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Special Issue "Ceramics for Healthcare"

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A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2009)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jérôme Chevalier

INSA Lyon, UMR CNRS 5510, 20 Avenue Albert Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne, Cedex, France
Website | E-Mail
Interests: ceramics; organic-inorganic composites; biomaterials; mechanical properties; Brittle fracture and fatigue

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

High-tech ceramics have always been associated to medical devices: they are used today for total hip replacement, heart valves, dental implants and restorations, bone fillers and scaffolds for tissue engineering. Ceramic particles and microspheres are also useful for the radiotherapy of cancers. This is the aim of this special issue to review current state of the art and new findings in the field of ceramics for orthopedic, dental, cardiovascular and cancer treatments. In addition to review papers written by leading scientists, manuscripts on new approaches to material design, processing and characterization, including in-vitro and in-vivo studies, on new compositions with improved properties or surface modification are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Jérôme Chevalier
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • Biomedical ceramics
  • Tissue engineering
  • Alumina
  • Zirconia
  • Calcium phosphate
  • Bioactive glasses
  • Scaffolds
  • Composites
  • Nano-particles

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Properties and Clinical Application of Three Types of Dental Glass-Ceramics and Ceramics for CAD-CAM Technologies
Materials 2010, 3(6), 3700-3713; doi:10.3390/ma3063700
Received: 7 May 2010 / Accepted: 17 June 2010 / Published: 19 June 2010
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (572 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The main properties (mechanical, thermal and chemical) and clinical application for dental restoration are demonstrated for three types of glass-ceramics and sintered polycrystalline ceramic produced by Ivoclar Vivadent AG. Two types of glass-ceramics are derived from the leucite-type and the lithium disilicate-type. The
[...] Read more.
The main properties (mechanical, thermal and chemical) and clinical application for dental restoration are demonstrated for three types of glass-ceramics and sintered polycrystalline ceramic produced by Ivoclar Vivadent AG. Two types of glass-ceramics are derived from the leucite-type and the lithium disilicate-type. The third type of dental materials represents a ZrO2 ceramic. CAD/CAM technology is a procedure to manufacture dental ceramic restoration. Leucite-type glass-ceramics demonstrate high translucency, preferable optical/mechanical properties and an application as dental inlays, onlays and crowns. Based on an improvement of the mechanical parameters, specially the strength and toughness, the lithium disilicate glass-ceramics are used as crowns; applying a procedure to machine an intermediate product and producing the final glass-ceramic by an additional heat treatment. Small dental bridges of lithium disilicate glass-ceramic were fabricated using a molding technology. ZrO2 ceramics show high toughness and strength and were veneered with fluoroapatite glass-ceramic. Machining is possible with a porous intermediate product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Healthcare)
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Open AccessArticle Long Term Fatigue Behavior of Zirconia Based Dental Ceramics
Materials 2010, 3(5), 2975-2985; doi:10.3390/ma3052975
Received: 3 February 2010 / Revised: 3 April 2010 / Accepted: 12 April 2010 / Published: 28 April 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (273 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study evaluated the influence of cyclic loading on zirconia bar-shaped specimens after being subjected to three different surface treatments: particle abrasion with either 50 μm or 110 μm alumina and grinding with diamond points, while polished specimens served as a control. Statistical
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This study evaluated the influence of cyclic loading on zirconia bar-shaped specimens after being subjected to three different surface treatments: particle abrasion with either 50 μm or 110 μm alumina and grinding with diamond points, while polished specimens served as a control. Statistical analysis revealed significant reduction (38-67%) in flexure strength (P < 0.001) after three million cycles of dynamic loading for all surface treatments. Scanning electron imaging revealed grain boundary thickening, grain pull-out, and micro-cracking as the main structural defects. The results suggest that various surface treatments of zirconia based dental ceramics may significantly influence their long term fatigue resistance in the oral environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Healthcare)
Open AccessArticle Stability of Nanocrystalline Spark Plasma Sintered 3Y-TZP
Materials 2010, 3(2), 800-814; doi:10.3390/ma3020800
Received: 2 December 2009 / Revised: 21 January 2010 / Accepted: 25 January 2010 / Published: 28 January 2010
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (814 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Spark plasma sintered 3Y-TZP has been investigated with respect to hydrothermal ageing and grinding. The sintering was performed between the temperatures of 1,100 and 1,600 °C for a soaking time of 5 minutes and the resulting materials were obtained with grain sizes between
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Spark plasma sintered 3Y-TZP has been investigated with respect to hydrothermal ageing and grinding. The sintering was performed between the temperatures of 1,100 and 1,600 °C for a soaking time of 5 minutes and the resulting materials were obtained with grain sizes between 65 to 800 nm and relative densities between 88.5 to 98.8%. Experiments on hydrothermal ageing in water vapour at 131 °C, 2 bars during 60 hours shows that phase stability is retained, elastic modulus and hardness of near surface region measured by nanoindentation does not change in fine grain (<200 nm) materials, in spite of porosity. In ground specimens, very small amount of transformation was found for all grain sizes studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Healthcare)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Bioactive Glass and Glass-Ceramic Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering
Materials 2010, 3(7), 3867-3910; doi:10.3390/ma3073867
Received: 20 May 2010 / Accepted: 29 June 2010 / Published: 6 July 2010
Cited by 202 | PDF Full-text (1791 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Traditionally, bioactive glasses have been used to fill and restore bone defects. More recently, this category of biomaterials has become an emerging research field for bone tissue engineering applications. Here, we review and discuss current knowledge on porous bone tissue engineering scaffolds on
[...] Read more.
