E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Nanocomposites of Polymers and Inorganic Particles"

Quicklinks

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2009)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Walter Remo Caseri

Department of Materials, ETH Zürich, HCI F 515, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 5, CH-8093 Zürich, Switzerland
E-Mail
Fax: +41 44 632 10 96
Interests: inorganic polymers; organometallic polymers; nanocomposites

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Optical or magnetic characteristics can change upon decrease of particle sizes to very small dimensions (around 100 nm or well below, depending on the requested effect), which is in general of major interest in the area of composite materials. With this respect, frequently considered features are superparamangetism or optical properties (for example, the extent of light scattering or, in the case of metal particles, the color). The reduction in light scattering upon usage of nanoparticles can also be of interest in combination with other properties which favorably improve characteristics of polymeric materials, such as UV absorption, photoconductivity or modification of refractive indices. Certain optical effects, for instance iridescence or dichroism, emerge only by particular distributions of the nanoparticles within the polymer matrix. The fact that properties of nanocomposites can differ from those of analogous composites with larger particles self-evidently offers a plethora of opportunities for the creation of materials with exceeding performance.

Prof. Dr. Walter Remo Caseri
Guest Editor


Keywords

  • nanocomposites
  • polymers
  • nanoparticles
  • optical properties
  • magnetic properties

Published Papers (19 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-19
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Polyamide 6 Nanocomposites with Inorganic Particles Modified with Three Quaternary Ammonium Salts
Materials 2011, 4(11), 1956-1966; doi:10.3390/ma4111956
Received: 8 September 2011 / Accepted: 26 September 2011 / Published: 2 November 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1888 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to obtain polyamide 6 nanocomposites with national organically modified clay with three quaternary ammonium salts. The obtained results confirm the intercalation of molecules of salt in the clay layers, and a good interaction with the polymer, showing
[...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to obtain polyamide 6 nanocomposites with national organically modified clay with three quaternary ammonium salts. The obtained results confirm the intercalation of molecules of salt in the clay layers, and a good interaction with the polymer, showing the formation of intercalated and/or partially exfoliated structures. The nanocomposites showed similar thermal stability compared to pure polymer, and the mechanical properties presented interesting and promising results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocomposites of Polymers and Inorganic Particles)
Open AccessArticle Coating of Carbon Fiber with Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (POSS) to Enhance Mechanical Properties and Durability of Carbon/Vinyl Ester Composites
Materials 2011, 4(9), 1619-1631; doi:10.3390/ma4091619
Received: 27 July 2011 / Revised: 24 August 2011 / Accepted: 6 September 2011 / Published: 21 September 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (792 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Our continuing quest to improve the performance of polymer composites under moist and saltwater environments has gained momentum in recent years with the reinforcement of inorganic nanoparticles into the polymer. The key to mitigate degradation of composites under such environments is to maintain
[...] Read more.
Our continuing quest to improve the performance of polymer composites under moist and saltwater environments has gained momentum in recent years with the reinforcement of inorganic nanoparticles into the polymer. The key to mitigate degradation of composites under such environments is to maintain the integrity of the fiber/matrix (F/M) interface. In this study, the F/M interface of carbon/vinyl ester composites has been modified by coating the carbon fiber with polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS). POSS is a nanostructured inorganic-organic hybrid particle with a cubic structure having silicon atoms at the core and linked to oxygen atoms. The advantage of using POSS is that the silicon atoms can be linked to a substituent that can be almost any chemical group known in organic chemistry. Cubic silica cores are ‘hard particles’ and are about 0.53 nm in diameter. The peripheral organic unit is a sphere of about 1–3 nm in diameter. Further, cubic structure of POSS remains intact during the polymerization process and therefore with appropriate functional groups, if installed on the fiber surface, would provide a stable and strong F/M interface. Two POSS systems with two different functional groups; namely, octaisobutyl and trisilanolphenyl have been investigated. A set of chemical and mechanical procedures has been developed to coat carbon fibers with POSS, and to fabricate layered composites with vinyl ester resin. Interlaminar shear and low velocity impact tests have indicated around 17–38% improvement in mechanical properties with respect to control samples made without the POSS coating. Saltwater and hygrothermal tests at various environmental conditions have revealed that coating with POSS reduces water absorption by 20–30% and retains the composite properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocomposites of Polymers and Inorganic Particles)
Open AccessArticle Polymer Nanocomposites Containing Anisotropic Metal Nanostructures as Internal Strain Indicators
Materials 2010, 3(2), 1461-1477; doi:10.3390/ma3021461
Received: 21 December 2009 / Revised: 28 January 2010 / Accepted: 23 February 2010 / Published: 24 February 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (3224 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polymer/metal nanocomposite containing intrinsically anisotropic metal nanostructures such as metal nanorods and nanowires appeared extremely more sensitive and responsive to mechanical stimuli than nanocomposites containing spherical nanoparticles. After uniaxial stretching of the supporting polymer matrix (poly(vinyl alcohol)), the elongated silver nanostructures embedded at
[...] Read more.
Polymer/metal nanocomposite containing intrinsically anisotropic metal nanostructures such as metal nanorods and nanowires appeared extremely more sensitive and responsive to mechanical stimuli than nanocomposites containing spherical nanoparticles. After uniaxial stretching of the supporting polymer matrix (poly(vinyl alcohol)), the elongated silver nanostructures embedded at low concentration into the polymer matrix (<1 wt % of Ag) assume the direction of the drawing, yielding materials with a strong dichroic response of the absorption behavior. Accordingly, the film changed its color when observed under linearly polarized light already at moderate drawings. The results obtained suggest that nanocomposite films have potential in applications such as color polarizing filters, radiation responsive polymeric objects and smart flexible films in packaging applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocomposites of Polymers and Inorganic Particles)
Figures

