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Special Issue "Advances in Biomaterials 2011"

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A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2011)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. François Berthod

LOEX, Université Laval, centre de recherche du CHA, 1401 18e rue, Québec G1J 1Z4, Canada
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +1 418 990 8248
Interests: tissue engineering; nerve regeneration; collagen sponge; extracellular matrix; 3D scaffolds; cell-induced tissue reconstruction

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The design of innovative biomaterials has led to outstanding success in clinical applications over the past decades, such as in orthopedics or cardiovascular surgery. This rapidly evolving field is developing the next generation of biomaterials based on new compounds, processing technologies, three-dimensional architectures or self-adaptive materials to design scaffolds with improved biological integration and function. Nanostructured surfaces, optimized interactions with stem cells or long-term drug delivery are some of these various innovations that will greatly benefit to their development.

This special issue of Materials will combine the expertise of engineers, chemists, biologists, and clinicians to present some of the most promising innovations in the development of the next generation of biomaterials in a wide variety of biological and clinical applications.

Dr. François Berthod
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • polymers
  • ceramicsmm
  • metals
  • hydrogels
  • acellular matrices
  • nanostructured surfaces
  • stem cells
  • 3D scaffolds
  • drug delivery
  • cell-material interactions

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Migration Capacity and Viability of Human Primary Osteoblasts in Synthetic Three-dimensional Bone Scaffolds Made of Tricalciumphosphate
Materials 2011, 4(7), 1249-1259; doi:10.3390/ma4071249
Received: 27 April 2011 / Revised: 1 June 2011 / Accepted: 30 June 2011 / Published: 8 July 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (404 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In current therapeutic strategies, bone defects are filled up by bone auto- or allografts. Since they are limited by insufficient availability and donor site morbidity, it is necessary to find an appropriate alternative of synthetic porous bone materials. Because of their osteoconductive characteristics,
[...] Read more.
In current therapeutic strategies, bone defects are filled up by bone auto- or allografts. Since they are limited by insufficient availability and donor site morbidity, it is necessary to find an appropriate alternative of synthetic porous bone materials. Because of their osteoconductive characteristics, ceramic materials like tricalciumphosphate (TCP) are suitable to fill up bone defects. Another advantage of TCP implants is the ability of patient-specific engineering. Objective of the present in-vitro study was to analyze the migration capacity and viability of human primary osteoblasts in porous three-dimensional TCP scaffolds in a static cell culture. To obtain data of the cellular supply with nutrients and oxygen, we determined the oxygen concentration and the pH value within the 3D scaffold compared to the surrounding medium using microsensors. After eight days of cultivation we found cells on all four planes. During incubation, the oxygen concentration within the scaffold decreased by approximately 8%. Furthermore, we could not demonstrate an increasing acidification in the core of the TCP scaffold. Our results suggest that osteoblasts could migrate and survive within the macroporous TCP scaffolds. The selected size of the macropores prevents overgrowth of cells, whereby the oxygen and nutrients supply is sufficiently guaranteed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biomaterials 2011)
Open AccessArticle Influence of Surface Processing on the Biocompatibility of Titanium
Materials 2011, 4(7), 1238-1248; doi:10.3390/ma4071238
Received: 5 May 2011 / Accepted: 27 June 2011 / Published: 6 July 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (859 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Surface conditioning of titanium middle ear implants results in an improved biocompatibility, which can be characterized by the properties of fibroblasts cultured on conditioned surfaces. Titanium has been established as a favorable biomaterial in ossicular chain reconstruction. The epithelization of the surface of the
[...] Read more.
Surface conditioning of titanium middle ear implants results in an improved biocompatibility, which can be characterized by the properties of fibroblasts cultured on conditioned surfaces. Titanium has been established as a favorable biomaterial in ossicular chain reconstruction. The epithelization of the surface of the implants is important for their integration and stable positioning in the middle ear. Mouse fibroblast cells were cultured on platelets made from pure Grade 2 titanium. Platelets that had been etched along their production process were compared to unetched platelets. The DNA in the cell nuclei was stained with DAPI and the actin filaments of the cytoskeleton were stained with FITC-conjugated phalloidin in order to analyze the cells grown on etched and unetched platelets by fluorescence microscopy. SEM (scanning electron microscopic) images were used to compare the surface structure of etched and unetched titanium platelets. There was a statistically significant increase of the area covered by the cytoplasm and increased actin expression by fibroblasts grown on the etched titanium platelets. In addition, the area of the platelets covered by nuclei on the etched platelets exceeded on average the one on unetched platelets, although this difference was not significant. The SEM pictures comparing unetched and etched titanium platelets showed a clear difference in surface structure. Surface conditioning of titanium implants improved the epithelization by fibroblasts and consequently etched titanium should be the preferred biomaterial for reconstructive middle ear surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biomaterials 2011)
Open AccessArticle Teriparatide Therapy as an Adjuvant for Tissue Engineering and Integration of Biomaterials