Traditionally, bioactive glasses have been used to fill and restore bone defects. More recently, this category of biomaterials has become an emerging research field for bone tissue engineering applications. Here, we review and discuss current knowledge on porous bone tissue engineering scaffolds on the basis of melt-derived bioactive silicate glass compositions and relevant composite structures. Starting with an excerpt on the history of bioactive glasses, as well as on fundamental requirements for bone tissue engineering scaffolds, a detailed overview on recent developments of bioactive glass and glass-ceramic scaffolds will be given, including a summary of common fabrication methods and a discussion on the microstructural-mechanical properties of scaffolds in relation to human bone (structure-property and structure-function relationship). In addition, ion release effects of bioactive glasses concerning osteogenic and angiogenic responses are addressed. Finally, areas of future research are highlighted in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Healthcare)
Open AccessReview Freeze-Casting of Porous Biomaterials: Structure, Properties and Opportunities
Materials 2010, 3(3), 1913-1927; doi:10.3390/ma3031913
Received: 5 February 2010 / Revised: 24 February 2010 / Accepted: 16 March 2010 / Published: 17 March 2010
Cited by 69 | PDF Full-text (700 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The freeze-casting of porous materials has received a great deal of attention during the past few years. This simple process, where a material suspension is simply frozen and then sublimated, provides materials with unique porous architectures, where the porosity is almost a direct
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The freeze-casting of porous materials has received a great deal of attention during the past few years. This simple process, where a material suspension is simply frozen and then sublimated, provides materials with unique porous architectures, where the porosity is almost a direct replica of the frozen solvent crystals. This review focuses on the recent results on the process and the derived porous structures with regards to the biomaterials applications. Of particular interest is the architecture of the materials and the versatility of the process, which can be readily controlled and applied to biomaterials applications. A careful control of the starting formulation and processing conditions is required to control the integrity of the structure and resulting properties. Further in vitro and in vivo investigations are required to validate the potential of this new class of porous materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Healthcare)
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Open AccessReview Bone Substitute Fabrication Based on Dissolution-Precipitation Reactions
Materials 2010, 3(2), 1138-1155; doi:10.3390/ma3021138
Received: 7 December 2009 / Revised: 29 January 2010 / Accepted: 9 February 2010 / Published: 10 February 2010
Cited by 36 | PDF Full-text (1123 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although block- or granular-type sintered hydroxyapatite are known to show excellent tissue responses and good osteoconductivity, apatite powder elicits inflammatory response. For the fabrication of hydroxyapatite block or granules, sintering is commonly employed. However, the inorganic component of bone and tooth is not
[...] Read more.
Although block- or granular-type sintered hydroxyapatite are known to show excellent tissue responses and good osteoconductivity, apatite powder elicits inflammatory response. For the fabrication of hydroxyapatite block or granules, sintering is commonly employed. However, the inorganic component of bone and tooth is not high crystalline hydroxyapatite but low crystalline B-type carbonate apatite. Unfortunately, carbonate apatite powder cannot be sintered due to its instability at high temperature. Another method to fabricate apatite block and/or granule is through phase transformation based on dissolution-precipitation reactions using a precursor phase. This reaction basically is the same as a setting and hardening reaction of calcium sulfate or plaster. In this paper, apatite block fabrication methods by phase transformation based on dissolution-precipitation reactions will be discussed, with a focus on the similarity of the setting and hardening reaction of calcium sulfate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Healthcare)
Open AccessReview Performance of Zirconia for Dental Healthcare
Materials 2010, 3(2), 863-896; doi:10.3390/ma3020863
Received: 1 December 2009 / Revised: 26 January 2010 / Accepted: 28 January 2010 / Published: 1 February 2010
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (731 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The positive results of the performance of zirconia for orthopedics devices have led the dental community to explore possible esthetical and mechanical outcomes using this material. However, questions regarding long-term results have opened strong and controversial discussions regarding the utilization of zirconia as
[...] Read more.
