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Special Issue "Advances in Nanoscale Biomaterials"

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A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jung Kwon (John) Oh (Website)

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke St. West, SP275.09 Montreal, QC, H4B 1R6, Canada
Interests: design and processing of nanoscale macromolecular biomaterials for biomedical applications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The design and development of multifunctional nanoscale devices able to interface with biological processes are centered in current nanotechnology. Nanomaterials based on synthetic and naturally-occurring polymers as block copolymer micelles, hydrogels, and nanogels have offered a broad choice of materials for targeted drug delivery, cellular imaging platforms, or regenerative medicine. Any topics focusing on "Polymer nanotechnology: Synthesis and Applications in Biomedical Imaging, Drug Delivery, and Tissue Engineering" will fit to this special issue entitled "Advances in Nanoscale Biomaterials".

Prof. Dr. Jung Kwon (John) Oh
Guest Editor

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Adhesion and Growth of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells on Nanostructured and Biofunctionalized Polyethylene
Materials 2013, 6(5), 1632-1655; doi:10.3390/ma6051632
Received: 8 January 2013 / Revised: 21 March 2013 / Accepted: 11 April 2013 / Published: 29 April 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (2414 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cell colonization of synthetic polymers can be regulated by physical and chemical modifications of the polymer surface. High-density and low-density polyethylene (HDPE and LDPE) were therefore activated with Ar+ plasma and grafted with fibronectin (Fn) or bovine serum albumin (BSA). The [...] Read more.
Cell colonization of synthetic polymers can be regulated by physical and chemical modifications of the polymer surface. High-density and low-density polyethylene (HDPE and LDPE) were therefore activated with Ar+ plasma and grafted with fibronectin (Fn) or bovine serum albumin (BSA). The water drop contact angle usually decreased on the plasma-treated samples, due to the formation of oxidized groups, and this decrease was inversely related to the plasma exposure time (50–300 s). The presence of nitrogen and sulfur on the polymer surface, revealed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and also by immunofluorescence staining, showed that Fn and BSA were bound to this surface, particularly to HDPE. Plasma modification and grafting with Fn and BSA increased the nanoscale surface roughness of the polymer. This was mainly manifested on HDPE. Plasma treatment and grafting with Fn or BSA improved the adhesion and growth of vascular smooth muscle cells in a serum-supplemented medium. The final cell population densities on day 6 after seeding were on an average higher on LDPE than on HDPE. In a serum-free medium, BSA grafted to the polymer surface hampered cell adhesion. Thus, the cell behavior on polyethylene can be modulated by its type, intensity of plasma modification, grafting with biomolecules, and composition of the culture medium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanoscale Biomaterials)
Open AccessArticle An Ultrasensitive Electrochemical Immunosensor for HIV p24 Based on Fe3O4@SiO2 Nanomagnetic Probes and Nanogold Colloid-Labeled Enzyme–Antibody Copolymer as Signal Tag
Materials 2013, 6(4), 1255-1269; doi:10.3390/ma6041255
Received: 24 December 2012 / Revised: 11 March 2013 / Accepted: 18 March 2013 / Published: 25 March 2013
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (443 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An ultrasensitive portable electrochemical immunosensor for human immunodeficiency virus p24 (HIV p24) antigen detection has been developed, whereby the detection sensitivity was 1000 times higher than that of the ELISA method. Firstly, a novel HRP enzyme–antibody copolymer (EV-p24 Ab2) was synthesized through [...] Read more.
An ultrasensitive portable electrochemical immunosensor for human immunodeficiency virus p24 (HIV p24) antigen detection has been developed, whereby the detection sensitivity was 1000 times higher than that of the ELISA method. Firstly, a novel HRP enzyme–antibody copolymer (EV-p24 Ab2) was synthesized through an EnVision regent (EV, a dextrin amine skeleton anchoring more than 100 molecules of HRP and 15 molecules of anti IgG), then incubated in the secondary antibody of p24. Secondly, the copolymer was immobilized on the gold nanocolloids (AuNPs) to fabricate a novel signal tag (AuNPs/EV-p24 Ab2). Subsequently, a sandwich-type immunoreaction would take place between the capture probe (silicon dioxide-coated magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNPs) labeled with the primary p24 antibody (MNPs-p24 