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Special Issue "Application of Photoactive Nanomaterials in Degradation of Pollutants"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Advanced Nanomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2018

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Roberto Comparelli

National Research Council–Institute for Physical Chemical Processes (CNR-IPCF), Bari, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: application of photoactive materials in degradation of organic/inorganic pollutants in water and gas matrices; NC incorporation in polymer matrices, application in optoelectronic, self-assembly, biological and environmental fields

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Photoactive nanomaterials are receiving increasing attention due to their potential application in light-driven degradation of water and gas-phase pollutants.

The ability to exploit the strong potential of photoactive materials and access their properties relies on the ability to tune their size/shape dependent chemical-physical properties and on the ability to integrate them in photo-reactors or to deposit them on large surfaces. Therefore, the synthetic approach, as well as the post-synthesis manipulation could strongly affect the final photocatalytic properties of the nanomaterials. Thus far, a plethora of nanomaterials have been proposed for the degradation of pollutants driven by UV or Visible light: semiconductors, plasmonic nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, hybrid nanocatalysts merging the properties of different crystalline domain and nanocomposite based on nanoparticles dispersed in suitable host matrix. One of the major concern in the large-scale application of nanomaterial assisted photocatalytic processes is to avoid the release of nanocatalysts in the environment during or after the photocatalytic treatment, therefore the immobilization of nanocatalyst onto suitable supports is a key point to promote their practical application.

The potential application of photoactive nanomaterials in environmental field includes abatement of organic pollutant in water, water disinfection and abatement of gas-phase pollutants in outdoor and indoor applications.

We invite contributors to submit original papers that account for recent advances in the field of photoactive nanomaterials for the degradation of pollutants assisted by UV, visible or solar light.

Dr. Roberto Comparelli
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • photoactive nanomaterials synthesis
  • supported photocatalysts
  • advanced oxidation processes
  • water treatments
  • water disinfection
  • recalcitrant pollutants
  • gas-phase pollutants
  • NOx
  • VOCs