The positive results of the performance of zirconia for orthopedics devices have led the dental community to explore possible esthetical and mechanical outcomes using this material. However, questions regarding long-term results have opened strong and controversial discussions regarding the utilization of zirconia as a substitute for alloys for restorations and implants. This narrative review presents the current knowledge on zirconia utilized for dental restorations, oral implant components, and zirconia oral implants, and also addresses laboratory tests and developments, clinical performance, and possible future trends of this material for dental healthcare. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Healthcare)
Open AccessReview Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Ceramics for Bone Regeneration and Tissue Engineering Applications
Materials 2010, 3(2), 815-826; doi:10.3390/ma3020815
Received: 1 December 2009 / Revised: 17 January 2010 / Accepted: 27 January 2010 / Published: 29 January 2010
Cited by 37 | PDF Full-text (1524 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biphasic calcium phosphates (BCP) have been sought after as biomaterials for the reconstruction of bone defects in maxillofacial, dental and orthopaedic applications. They have demonstrated proven biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, safety and predictability in in vitro, in vivo and clinical models. More recently, in
[...] Read more.
Biphasic calcium phosphates (BCP) have been sought after as biomaterials for the reconstruction of bone defects in maxillofacial, dental and orthopaedic applications. They have demonstrated proven biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, safety and predictability in in vitro, in vivo and clinical models. More recently, in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that BCP can be osteoinductive. In the field of tissue engineering, they represent promising scaffolds capable of carrying and modulating the behavior of stem cells. This review article will highlight the latest advancements in the use of BCP and the characteristics that create a unique microenvironment that favors bone regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Healthcare)
Open AccessReview Brushite-Forming Mg-, Zn- and Sr-Substituted Bone Cements for Clinical Applications
Materials 2010, 3(1), 519-535; doi:10.3390/ma3010519
Received: 26 November 2009 / Revised: 12 January 2010 / Accepted: 15 January 2010 / Published: 18 January 2010
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (560 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Calcium phosphate cements have been in clinical use for the last 10 years. Their most salient features include good biocompatibility, excellent bioactivity, self-setting characteristics, low setting temperature, adequate stiffness, and easy shaping to accomodate any complicated geometry. They are commonly used in filling
[...] Read more.
Calcium phosphate cements have been in clinical use for the last 10 years. Their most salient features include good biocompatibility, excellent bioactivity, self-setting characteristics, low setting temperature, adequate stiffness, and easy shaping to accomodate any complicated geometry. They are commonly used in filling bone defects and trauma surgeries as mouldable paste-like bone substitute materials. Substitution of trace elements, such as Mg, Sr and Zn ions, into the structure of calcium phosphates is the subject of widespread investigation nowadays, because of their impending role in the biological process. Subtle differences in composition and structure of these materials may have a profound effect on their in vivo behaviour. Therefore, the main goal of this paper is to provide a simple, but comprehensive overview of the present achievements relating to brushite-forming cements doped with Mg, Zn and Sr, and to identify new developments and trends. In particular, the influence of ionic substitution on the chemical, physical and biological properties of these materials is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Healthcare)
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Open AccessReview Ceramics for Dental Applications: A Review
Materials 2010, 3(1), 351-368; doi:10.3390/ma3010351
Received: 1 December 2009 / Revised: 5 January 2010 / Accepted: 7 January 2010 / Published: 11 January 2010
Cited by 79 | PDF Full-text (3290 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Over the past forty years, the technological evolution of ceramics for dental applications has been remarkable, as new materials and processing techniques are steadily being introduced. The improvement in both strength and toughness has made it possible to expand the range of indications
[...] Read more.
Over the past forty years, the technological evolution of ceramics for dental applications has been remarkable, as new materials and processing techniques are steadily being introduced. The improvement in both strength and toughness has made it possible to expand the range of indications to long-span fixed partial prostheses, implant abutments and implants. The present review provides a state of the art of ceramics for dental applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Healthcare)
Open AccessReview Dental Glass Ionomer Cements as Permanent Filling Materials? – Properties, Limitations and Future Trends
Materials 2010, 3(1), 76-96; doi:10.3390/ma3010076
Received: 1 December 2009 / Revised: 22 December 2009 / Accepted: 25 December 2009 / Published: 28 December 2009
Cited by 37 | PDF Full-text (843 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Glass ionomer cements (GICs) are clinically attractive dental materials that have certain unique properties that make them useful as restorative and luting materials. This includes adhesion to moist tooth structures and base metals, anticariogenic properties due to release of fluoride, thermal compatibility with
[...] Read more.