Ab1)), p24 (different concentrations) and the signal tag [AuNPs/EV-p24 Ab2)] to form the immunocomplex. Finally, the immunocomplex was absorbed on the surface of screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) by a magnet and immersed in the o-hydroxyl phenol (HQ) and H2O2. The large amounts of HRP on the signal tag can catalyze the oxidation of HQ by H2O2, which can induce an amplified reductive current. Moreover, the capture probe could improve the accumulation ability of p24 and facilitate its separation from the substrate through the magnet. Under optimal conditions, the proposed immunoassay exhibited good sensitivity to p24 within a certain concentration range from 0.001 to 10.00 ng/mL, with a detection limit of 0.5 pg/mL (S/N = 3). The proposed method can be used for real-time and early detection of HIV-infected people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanoscale Biomaterials)
Open AccessArticle Nanomagnetic Gene Transfection for Non-Viral Gene Delivery in NIH 3T3 Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts
Materials 2013, 6(1), 255-264; doi:10.3390/ma6010255
Received: 15 November 2012 / Revised: 8 January 2013 / Accepted: 11 January 2013 / Published: 18 January 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (5664 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this work was to examine the potential of oscillating nanomagnetic gene transfection systems (magnefect-nano™) for improving the transfection efficiency of NIH3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) in comparison to other non-viral transfection techniques—static magnetofection™ and the cationic lipid agent, Lipofectamine [...] Read more.
The objective of this work was to examine the potential of oscillating nanomagnetic gene transfection systems (magnefect-nano™) for improving the transfection efficiency of NIH3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) in comparison to other non-viral transfection techniques—static magnetofection™ and the cationic lipid agent, Lipofectamine 2000™. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) associated with the plasmid coding for green fluorescent protein (GFP) were used to transfect NIH3T3 cells. The magnefect-nano system was evaluated for transfection efficiency, and any potential associated effects on cell viability were investigated. MNPs associated with the plasmid coding for GFP were efficiently delivered into NIH3T3 cells, and the magnefect-nano system significantly enhanced overall transfection efficiency in comparison to lipid-mediated gene delivery. MNP dosage used in this work was not found to affect the cell viability and/or morphology of the cells. Non-viral transfection using MNPs and the magnefect-nano system can be used to transfect NIH3T3 cells and direct reporter gene delivery, highlighting the wide potential of nanomagnetic gene transfection in gene therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanoscale Biomaterials)
Open AccessArticle Preparation and Mechanical Properties of Photo-Crosslinked Fish Gelatin/Imogolite Nanofiber Composite Hydrogel
Materials 2012, 5(12), 2573-2585; doi:10.3390/ma5122573
Received: 14 September 2012 / Revised: 7 November 2012 / Accepted: 22 November 2012 / Published: 29 November 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (925 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fish gelatin (FG) extracted from sea bream scales was reacted with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), and the product (FG-GMA) was used for photopolymerization using a radical photoinitiator in the presence or absence of imogolite nanofibers in the aqueous solution. The synthesis of FG-GMA [...] Read more.
Fish gelatin (FG) extracted from sea bream scales was reacted with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), and the product (FG-GMA) was used for photopolymerization using a radical photoinitiator in the presence or absence of imogolite nanofibers in the aqueous solution. The synthesis of FG-GMA was confirmed by 1H NMR spectroscopy, and photopolymerization of FG-GMA was achieved successfully by irradiation with ultraviolet (UV) light for 3 min to yield translucent composite hydrogels. The concentration of FG-GMA varied from 10% to 30% without imogolite, and that of imogolite varied from 0% to 2.0%. A microtomed gel sample was observed with a transmission electron microscope (TEM), and imogolite nanofibers were found to be dispersed finely in the gelatin matrix. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation of the lyophilized gel revealed that it had a porous morphology. Mechanical properties of hydrogels were measured by compression tests using a mechanical tester, and viscoelastic properties were measured using a rheometer. The mechanical strength and storage modulus of the hydrogel increased with an increase of imogolite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanoscale Biomaterials)
Figures