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Photocatalytic Degradation of Diclofenac by Hydroxyapatite–TiO2 Composite Material: Identification of Transformation Products and Assessment of Toxicity
Materials 2018, 11(9), 1779; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11091779
Received: 24 August 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
Diclofenac (DCF) is one of the most detected pharmaceuticals in environmental water matrices and is known to be recalcitrant to conventional wastewater treatment plants. In this study, degradation of DCF was performed in water by photolysis and photocatalysis using a new synthetized photocatalyst
[...] Read more.
Diclofenac (DCF) is one of the most detected pharmaceuticals in environmental water matrices and is known to be recalcitrant to conventional wastewater treatment plants. In this study, degradation of DCF was performed in water by photolysis and photocatalysis using a new synthetized photocatalyst based on hydroxyapatite and TiO2 (HApTi). A degradation of 95% of the target compound was achieved in 24 h by a photocatalytic treatment employing the HApTi catalyst in comparison to only 60% removal by the photolytic process. The investigation of photo-transformation products was performed by means of UPLC-QTOF/MS/MS, and for 14 detected compounds in samples collected during treatment with HApTi, the chemical structure was proposed. The determination of transformation product (TP) toxicity was performed by using different assays: Daphnia magna acute toxicity test, Toxi-ChromoTest, and Lactuca sativa and Solanum lycopersicum germination inhibition test. Overall, the toxicity of the samples obtained from the photocatalytic experiment with HApTi decreased at the end of the treatment, showing the potential applicability of the catalyst for the removal of diclofenac and the detoxification of water matrices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Photoactive Nanomaterials in Degradation of Pollutants)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Photoelectrocatalytic Degradation of Paraquat by Pt Loaded TiO2 Nanotubes on Ti Anodes
Materials 2018, 11(9), 1715; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11091715
Received: 27 August 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
PDF Full-text (8801 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Nanotube structured TiO2 on Ti surface were prepared in ethylene glycol (Ti/TiO2NTEG) medium by anodic oxidation method with different times and then the plates were calcinated at different temperatures. Non-nanotube structured Ti/TiO2, prepared by thermal oxidation method, and
[...] Read more.
Nanotube structured TiO2 on Ti surface were prepared in ethylene glycol (Ti/TiO2NTEG) medium by anodic oxidation method with different times and then the plates were calcinated at different temperatures. Non-nanotube structured Ti/TiO2, prepared by thermal oxidation method, and nanotube structured TiO2 on Ti plate in hydrogen fluoride solution were also prepared for comparison. Pt loaded Ti/TiO2NTEG photoanodes were also prepared by cyclic voltammetry method with different cycles and the optimum loaded Pt amount was determined. Photoanodes were characterized by using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy-Dispersive X-ray Analysis (SEM-EDX), and photocurrent methods. XRD analyses proved that almost all TiO2 is in anatase phase. SEM analyses show that nanotubes and Pt nanoparticles on nanotube surface are dispersed quite homogeneously. The longest nanotubes were obtained in the ethylene glycol medium and the nanotube length increased by increasing applied anodic oxidation time. In addition, a linear correlation between nanotube length and XRD peak intensity was found. Moreover, SEM-EDX and XRD analyses evidence that Pt nanoparticles on nanotube surface are metallic and in cubic structure. Photoelectrocatalytic degradation of paraquat was performed using the prepared photoanodes. Moreover, electrocatalytic and photocatalytic degradations of paraquat were also investigated for comparison, however lower activities were observed. These results evidence that the photoanodes show a significant synergy for photoelectrocatalytic activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Photoactive Nanomaterials in Degradation of Pollutants)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Influence of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on the Sulfate Attack upon Ordinary Portland Cement and Slag-Blended Mortars
Materials 2018, 11(3), 356; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11030356
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 24 February 2018 / Accepted: 27 February 2018 / Published: 28 February 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (21584 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, the effects of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles on the sulfate attack resistance of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and slag-blended mortars were investigated. OPC and slag-blended mortars (OPC:Slag = 50:50) were made with water to binder ratio of 0.4
[...] Read more.
In this study, the effects of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles on the sulfate attack resistance of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and slag-blended mortars were investigated. OPC and slag-blended mortars (OPC:Slag = 50:50) were made with water to binder ratio of 0.4 and a binder to sand ratio of 1:3. TiO2 was added as an admixture as 0%, 3%, 6%, 9% and 12% of the binder weight. Mortar specimens were exposed to an accelerated sulfate attack environment. Expansion, changes in mass and surface microhardness were measured. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetry Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) tests were conducted. The formation of ettringite and gypsum crystals after the sulfate attack were detected. Both these products had caused crystallization pressure in the microstructure of mortars and deteriorated the mortars. Our results show that the addition of nano-TiO2 accelerated expansion, variation in mass, loss of surface microhardness and widened cracks in OPC and slag-blended mortars. Nano-TiO2 containing slag-blended mortars were more resistant to sulfate attack than nano-TiO2 containing OPC mortars. Because nano-TiO2 reduced the size of coarse pores, so it increased crystallization pressure due to the formation of ettringite and gypsum thus led to more damage under sulfate attack. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Photoactive Nanomaterials in Degradation of Pollutants)
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Open AccessArticle Shell Layer Thickness-Dependent Photocatalytic Activity of Sputtering Synthesized Hexagonally Structured ZnO-ZnS Composite Nanorods
Materials 2018, 11(1), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11010087
Received: 13 December 2017 / Revised: 3 January 2018 / Accepted: 5 January 2018 / Published: 7 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1686 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
ZnO-ZnS core-shell nanorods are synthesized by combining the hydrothermal method and vacuum sputtering. The core-shell nanorods with variable ZnS shell thickness (7–46 nm) are synthesized by varying ZnS sputtering duration. Structural analyses demonstrated that the as-grown ZnS shell layers are well crystallized with
[...] Read more.
ZnO-ZnS core-shell nanorods are synthesized by combining the hydrothermal method and vacuum sputtering. The core-shell nanorods with variable ZnS shell thickness (7–46 nm) are synthesized by varying ZnS sputtering duration. Structural analyses demonstrated that the as-grown ZnS shell layers are well crystallized with preferring growth direction of ZnS (002). The sputtering-assisted synthesized ZnO-ZnS core-shell nanorods are in a wurtzite structure. Moreover, photoluminance spectral analysis indicated that the introduction of a ZnS shell layer improved the photoexcited electron and hole separation efficiency of the ZnO nanorods. A strong correlation between effective charge separation and the shell thickness aids the photocatalytic behavior of the nanorods and improves their photoresponsive nature. The results of comparative degradation efficiency toward methylene blue showed that the ZnO-ZnS nanorods with the shell thickness of approximately 17 nm have the highest photocatalytic performance than the ZnO-ZnS nanorods with other shell layer thicknesses. The highly reusable catalytic efficiency and superior photocatalytic performance of the ZnO-ZnS nanorods with 17 nm-thick ZnS shell layer supports their potential for environmental applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Photoactive Nanomaterials in Degradation of Pollutants)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Article Type: Review
Title:
Application of Photoactive nanomaterials in degradation of pollutants
Author: Roberto Comparelli

Title: Solvent effect on the formulation of Graphene/polyporphyrin hybrid material and its photocatalytic activity
Author: Vittorio Privitera

Title: Immobilized TiO2 on hydroxyapatite-based biomaterial as photocatalysts for diclofenac degradation: toxicity and transformation products
Authors: Giuseppe Mascolo et al.

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