Open AccessArticle The One-Step Pickering Emulsion Polymerization Route for Synthesizing Organic-Inorganic Nanocomposite Particles
Materials 2010, 3(2), 1186-1202; doi:10.3390/ma3021186
Received: 5 January 2010 / Revised: 9 February 2010 / Accepted: 9 February 2010 / Published: 16 February 2010
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (1437 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polystyrene-silica core-shell nanocomposite particles are successfully prepared via one-step Pickering emulsion polymerization. Possible mechanisms of Pickering emulsion polymerization are addressed in the synthesis of polystyrene-silica nanocomposite particles using 2,2-azobis(2-methyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)propionamide (VA-086) and potassium persulfate (KPS) as the initiator. Motivated by potential applications
[...] Read more.
Polystyrene-silica core-shell nanocomposite particles are successfully prepared via one-step Pickering emulsion polymerization. Possible mechanisms of Pickering emulsion polymerization are addressed in the synthesis of polystyrene-silica nanocomposite particles using 2,2-azobis(2-methyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)propionamide (VA-086) and potassium persulfate (KPS) as the initiator. Motivated by potential applications of “smart” composite particles in controlled drug delivery, the one-step Pickering emulsion polymerization route is further applied to synthesize polystyrene/poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm)-silica core-shell nanoparticles with N-isopropylacrylamide incorporated into the core as a co-monomer. The polystyrene/PNIPAAm-silica composite nanoparticles are temperature sensitive and can be taken up by human prostate cancer (PC3-PSMA) cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocomposites of Polymers and Inorganic Particles)
Open AccessArticle A Route for Polymer Nanocomposites with Engineered Electrical Conductivity and Percolation Threshold
Materials 2010, 3(2), 1089-1103; doi:10.3390/ma3021089
Received: 17 January 2010 / Revised: 28 January 2010 / Accepted: 8 February 2010 / Published: 9 February 2010
Cited by 37 | PDF Full-text (625 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polymer nanocomposites with engineered electrical properties can be made by tuning the fabrication method, processing conditions and filler’s geometric and physical properties. This work focuses on investigating the effect of filler’s geometry (aspect ratio and shape), intrinsic electrical conductivity, alignment and dispersion within
[...] Read more.
Polymer nanocomposites with engineered electrical properties can be made by tuning the fabrication method, processing conditions and filler’s geometric and physical properties. This work focuses on investigating the effect of filler’s geometry (aspect ratio and shape), intrinsic electrical conductivity, alignment and dispersion within the polymer, and polymer crystallinity, on the percolation threshold and electrical conductivity of polypropylene based nanocomposites. The conductive reinforcements used are exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets, carbon black, vapor grown carbon fibers and polyacrylonitrile carbon fibers. The composites are made using melt mixing followed by injection molding. A coating method is also employed to improve the nanofiller’s dispersion within the polymer and compression molding is used to alter the nanofiller’s alignment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocomposites of Polymers and Inorganic Particles)
Open AccessArticle Description of Extrudate Swell for Polymer Nanocomposites
Materials 2010, 3(1), 386-400; doi:10.3390/ma3010386
Received: 7 December 2009 / Revised: 22 December 2009 / Accepted: 25 December 2009 / Published: 12 January 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (407 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Extrudate swell is often observed to be weakened in nanocomposites compared to the pure polymer matrix. A theory quantifying this would be significant either for optimum processing or for understanding their viscoelasticity. A unified extrudate swell correlation with material properties and capillary parameters
[...] Read more.
Extrudate swell is often observed to be weakened in nanocomposites compared to the pure polymer matrix. A theory quantifying this would be significant either for optimum processing or for understanding their viscoelasticity. A unified extrudate swell correlation with material properties and capillary parameters was suggested for polymer melt and their nanocomposites when considering the reservoir entry effect. More importantly, it was the first to find that the composite swell ratio can be the matrix swell ratio multiplied by the concentration shift factor, which is similar to the dynamic moduli expression for composites. The factor is a function of the shear field (stress or shear rate), filler content, filler internal structure and the surface state as well as the matrix properties. Several sets of swell data for nanocomposites were chosen from publications to test the new theories. The proposed quantitative model displayed good fit for the five kinds of nanocomposites, which verified the rationality of the swell theory for nanocomposites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocomposites of Polymers and Inorganic Particles)
Open AccessArticle Optimization of Optical Properties of Polycarbonate Film with Thiol Gold-Nanoparticles
Materials 2009, 2(3), 1193-1204; doi:10.3390/ma2031193
Received: 10 July 2009 / Revised: 28 August 2009 / Accepted: 31 August 2009 / Published: 2 September 2009
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new nanostructured composite film based on thiol gold nanoparticles dispersed in polycarbonate and prepared by evaporating a solution of 1-dodecanthiol gold nanoparticles and polycarbonate was developed for applications as optical lenses. Lenses with superior mechanical properties, coloring and UV ray absorption and
[...] Read more.
A new nanostructured composite film based on thiol gold nanoparticles dispersed in polycarbonate and prepared by evaporating a solution of 1-dodecanthiol gold nanoparticles and polycarbonate was developed for applications as optical lenses. Lenses with superior mechanical properties, coloring and UV ray absorption and with the same transparency as the matrix were obtained. The supporting highly transparent polycarbonate matrix and the chloroform solution of thiol gold nanoparticles, 3 nm mean size, was mixed according to a doping protocol employing different concentrations of thiol gold nanoparticles vs. polycarbonate. The presence of nanoparticles in the polymer films was confirmed by the spectrophotometric detection of the characteristic absorbance marker peak at 540–580 nm. The nanostructured films obtained show a better coverage in the UV-vis range (250–450 nm) even at very low doping ratios, of the order of 1:1,000. These results offer a very promising approach towards the development of efficient nanostructured materials for applications to optical lenses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocomposites of Polymers and Inorganic Particles)
Figures