Materials 2011, 4(6), 1117-1131; doi:10.3390/ma4061117
Received: 4 May 2011 / Revised: 8 June 2011 / Accepted: 14 June 2011 / Published: 15 June 2011
PDF Full-text (280 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Critically sized large bone defects commonly result from trauma, radical tumor resections or infections. Currently, massive allografting remain as the clinical standard to treat these critical defects. Unfortunately, allograft healing is limited by the lack of osteogenesis and bio-integration of the graft to
[...] Read more.
Critically sized large bone defects commonly result from trauma, radical tumor resections or infections. Currently, massive allografting remain as the clinical standard to treat these critical defects. Unfortunately, allograft healing is limited by the lack of osteogenesis and bio-integration of the graft to the host bone. Based on its widely studied anabolic effects on the bone, we have proposed that teriparatide [recombinant parathyroid hormone (PTH1–34)] could be an effective adjuvant for massive allograft healing. In support of this theory, here we review studies that have demonstrated that intermittent PTH1–34 treatment enhances and accelerates the skeletal repair process via a number of mechanisms including: effects on mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), angiogenesis, chondrogenesis, bone formation and remodeling. We also review the current literature on the effects of PTH1–34 therapy on bone healing, and discuss this drug’s long term potential as an adjuvant for endogenous tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biomaterials 2011)
Open AccessArticle Role of Titanium Surface Topography and Surface Wettability on Focal Adhesion Kinase Mediated Signaling in Fibroblasts
Materials 2011, 4(5), 893-907; doi:10.3390/ma4050893
Received: 8 April 2011 / Revised: 22 April 2011 / Accepted: 5 May 2011 / Published: 9 May 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (752 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Changes of titanium surface roughness and surface free energy may influence protein absorption that increases cell differentiation through activation of focal adhesion kinase related pathways. However, the influence of titanium surface roughness and hydrophilicity on fibroblast behavior is not well understood. The aim
[...] Read more.
Changes of titanium surface roughness and surface free energy may influence protein absorption that increases cell differentiation through activation of focal adhesion kinase related pathways. However, the influence of titanium surface roughness and hydrophilicity on fibroblast behavior is not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of topography and hydrophilicity on fibroblast attachment, spreading, morphology, intracellular signaling, proliferation, and collagen I mRNA levels. Using a cellular FAK knockout (FAK−/−) model and wild-type (WT) controls, we also investigated the contribution of adhesion in fibroblasts cultured on smooth (PT), sand-blasted, large grit, acid-etched (SLA) and hydrophilic SLA topographies. Loss of FAK did not significantly affect fibroblast attachment to any surface, but SLA and hydrophilic SLA surface attenuated spreading of WT cells significantly more than FAK−/− fibroblasts. Both FAK−/− and WT cells formed numerous focal adhesions on PT surfaces, but significantly less on SLA and hydrophilic SLA surfaces. In WT cells, phosphorylation levels of FAK were lower on SLA and hydrophilic SLA in comparison with PT 24 h post seeding. Labeling of cells with antibodies to cortactin showed that FAK−/−cells contained significantly more cortactin-rich focal adhesion in comparison with WT cells on PT surfaces, but not on SLA or hydrophilic SLA. ERK 1/2 phosphorylation was highest in WT cells on all surfaces which correlated with collagen I expression levels. We conclude that fibroblasts are sensitive to changes in surface roughness and hydrophilicity, with adhesive interactions mediated through FAK, an important modulator of fibroblast response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biomaterials 2011)
Open AccessArticle Cell-Based Fabrication of Organic/Inorganic Composite Gel Material
Materials 2011, 4(1), 327-338; doi:10.3390/ma4010327
Received: 31 December 2010 / Accepted: 21 January 2011 / Published: 24 January 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (633 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biomaterials containing components similar to the native biological tissue would have benefits as an implantable scaffold material. To obtain such biomimetic materials, cells may be great contributors because of their crucial roles in synthetic organics. In addition, the synthesized organics—especially those derived from
[...] Read more.
Biomaterials containing components similar to the native biological tissue would have benefits as an implantable scaffold material. To obtain such biomimetic materials, cells may be great contributors because of their crucial roles in synthetic organics. In addition, the synthesized organics—especially those derived from osteogenic differentiated cells—become a place where mineral crystals nucleate and grow even in vitro. Therefore to fabricate an organic/inorganic composite material, which is similar to the biological osteoid tissue, bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were cultured in a 3D fibrin gel in this study. BMSCs secreted bone-related proteins that enhanced the biomineralization within the gel when the cells were cultured with an osteogenic differentiation medium. The compositions of both synthesized matrices and precipitated minerals in the obtained materials altered depending on the cell culture period. The mineral obtained in the 3D gel showed low crystalline hydroxyapatite. The composite materials also showed excellent osteoconductivity with new bone formation when implanted in mice tibiae. Thus, we demonstrated the contributions of cells for fabricating implantable organic/inorganic composite gel materials and a method for controlling the material composition in the gel. This cell-based material fabrication method would be a novel method to fabricate organic/inorganic composite biomimetic materials for bone tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biomaterials 2011)
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