Open AccessArticle A Novel Active Targeting Preparation, Vinorelbine Tartrate (VLBT) Encapsulated by Folate-Conjugated Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) Nanoparticles: Preparation, Characterization and in Vitro Release Study
Materials 2012, 5(11), 2403-2422; doi:10.3390/ma5112403
Received: 14 September 2012 / Revised: 5 November 2012 / Accepted: 14 November 2012 / Published: 20 November 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (800 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vinorelbine tartrate (VLBT), as a kind of high hydrophilic and temperature-induced degradation drug, was prepared into nanoparticles by a desolvation procedure. Bovine serum albumin (BSA), as a drug carrier, was stabilized by chemical cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. Firstly, the optimization process of preparing [...] Read more.
Vinorelbine tartrate (VLBT), as a kind of high hydrophilic and temperature-induced degradation drug, was prepared into nanoparticles by a desolvation procedure. Bovine serum albumin (BSA), as a drug carrier, was stabilized by chemical cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. Firstly, the optimization process of preparing VLBT-loaded BSA nanoparticles (VLBT-BSANPs) was accomplished using response surface methodology (RSM) by desolvation. Then VLBT-BSANPs were conjugated with folate, namely Fa-BSANPs-VLBT. Hence targeting drug carrier delivery system loading VLBT was produced. In this study, the characteristics of the nanoparticles, such as the amount of folate conjugation, surface morphology, surface chemistry, physical status of VLBT in Fa-BSANPs-VLBT, stability of Fa-BSANPs-VLBT with mannitol and in vitro drug release behavior were all investigated. The VLBT-BSANPs were obtained under optimum conditions, with a mean particle size (MPS) of 155.4 nm and a zeta potential (ZP) of −32.97 mV at a pH value of 5.4. Drug loading efficiency (DLE) and drug entrapment efficiency (DEE) of this obtained drug were approximately 45.6% and 90.6%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanoscale Biomaterials)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Preparation of Poly-(Methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic Anhydride) Nanoparticles by Solution-Enhanced Dispersion by Supercritical CO2
Materials 2012, 5(10), 1841-1852; doi:10.3390/ma5101841
Received: 30 July 2012 / Revised: 10 September 2012 / Accepted: 9 October 2012 / Published: 10 October 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (921 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The supercritical CO2-based technologies have been widely used in the formation of drug and/or polymer particles for biomedical applications. In this study, nanoparticles of poly-(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride) (PVM/MA) were successfully fabricated by a process of solution-enhanced dispersion by supercritical [...] Read more.
The supercritical CO2-based technologies have been widely used in the formation of drug and/or polymer particles for biomedical applications. In this study, nanoparticles of poly-(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride) (PVM/MA) were successfully fabricated by a process of solution-enhanced dispersion by supercritical CO2 (SEDS). A 23 factorial experiment was designed to investigate and identify the significance of the processing parameters (concentration, flow and solvent/nonsolvent) for the surface morphology, particle size, and particle size distribution of the products. The effect of the concentration of PVM/MA was found to be dominant in the results regarding particle size. Decreasing the initial solution concentration of PVM/MA decreased the particle size significantly. After optimization, the resulting PVM/MA nanoparticles exhibited a good spherical shape, a smooth surface, and a narrow particle size distribution. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra demonstrated that the chemical composition of PVM/MA was not altered during the SEDS process and that the SEDS process was therefore a typical physical process. The absolute value of zeta potential of the obtained PVM/MA nanoparticles was larger than 40 mV, indicating the samples’ stability in aqueous suspension. Analysis of thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) revealed that the effect of the SEDS process on the thermostability of PVM/MA was negligible. The results of gas chromatography (GC) analysis confirmed that the SEDS process could efficiently remove the organic residue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanoscale Biomaterials)

Review

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Open AccessReview How Can Nanotechnology Help to Repair the Body? Advances in Cardiac, Skin, Bone, Cartilage and Nerve Tissue Regeneration
Materials 2013, 6(4), 1333-1359; doi:10.3390/ma6041333
Received: 6 January 2013 / Revised: 20 March 2013 / Accepted: 20 March 2013 / Published: 28 March 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (567 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanotechnologists have become involved in regenerative medicine via creation of biomaterials and nanostructures with potential clinical implications. Their aim is to develop systems that can mimic, reinforce or even create in vivo tissue repair strategies. In fact, in the last decade, important [...] Read more.
Nanotechnologists have become involved in regenerative medicine via creation of biomaterials and nanostructures with potential clinical implications. Their aim is to develop systems that can mimic, reinforce or even create in vivo tissue repair strategies. In fact, in the last decade, important advances in the field of tissue engineering, cell therapy and cell delivery have already been achieved. In this review, we will delve into the latest research advances and discuss whether cell and/or tissue repair devices are a possibility. Focusing on the application of nanotechnology in tissue engineering research, this review highlights recent advances in the application of nano-engineered scaffolds designed to replace or restore the followed tissues: (i) skin; (ii) cartilage; (iii) bone; (iv) nerve; and (v) cardiac. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanoscale Biomaterials)

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