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Synthesis of Polymer—Mesoporous Silica Nanocomposites
Materials 2010, 3(7), 4066-4079; doi:10.3390/ma3074066
Received: 13 June 2010 / Accepted: 6 July 2010 / Published: 13 July 2010
Cited by 51 | PDF Full-text (340 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polymer nanocomposites show unique properties combining the advantages of the inorganic nanofillers and the organic polymers. The mesoporous silica nanofillers have received much attention due to their ordered structure, high surface area and ease for functionalization of the nanopores. To accommodate macromolecules, the
[...] Read more.
Polymer nanocomposites show unique properties combining the advantages of the inorganic nanofillers and the organic polymers. The mesoporous silica nanofillers have received much attention due to their ordered structure, high surface area and ease for functionalization of the nanopores. To accommodate macromolecules, the nanopores lead to unusually intimate interactions between the polymer and the inorganic phase, and some unusual properties can be observed, when compared with nonporous fillers. Whereas many review articles have been devoted to polymer/nonporous nanofiller nanocomposites, few review articles focus on polymer/mesoporous silica nanocomposites. This review summarizes the recent development in the methods for synthesizing polymer/mesoporous silica nanocomposites based on the papers published from 1998 to 2009, and some unique properties of these composites are also described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocomposites of Polymers and Inorganic Particles)
Figures