Glass ionomer cements (GICs) are clinically attractive dental materials that have certain unique properties that make them useful as restorative and luting materials. This includes adhesion to moist tooth structures and base metals, anticariogenic properties due to release of fluoride, thermal compatibility with tooth enamel, biocompatibility and low toxicity. The use of GICs in a mechanically loaded situation, however, has been hampered by their low mechanical performance. Poor mechanical properties, such as low fracture strength, toughness and wear, limit their extensive use in dentistry as a filling material in stress-bearing applications. In the posterior dental region, glass ionomer cements are mostly used as a temporary filling material. The requirement to strengthen those cements has lead to an ever increasing research effort into reinforcement or strengthening concepts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Healthcare)
Open AccessReview Graded/Gradient Porous Biomaterials
Materials 2010, 3(1), 26-47; doi:10.3390/ma3010026
Received: 1 December 2009 / Revised: 21 December 2009 / Accepted: 25 December 2009 / Published: 25 December 2009
Cited by 61 | PDF Full-text (924 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biomaterials include bioceramics, biometals, biopolymers and biocomposites and they play important roles in the replacement and regeneration of human tissues. However, dense bioceramics and dense biometals pose the problem of stress shielding due to their high Young’s moduli compared to those of bones.
[...] Read more.
Biomaterials include bioceramics, biometals, biopolymers and biocomposites and they play important roles in the replacement and regeneration of human tissues. However, dense bioceramics and dense biometals pose the problem of stress shielding due to their high Young’s moduli compared to those of bones. On the other hand, porous biomaterials exhibit the potential of bone ingrowth, which will depend on porous parameters such as pore size, pore interconnectivity, and porosity. Unfortunately, a highly porous biomaterial results in poor mechanical properties. To optimise the mechanical and the biological properties, porous biomaterials with graded/gradient porosity, pores size, and/or composition have been developed. Graded/gradient porous biomaterials have many advantages over graded/gradient dense biomaterials and uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. The internal pore surfaces of graded/gradient porous biomaterials can be modified with organic, inorganic, or biological coatings and the internal pores themselves can also be filled with biocompatible and biodegradable materials or living cells. However, graded/gradient porous biomaterials are generally more difficult to fabricate than uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. With the development of cost-effective processing techniques, graded/gradient porous biomaterials can find wide applications in bone defect filling, implant fixation, bone replacement, drug delivery, and tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Healthcare)
Open AccessReview Novel Bioactive Titanate Layers Formed on Ti Metal and Its Alloys by Chemical Treatments
Materials 2010, 3(1), 48-63; doi:10.3390/ma3010048
Received: 30 November 2009 / Revised: 16 December 2009 / Accepted: 22 December 2009 / Published: 25 December 2009
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (2643 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sodium titanate formed on Ti metal by NaOH and heat treatments induces apatite formation on its surface in a body environment and bonds to living bone. These treatments have been applied to porous Ti metal in artificial hip joints, and have been used
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Sodium titanate formed on Ti metal by NaOH and heat treatments induces apatite formation on its surface in a body environment and bonds to living bone. These treatments have been applied to porous Ti metal in artificial hip joints, and have been used clinically in Japan since 2007. Calcium titanate formed on Ti-15Zr-4Nb-4Ta alloy by NaOH, CaCl2, heat, and water treatments induces apatite formation on its surface in a body environment. Titanium oxide formed on porous Ti metal by NaOH, HCl, and heat treatments exhibits osteoinductivity as well as osteoconductivity. This is now under clinical tests for application to a spinal fusion device. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Healthcare)
Open AccessReview The Use of Ceramics as Bone Substitutes in Revision Hip Arthroplasty
Materials 2009, 2(4), 1895-1907; doi:10.3390/ma2041895
Received: 19 October 2009 / Revised: 16 November 2009 / Accepted: 18 November 2009 / Published: 19 November 2009
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (207 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The number of grafting procedures, including those performed in primary and revision hip arthroplasty, continues to rise around the world. Demand for musculoskeletal donor tissue now outstrips supply. There is no single bone substitute that is ideal for all circumstances. Bone substitutes act
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The number of grafting procedures, including those performed in primary and revision hip arthroplasty, continues to rise around the world. Demand for musculoskeletal donor tissue now outstrips supply. There is no single bone substitute that is ideal for all circumstances. Bone substitutes act as a scaffold and are usually osteoconductive. They are rarely osteoinductive; if they are, a molecular bond is formed between the graft and host bone, improving fixation and longevity. Bone graft substitutes are very rarely osteogenic. There is a growing body of clinical evidence supporting the use of bone graft substitutes in vivo for complex hip arthroplasty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Healthcare)

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