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Special Issue "Flame Retardants"

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A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2010)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Manfred Doering

Institute for Technical Chemistry - Division of Chemical-Physical Processing (ITC-CPV), Karlsruhe Institute for Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +49 7247 822 244

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

A growing number of flame retardant polymers are used today in a variety of applications ranging from the electrical and electronic sector, transportation, to construction and housing. These developments are driven by the annual losses of life and property resulting from fires of polymeric materials in particular. The environmental and health properties of specific halogen flame retardants and the resulting state regulations of the last decade have promoted the demand of successful alternatives. Thus, the main goal of today’s research and development of flame retardant polymers is to integrate flame retardancy to polymers without serious change of material and processing parameters considering also environmental and health effects.

The main focuses of this special issue are advanced environmentally friendly flame retardant solutions (halogen-free, nanocomposites, synergism etc.) for different polymers, finding and elucidation of the mechanism of action, applications, and testing methods.

Prof. Dr. Manfred Doering
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • environmentally friendly flame retardants
  • fire retardant polymers (bulk, composites, textiles, foams)
  • applications
  • end of life disposal / recycling
  • testing

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Review

Open AccessReview Aryl Polyphosphonates: Useful Halogen-Free Flame Retardants for Polymers
Materials 2010, 3(10), 4746-4760; doi:10.3390/ma3104746
Received: 23 August 2010 / Accepted: 30 September 2010 / Published: 11 October 2010
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (197 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aryl polyphosphonates (ArPPN) have been demonstrated to function in wide applications as flame retardants for different polymer materials, including thermosets, polycarbonate, polyesters and polyamides, particularly due to their satisfactory thermal stability compared to aliphatic flame retardants, and to their desirable flow behavior observed
[...] Read more.
Aryl polyphosphonates (ArPPN) have been demonstrated to function in wide applications as flame retardants for different polymer materials, including thermosets, polycarbonate, polyesters and polyamides, particularly due to their satisfactory thermal stability compared to aliphatic flame retardants, and to their desirable flow behavior observed during the processing of polymeric materials. This paper provides a brief overview of the main developments in ArPPN and their derivatives for flame-retarding polymeric materials, primarily based on the authors’ research work and the literature published over the last two decades. The synthetic chemistry of these compounds is discussed along with their thermal stabilities and flame-retardant properties. The possible mechanisms of ArPPN and their derivatives containing hetero elements, which exhibit a synergistic effect with phosphorus, are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flame Retardants)
Open AccessReview Phosphorus-based Flame Retardancy Mechanisms—Old Hat or a Starting Point for Future Development?
Materials 2010, 3(10), 4710-4745; doi:10.3390/ma3104710
Received: 13 August 2010 / Revised: 23 August 2010 / Accepted: 9 September 2010 / Published: 30 September 2010
Cited by 106 | PDF Full-text (460 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Different kinds of additive and reactive flame retardants containing phosphorus are increasingly successful as halogen-free alternatives for various polymeric materials and applications. Phosphorus can act in the condensed phase by enhancing charring, yielding intumescence, or through inorganic glass formation; and in the gas
[...] Read more.
Different kinds of additive and reactive flame retardants containing phosphorus are increasingly successful as halogen-free alternatives for various polymeric materials and applications. Phosphorus can act in the condensed phase by enhancing charring, yielding intumescence, or through inorganic glass formation; and in the gas phase through flame inhibition. Occurrence and efficiency depend, not only on the flame retardant itself, but also on its interaction with pyrolysing polymeric material and additives. Flame retardancy is sensitive to modification of the flame retardant, the use of synergists/adjuvants, and changes to the polymeric material. A detailed understanding facilitates the launch of tailored and targeted development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flame Retardants)
Open AccessReview The Utility of Nanocomposites in Fire Retardancy
Materials 2010, 3(9), 4580-4606; doi:10.3390/ma3094580
Received: 21 June 2010 / Revised: 27 July 2010 / Accepted: 31 August 2010 / Published: 3 September 2010
Cited by 38 | PDF Full-text (832 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanocomposites have been shown to significantly reduce the peak heat release rate, as measured by cone calorimetry, for many polymers but they typically have no effect on the oxygen index or the UL-94 classification. In this review, we will cover what is known
[...] Read more.
Nanocomposites have been shown to significantly reduce the peak heat release rate, as measured by cone calorimetry, for many polymers but they typically have no effect on the oxygen index or the UL-94 classification. In this review, we will cover what is known about the processes by which nanocomposite formation may bring this about. Montmorillonite will be the focus in this paper but attention will also be devoted to other materials, including carbon nanotubes and layered double hydroxides. A second section will be devoted to combinations of nanocomposite formation with conventional (and unconventional) fire retardants. The paper will conclude with a section attempting to forecast the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flame Retardants)
Open AccessReview New Trends in Reaction and Resistance to Fire of Fire-retardant Epoxies
Materials 2010, 3(8), 4476-4499; doi:10.3390/ma3084476
Received: 1 July 2010 / Accepted: 4 August 2010 / Published: 25 August 2010
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (617 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper focuses on current trends in the flame retardancy of epoxy-based thermosets. This review examines the incorporation of additives in these polymers, including synergism effects. Reactive flame-retardants—which are incorporated in the polymer backbone—are reported and the use of fire-retardant epoxy coatings for
[...] Read more.
This paper focuses on current trends in the flame retardancy of epoxy-based thermosets. This review examines the incorporation of additives in these polymers, including synergism effects. Reactive flame-retardants—which are incorporated in the polymer backbone—are reported and the use of fire-retardant epoxy coatings for materials protection is also considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flame Retardants)
Open AccessReview Recent Developments in Halogen Free Flame Retardants for Epoxy Resins for Electrical and Electronic Applications
Materials 2010, 3(8), 4300-4327; doi:10.3390/ma3084300
Received: 2 July 2010 / Revised: 4 August 2010 / Accepted: 6 August 2010 / Published: 11 August 2010
Cited by 115 | PDF Full-text (431 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The recent implementation of new environmental legislations led to a change in the manufacturing of composites that has repercussions on printed wiring boards (PWB). This in turn led to alternate processing methods (e.g., lead-free soldering), which affected the required physical and chemical properties
[...] Read more.
The recent implementation of new environmental legislations led to a change in the manufacturing of composites that has repercussions on printed wiring boards (PWB). This in turn led to alternate processing methods (e.g., lead-free soldering), which affected the required physical and chemical properties of the additives used to impart flame retardancy. This review will discuss the latest advancements in phosphorus containing flame retardants for electrical and electronic (EE) applications and compare them with commercially available ones. The mechanism of degradation and flame retardancy of phosphorus flame retardants in epoxy resins will also be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flame Retardants)

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