Open AccessReview Nanocomposites Derived from Polymers and Inorganic Nanoparticles
Materials 2010, 3(6), 3654-3674; doi:10.3390/ma3063654
Received: 17 May 2010 / Accepted: 3 May 2010 / Published: 14 June 2010
Cited by 122 | PDF Full-text (1565 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polymers are considered to be good hosting matrices for composite materials because they can easily be tailored to yield a variety of bulk physical properties. Moreover, organic polymers generally have long-term stability and good processability. Inorganic nanoparticles possess outstanding optical, catalytic, electronic and
[...] Read more.
Polymers are considered to be good hosting matrices for composite materials because they can easily be tailored to yield a variety of bulk physical properties. Moreover, organic polymers generally have long-term stability and good processability. Inorganic nanoparticles possess outstanding optical, catalytic, electronic and magnetic properties, which are significantly different their bulk states. By combining the attractive functionalities of both components, nanocomposites derived from organic polymers and inorganic nanoparticles are expected to display synergistically improved properties. The potential applications of the resultant nanocomposites are various, e.g. automotive, aerospace, opto-electronics, etc. Here, we review recent progress in polymer-based inorganic nanoparticle composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocomposites of Polymers and Inorganic Particles)
Open AccessReview Polymer-Nanoparticle Composites: From Synthesis to Modern Applications
Materials 2010, 3(6), 3468-3517; doi:10.3390/ma3063468
Received: 23 April 2010 / Accepted: 27 May 2010 / Published: 28 May 2010
Cited by 183 | PDF Full-text (2014 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The addition of inorganic spherical nanoparticles to polymers allows the modification of the polymers physical properties as well as the implementation of new features in the polymer matrix. This review article covers considerations on special features of inorganic nanoparticles, the most important synthesis
[...] Read more.
The addition of inorganic spherical nanoparticles to polymers allows the modification of the polymers physical properties as well as the implementation of new features in the polymer matrix. This review article covers considerations on special features of inorganic nanoparticles, the most important synthesis methods for ceramic nanoparticles and nanocomposites, nanoparticle surface modification, and composite formation, including drawbacks. Classical nanocomposite properties, as thermomechanical, dielectric, conductive, magnetic, as well as optical properties, will be summarized. Finally, typical existing and potential applications will be shown with the focus on new and innovative applications, like in energy storage systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocomposites of Polymers and Inorganic Particles)
Open AccessReview Development of Biomedical Polymer-Silicate Nanocomposites: A Materials Science Perspective
Materials 2010, 3(5), 2986-3005; doi:10.3390/ma3052986
Received: 11 March 2010 / Revised: 10 April 2010 / Accepted: 16 April 2010 / Published: 28 April 2010
Cited by 44 | PDF Full-text (510 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biomedical polymer-silicate nanocomposites have potential to become critically important to the development of biomedical applications, ranging from diagnostic and therapeutic devices, tissue regeneration and drug delivery matrixes to various bio-technologies that are inspired by biology but have only indirect biomedical relation. The fundamental
[...] Read more.
Biomedical polymer-silicate nanocomposites have potential to become critically important to the development of biomedical applications, ranging from diagnostic and therapeutic devices, tissue regeneration and drug delivery matrixes to various bio-technologies that are inspired by biology but have only indirect biomedical relation. The fundamental understanding of polymer-nanoparticle interactions is absolutely necessary to control structure-property relationships of materials that need to work within the chemical, physical and biological constraints required by an application. This review summarizes the most recent published strategies to design and develop polymer-silicate nanocomposites (including clay based silicate nanoparticles and bioactive glass nanoparticles) for a variety of biomedical applications. Emerging trends in bio-technological and biomedical nanocomposites are highlighted and potential new fields of applications are examined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocomposites of Polymers and Inorganic Particles)
Open AccessReview Microstructure and Properties of Polypropylene/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites
Materials 2010, 3(4), 2884-2946; doi:10.3390/ma3042884
Received: 29 January 2010 / Revised: 4 April 2010 / Accepted: 18 April 2010 / Published: 21 April 2010
Cited by 92 | PDF Full-text (6237 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the last few years, great attention has been paid to the preparation of polypropylene (PP) nanocomposites using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) due to the tremendous enhancement of the mechanical, thermal, electrical, optical and structural properties of the pristine material. This is due to
[...] Read more.
In the last few years, great attention has been paid to the preparation of polypropylene (PP) nanocomposites using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) due to the tremendous enhancement of the mechanical, thermal, electrical, optical and structural properties of the pristine material. This is due to the unique combination of structural, mechanical, electrical, and thermal transport properties of CNTs. However, it is well-known that the properties of polymer-based nanocomposites strongly depend on the dispersion of nanofillers and almost all the discussed properties of PP/CNTs nanocomposites are strongly related to their microstructure. PP/CNTs nanocomposites were, mainly, prepared by melt mixing and in situ polymerization. Young’s modulus, tensile strength and storage modulus of the PP/CNTs nanocomposites can be increased with increasing CNTs content due to the reinforcement effect of CNTs inside the polymer matrix. However, above a certain CNTs content the mechanical properties are reduced due to the CNTs agglomeration. The microstructure of nanocomposites has been studied mainly by SEM and TEM techniques. Furthermore, it was found that CNTs can act as nucleating agents promoting the crystallization rates of PP and the addition of CNTs enhances all other physical properties of PP. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the existing literature related to PP/CNTs nanocomposite preparation methods and properties studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocomposites of Polymers and Inorganic Particles)
Figures

