Special Issue "Membranes in Water Purification"

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A special issue of Membranes (ISSN 2077-0375).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Long Duc Nghiem

School of Civil Mining and Environmental Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +61 2 4221 3238
Interests: NF/RO membranes; membrane fouling and autopsy study; non-potable and indirect potable water reuse; membrane bioreactors (MBRs); membrane extraction; polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs)

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleaguers,

Innovative membrane separation processes using recent advances in materials science, biotechnology, nanotechnology, and process engineering will play a significant role in addressing the major global challenges associated with both water scarcity and the provision of sustainable, cost effective and energy efficient potable water supply. In water and wastewater treatment, the membrane is utilised as a physical barrier that is permeable to water but not the contaminants of concern. Membrane technology offers a range of reliable water and wastewater treatment options with the advantages of simplicity, robustness, efficiency, low chemical consumption and low cost.

This special issue offers a scientific forum for membrane researchers and practitioners to disseminate their latest innovation on the fabrication of membrane materials and development of membrane processes for water purification applications. We welcome any research work or critical review addressing the use of membrane technology for water and wastewater treatment. Articles dealing with the removal of specific contaminants, novel membrane materials, membrane fouling and cleaning, and energy efficient membrane systems are of particular interest to this special issue.

Topics of specific interest include:

  • water and wastewater treatment processes
  • membrane fabrication
  • membrane bioreactors
  • membrane based water and energy integration systems
  • power generation with pressure retarded osmosis
  • novel membrane processes
  • membrane filtration for the improvement of public health
  • membrane based dewatering processes in food processing applications
  • membrane based treatment processes

Dr. Long Duc Nghiem
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • water reuse
  • desalination
  • water and wastewater treatment
  • energy
  • food
  • health
  • novel materials

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Development and Testing of a Fully Adaptable Membrane Bioreactor Fouling Model for a Sidestream Configuration System
Membranes 2013, 3(2), 24-43; doi:10.3390/membranes3020024
Received: 23 March 2013 / Revised: 17 April 2013 / Accepted: 17 April 2013 / Published: 24 April 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (833 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A dead-end filtration model that includes the three main fouling mechanisms mentioned in Hermia (i.e., cake build-up, complete pore blocking, and pore constriction) and that was based on a constant trans-membrane pressure (TMP) operation was extensively modified so it could be
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A dead-end filtration model that includes the three main fouling mechanisms mentioned in Hermia (i.e., cake build-up, complete pore blocking, and pore constriction) and that was based on a constant trans-membrane pressure (TMP) operation was extensively modified so it could be used for a sidestream configuration membrane bioreactor (MBR) situation. Modifications and add-ons to this basic model included: alteration so that it could be used for varying flux and varying TMP operations; inclusion of a backwash mode; it described pore constriction (i.e., irreversible fouling) in relation to the concentration of soluble microbial products (SMP) in the liquor; and, it could be used in a cross flow scenario by the addition of scouring terms in the model formulation. The additional terms in this modified model were checked against an already published model to see if they made sense, physically speaking. Next this modified model was calibrated and validated in Matlab© using data collected by carrying out flux stepping tests on both a pilot sidestream MBR plant, and then a pilot membrane filtration unit. The model fit proved good, especially for the pilot filtration unit data. In conclusion, this model formulation is of the right level of complexity to be used for most practical MBR situations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membranes in Water Purification)
Open AccessArticle Comparison of Polytetrafluoroethylene Flat-Sheet Membranes with Different Pore Sizes in Application to Submerged Membrane Bioreactor
Membranes 2012, 2(2), 228-236; doi:10.3390/membranes2020228
Received: 24 April 2012 / Revised: 25 May 2012 / Accepted: 29 May 2012 / Published: 1 June 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1315 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study focused on phase separation of activated sludge mixed liquor by flat-sheet membranes of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). A 20 liter working volume lab-scale MBR incorporating immersed PTFE flat-sheet membrane modules with different pore sizes (0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 μm) was operated for 19
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This study focused on phase separation of activated sludge mixed liquor by flat-sheet membranes of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). A 20 liter working volume lab-scale MBR incorporating immersed PTFE flat-sheet membrane modules with different pore sizes (0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 μm) was operated for 19 days treating a synthetic wastewater. The experiment was interrupted twice at days 5 and 13 when the modules were removed and cleaned physically and chemically in sequence. The pure water permeate flux of each membrane module was measured before and after each cleaning step to calculate membrane resistances. Results showed that fouling of membrane modules with 0.3 μm pore size was more rapid than other membrane modules with different pore sizes (0.5 and 1.0 μm). On the other hand, it was not clear whether fouling of the 0.5 μm membrane module was more severe than that of the 1.0 μm membrane module. This was partly because of the membrane condition after chemical cleaning, which seemed to determine the fouling of those modules over the next period. When irreversible resistance (Ri) i.e., differences in membrane resistance before use and after chemical cleaning was high, the transmembrane pressure increased quickly during the next period irrespective of membrane pore size. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membranes in Water Purification)

Review

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Open AccessReview Biofouling of Water Treatment Membranes: A Review of the Underlying Causes, Monitoring Techniques and Control Measures
Membranes 2012, 2(4), 804-840; doi:10.3390/membranes2040804
Received: 3 August 2012 / Revised: 2 November 2012 / Accepted: 5 November 2012 / Published: 21 November 2012
Cited by 84 | PDF Full-text (278 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biofouling is a critical issue in membrane water and wastewater treatment as it greatly compromises the efficiency of the treatment processes. It is difficult to control, and significant economic resources have been dedicated to the development of effective biofouling monitoring and control strategies.
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Biofouling is a critical issue in membrane water and wastewater treatment as it greatly compromises the efficiency of the treatment processes. It is difficult to control, and significant economic resources have been dedicated to the development of effective biofouling monitoring and control strategies. This paper highlights the underlying causes of membrane biofouling and provides a review on recent developments of potential monitoring and control methods in water and wastewater treatment with the aim of identifying the remaining issues and challenges in this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membranes in Water Purification)
Open AccessReview Microbial Relevant Fouling in Membrane Bioreactors: Influencing Factors, Characterization, and Fouling Control
Membranes 2012, 2(3), 565-584; doi:10.3390/membranes2030565
Received: 20 June 2012 / Revised: 20 July 2012 / Accepted: 9 August 2012 / Published: 15 August 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (271 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microorganisms in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) play important roles on degradation of organic/inorganic substances in wastewaters, while microbial deposition/growth and microbial product accumulation on membranes potentially induce membrane fouling. Generally, there is a need to characterize membrane foulants and to determine their relations to
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Microorganisms in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) play important roles on degradation of organic/inorganic substances in wastewaters, while microbial deposition/growth and microbial product accumulation on membranes potentially induce membrane fouling. Generally, there is a need to characterize membrane foulants and to determine their relations to the evolution of membrane fouling in order to identify a suitable fouling control approach in MBRs. This review summarized the factors in MBRs that influence microbial behaviors (community compositions, physical properties, and microbial products). The state-of-the-art techniques to characterize biofoulants in MBRs were reported. The strategies for controlling microbial relevant fouling were discussed and the future studies on membrane fouling mechanisms in MBRs were proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membranes in Water Purification)

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