic ecosystems and occupy a vital link in the transfer of photosynthetically-fixed carbon through aquatic food webs. Diatoms produce an array of biologically-active metabolites, many of which have been attributed as a form of
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Diatoms are one of the main primary producers in aquatic ecosystems and occupy a vital link in the transfer of photosynthetically-fixed carbon through aquatic food webs. Diatoms produce an array of biologically-active metabolites, many of which have been attributed as a form of chemical defence and may offer potential as candidate marine drugs. Of considerable interest are molecules belonging to the oxylipin family which are broadly disruptive to reproductive and developmental processes. The range of reproductive impacts includes; oocyte maturation; sperm motility; fertilization; embryogenesis and larval competence. Much of the observed bioactivity may be ascribed to disruption of intracellular calcium signalling, induction of cytoskeletal instability and promotion of apoptotic pathways. From an ecological perspective, the primary interest in diatom-oxylipins is in relation to the potential impact on energy flow in planktonic systems whereby the reproductive success of copepods (the main grazers of diatoms) is compromised. Much data exists providing evidence for and against diatom reproductive effects; however detailed knowledge of the physiological and molecular processes involved remains poor. This paper provides a review of the current state of knowledge of the mechanistic impacts of diatom-oxylipins on marine invertebrate reproduction and development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Bioactive Compounds Acting on Animal Reproduction)
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