Open AccessReview Hydrophobic Modification of Layered Clays and Compatibility for Epoxy Nanocomposites
Materials 2010, 3(4), 2588-2605; doi:10.3390/ma3042588
Received: 11 February 2010 / Revised: 11 March 2010 / Accepted: 29 March 2010 / Published: 6 April 2010
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (987 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent studies on the intercalation and exfoliation of layered clays with polymeric intercalating agents involving poly(oxypropylene)-amines and the particular uses for epoxy nanocomposites are reviewed. For intercalation, counter-ionic exchange reactions of clays including cationic layered silicates and anionic Al-Mg layered double hydroxide (LDH)
[...] Read more.
Recent studies on the intercalation and exfoliation of layered clays with polymeric intercalating agents involving poly(oxypropylene)-amines and the particular uses for epoxy nanocomposites are reviewed. For intercalation, counter-ionic exchange reactions of clays including cationic layered silicates and anionic Al-Mg layered double hydroxide (LDH) with polymeric organic ions afforded organoclays led to spatial interlayer expansion from 12 to 92 Å (X-ray diffraction) as well as hydrophobic property. The inorganic clays of layered structure could be modified by the poly(oxypropylene)amine-salts as the intercalating agents with molecular weights ranging from 230 to 5,000 g/mol. Furthermore, natural montmorillonite (MMT) clay could be exfoliated into thin layer silicate platelets (ca. 1 nm thickness) in one step by using polymeric types of exfoliating agents. Different lateral dimensions of MMT, synthetic fluorinated Mica and LDH clays had been cured into epoxy nanocomposites. The hydrophobic amine-salt modification resulting in high spacing of layered or exfoliation of individual clay platelets is the most important factor for gaining significant improvements of properties. In particular, these modified clays were reported to gain significant improvements such as reduced coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), enhanced thermal stability, and hardness. The utilization of these layered clays for initiating the epoxy self-polymerization was also reported to have a unique compatibility between clay and organic resin matrix. However, the matrix domain lacks of covalently bonded crosslink and leads to the isolation of powder material. It is generally concluded that the hydrophobic expansion of the clay inter-gallery spacing is the crucial step for enhancing the compatibility and the ultimate preparation of the advanced epoxy materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocomposites of Polymers and Inorganic Particles)
Open AccessReview Imogolite Reinforced Nanocomposites: Multifaceted Green Materials
Materials 2010, 3(3), 1709-1745; doi:10.3390/ma3031709
Received: 30 December 2009 / Revised: 2 February 2010 / Accepted: 1 March 2010 / Published: 9 March 2010
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (6361 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an overview on recent developments of imogolite reinforced nanocomposites, including fundamental structure, synthesis/purification of imogolite, physicochemical properties of nanocomposites and potential applications in industry. The naturally derived nanotubular material of imogolite represents a distinctive class of nanofiller for industrially significant
[...] Read more.
This paper presents an overview on recent developments of imogolite reinforced nanocomposites, including fundamental structure, synthesis/purification of imogolite, physicochemical properties of nanocomposites and potential applications in industry. The naturally derived nanotubular material of imogolite represents a distinctive class of nanofiller for industrially significant polymer. The incompatibility between the surface properties of inorganic nanofiller and organic matrix has prompted the need to surface modify the imogolite. Early problems in increasing the binding properties of surface modifier to imogolite have been overcome by using a phosphonic acid group. Different approaches have been used to gain better control over the dispersal of nanofiller and to further improve the physicochemical properties of nanocomposites. Among these, polymer grafting, in situ synthesis of imogolite in polymer matrix, and spin-assembly are some of the promising methods that will be described herein. This imogolite reinforced nanocomposite of enhanced optical and mechanical properties, and with unique biological and electronic properties, is expected to become an important category of hybrid material that shows potential for industrial applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocomposites of Polymers and Inorganic Particles)
Open AccessReview Development of Fabrication Methods of Filler/Polymer Nanocomposites: With Focus on Simple Melt-Compounding-Based Approach without Surface Modification of Nanofillers
Materials 2010, 3(3), 1593-1619; doi:10.3390/ma3031593
Received: 28 December 2009 / Revised: 12 February 2010 / Accepted: 1 March 2010 / Published: 4 March 2010
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (2448 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many attempts have been made to fabricate various types of inorganic nanoparticle-filled polymers (filler/polymer nanocomposites) by a mechanical or chemical approach. However, these approaches require modification of the nanofiller surfaces and/or complicated polymerization reactions, making them unsuitable for industrial-scale production of the nanocomposites.
[...] Read more.
Many attempts have been made to fabricate various types of inorganic nanoparticle-filled polymers (filler/polymer nanocomposites) by a mechanical or chemical approach. However, these approaches require modification of the nanofiller surfaces and/or complicated polymerization reactions, making them unsuitable for industrial-scale production of the nanocomposites. The author and coworkers have proposed a simple melt-compounding method for the fabrication of silica/polymer nanocomposites, wherein silica nanoparticles without surface modification were dispersed through the breakdown of loose agglomerates of colloidal nano-silica spheres in a kneaded polymer melt. This review aims to discuss experimental techniques of the proposed method and its advantages over other developed methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocomposites of Polymers and Inorganic Particles)
Figures

Open AccessReview Colloidal Inorganic Nanocrystal Based Nanocomposites: Functional Materials for Micro and Nanofabrication
Materials 2010, 3(2), 1316-1352; doi:10.3390/ma3021316
Received: 11 January 2010 / Revised: 9 February 2010 / Accepted: 21 February 2010 / Published: 23 February 2010
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (923 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The unique size- and shape-dependent electronic properties of nanocrystals (NCs) make them extremely attractive as novel structural building blocks for constructing a new generation of innovative materials and solid-state devices. Recent advances in material chemistry has allowed the synthesis of colloidal NCs with
[...] Read more.
The unique size- and shape-dependent electronic properties of nanocrystals (NCs) make them extremely attractive as novel structural building blocks for constructing a new generation of innovative materials and solid-state devices. Recent advances in material chemistry has allowed the synthesis of colloidal NCs with a wide range of compositions, with a precise control on size, shape and uniformity as well as specific surface chemistry. By incorporating such nanostructures in polymers, mesoscopic materials can be achieved and their properties engineered by choosing NCs differing in size and/or composition, properly tuning the interaction between NCs and surrounding environment. In this contribution, different approaches will be presented as effective opportunities for conveying colloidal NC properties to nanocomposite materials for micro and nanofabrication. Patterning of such nanocomposites either by conventional lithographic techniques and emerging patterning tools, such as ink jet printing and nanoimprint lithography, will be illustrated, pointing out their technological impact on developing new optoelectronic and sensing devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocomposites of Polymers and Inorganic Particles)
Figures

Open AccessReview Cement and Concrete Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Materials 2010, 3(2), 918-942; doi:10.3390/ma3020918
Received: 24 December 2009 / Revised: 27 January 2010 / Accepted: 28 January 2010 / Published: 3 February 2010
Cited by 91 | PDF Full-text (1249 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Concrete science is a multidisciplinary area of research where nanotechnology potentially offers the opportunity to enhance the understanding of concrete behavior, to engineer its properties and to lower production and ecological cost of construction materials. Recent work at the National Research Council Canada
[...] Read more.
Concrete science is a multidisciplinary area of research where nanotechnology potentially offers the opportunity to enhance the understanding of concrete behavior, to engineer its properties and to lower production and ecological cost of construction materials. Recent work at the National Research Council Canada in the area of concrete materials research has shown the potential of improving concrete properties by modifying the structure of cement hydrates, addition of nanoparticles and nanotubes and controlling the delivery of admixtures. This article will focus on a review of these innovative achievements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocomposites of Polymers and Inorganic Particles)
Open AccessReview Insight into the Broad Field of Polymer Nanocomposites: From Carbon Nanotubes to Clay Nanoplatelets, via Metal Nanoparticles
Materials 2009, 2(4), 2095-2153; doi:10.3390/ma2042095
Received: 28 October 2009 / Revised: 24 November 2009 / Accepted: 26 November 2009 / Published: 30 November 2009
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (1941 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Highly ordered polymer nanocomposites are complex materials that display a rich morphological behavior owing to variations in composition, structure, and properties on a nanometer length scale. Metal-polymer nanocomposite materials are becoming more popular for applications requiring low cost, high metal surface areas. Catalytic
[...] Read more.
Highly ordered polymer nanocomposites are complex materials that display a rich morphological behavior owing to variations in composition, structure, and properties on a nanometer length scale. Metal-polymer nanocomposite materials are becoming more popular for applications requiring low cost, high metal surface areas. Catalytic systems seem to be the most prevalent application for a wide range of metals used in polymer nanocomposites, particularly for metals like Pt, Ni, Co, and Au, with known catalytic activities. On the other hand, among the most frequently utilized techniques to prepare polymer/CNT and/or polymer/clay nanocomposites are approaches like melt mixing, solution casting, electrospinning and solid-state shear pulverization. Additionally, some of the current and potential applications of polymer/CNT and/or polymer/clay nanocomposites include photovoltaic devices, optical switches, electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding, aerospace and automotive materials, packaging, adhesives and coatings. This extensive review covers a broad range of articles, typically from high impact-factor journals, on most of the polymer-nanocomposites known to date: polymer/carbon nanotubes, polymer/metal nanospheres, and polymer/clay nanoplatelets composites. The various types of nanocomposites are described form the preparation stages to performance and applications. Comparisons of the various types of nanocomposites are conducted and conclusions are formulated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocomposites of Polymers and Inorganic Particles)
Open AccessReview Reversible Thermochromic Nanocomposites Based on Thiolate-Capped Silver Nanoparticles Embedded in Amorphous Polystyrene
Materials 2009, 2(3), 1323-1340; doi:10.3390/ma2031323
Received: 30 August 2009 / Revised: 15 September 2009 / Accepted: 16 September 2009 / Published: 18 September 2009
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (761 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Technologically useful reversible thermochromic materials can be prepared using very simple polymer-embedded nanostructures. In particular, silver nanoparticles capped by long-chain alkyl-thiolate molecules (i.e., Agx(SCnH2n+1)y, with n > 10) spontaneously organize in aggregates because of the
[...] Read more.
Technologically useful reversible thermochromic materials can be prepared using very simple polymer-embedded nanostructures. In particular, silver nanoparticles capped by long-chain alkyl-thiolate molecules (i.e., Agx(SCnH2n+1)y, with n > 10) spontaneously organize in aggregates because of the interdigitation phenomenon involving the linear alkyl chains bonded at surfaces of neighboring nanoparticles. Owing to the alkylchain interdigitation, nanoparticles very close to each other result and an interaction among their surface plasmon resonances may take place. Surface plasmon interaction causes a splitting of the absorption band whose characteristics depend on the aggregate shape. Since shape-less aggregates are generated, a multiple-splitting of the silver surface plasmon absorption band is observed, which causes a broad absorption spreading on the whole visible spectral region. Amorphous polystyrene containing interdigitated silver nanoparticles has a dark-brown or black coloration, depending on the nanoparticle numerical density, but since the inter-particle distance slightly increases at melting point of interdigitation crystallites a reversible termochromic effect is observed at this special temperature. In particular, the material coloration changes from dark-brown to yellow which is the coloration produced by the surface plasmon absorption of isolated silver nanoparticles. This reversible thermochromism can be finely controlled by modifying the structure of thiolate groups, and precisely, the strength of interactions acting inside the interdigitation crystallites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocomposites of Polymers and Inorganic Particles)
Figures

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Materials Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
materials@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Materials
Back to Top