Special Issue "Microbiome Gut Brain Axis"

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Gut Microbiota".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Carl Gordon Johnston

Department of Biological Sciences, Youngstown State University, Youngstown, OH 44555, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 330 941 7151
Interests: human oral and gut microbiome; effects of probiotics & antibiotics; phytoremediation of metals; biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); functional diversity of genes associated with pollutant degradation; water chemistry of riverine systems; tropical field ecology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The role of gut microbial ecosystem in host health and dysbiosis (e.g., gastrointestinal diseases, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and infection) and host immune system has been widely reported in the last decade. However, the gut microbiota also influences other aspects of human physiology, such as the Microbiome–Gut–Brain axis. The function of the gut microbiome and the bidirectional communication between the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the brain has only recently been recognized in health and disease. In fact, disruption of the gut–brain axis and its composition is now under investigation in a number of neurological diseases and other issues related to mental health, mental well-being, neurological development, depression, and anxiety. This Special Issue broadly covers interactions between gut microbes, the GI tract, endocrine system, enteric nervous system, immune system, and the central nervous system.

Prof. Carl Gordon Johnston
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Microorganisms is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 550 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Gut microbiome
  • Gastrointestinal tract
  • Central nervous system
  • Enteric nervous system

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessCommunication Markers of Microbial Translocation and Immune Activation Predict Cognitive Processing Speed in Heavy-Drinking Men Living with HIV
Microorganisms 2017, 5(4), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms5040064
Received: 28 August 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 20 September 2017 / Published: 21 September 2017
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Abstract
HIV infection and alcohol use disorder are associated with deficits in neurocognitive function. Emerging evidence points to pro-inflammatory perturbations of the gut-brain axis as potentially contributing to neurocognitive impairment in the context of HIV and chronic heavy alcohol use. This study examined whether
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HIV infection and alcohol use disorder are associated with deficits in neurocognitive function. Emerging evidence points to pro-inflammatory perturbations of the gut-brain axis as potentially contributing to neurocognitive impairment in the context of HIV and chronic heavy alcohol use. This study examined whether plasma markers of microbial translocation (LPS) from the gastrointestinal tract and related immune activation (sCD14, EndoCAb) were associated with neurocognition in 21 men living with HIV who were virally suppressed on antiretroviral therapy. All participants met federal criteria for heavy drinking and were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a brief alcohol intervention. This secondary analysis utilized blood samples and cognitive scores (learning, memory, executive function, verbal fluency, and processing speed) obtained at baseline and three-month follow-up of the RCT. In generalized estimating equation models, LPS, sCD14, and EndoCAb individually were significant predictors of processing speed. In a model with all biomarkers, higher LPS and sCD14 both remained significant predictors of lower processing speed. These preliminary findings suggest that inflammation stemming from HIV and/or alcohol could have negative effects on the gut-brain axis, manifested as diminished processing speed. Associations of microbial translocation and immune activation with processing speed in heavy-drinking PLWH warrant further investigation in larger-scale studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiome Gut Brain Axis)

Review

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Open AccessReview Harnessing the Power of Microbiome Assessment Tools as Part of Neuroprotective Nutrition and Lifestyle Medicine Interventions
Microorganisms 2018, 6(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms6020035
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 2 April 2018 / Accepted: 20 April 2018 / Published: 25 April 2018
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Abstract
An extensive body of evidence documents the importance of the gut microbiome both in health and in a variety of human diseases. Cell and animal studies describing this relationship abound, whilst clinical studies exploring the associations between changes in gut microbiota and the
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An extensive body of evidence documents the importance of the gut microbiome both in health and in a variety of human diseases. Cell and animal studies describing this relationship abound, whilst clinical studies exploring the associations between changes in gut microbiota and the corresponding metabolites with neurodegeneration in the human brain have only begun to emerge more recently. Further, the findings of such studies are often difficult to translate into simple clinical applications that result in measurable health outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to appraise the literature on a select set of faecal biomarkers from a clinician’s perspective. This practical review aims to examine key physiological processes that influence both gastrointestinal, as well as brain health, and to discuss how tools such as the characterisation of commensal bacteria, the identification of potential opportunistic, pathogenic and parasitic organisms and the quantification of gut microbiome biomarkers and metabolites can help inform clinical decisions of nutrition and lifestyle medicine practitioners. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiome Gut Brain Axis)
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Open AccessReview The Mycobiome: A Neglected Component in the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis
Microorganisms 2018, 6(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms6010022
Received: 5 February 2018 / Revised: 23 February 2018 / Accepted: 5 March 2018 / Published: 9 March 2018
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Abstract
In recent years, the gut microbiota has been considered as a full-fledged actor of the gut–brain axis, making it possible to take a new step in understanding the pathophysiology of both neurological and psychiatric diseases. However, most of the studies have been devoted
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In recent years, the gut microbiota has been considered as a full-fledged actor of the gut–brain axis, making it possible to take a new step in understanding the pathophysiology of both neurological and psychiatric diseases. However, most of the studies have been devoted to gut bacterial microbiota, forgetting the non-negligible fungal flora. In this review, we expose how the role of the fungal component in the microbiota-gut-brain axis is legitimate, through its interactions with both the host, especially with the immune system, and the gut bacteria. We also discuss published data that already attest to a role of the mycobiome in the microbiota-gut-brain axis, and the impact of fungi on clinical and therapeutic research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiome Gut Brain Axis)
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Open AccessReview The Gut Microbiome Feelings of the Brain: A Perspective for Non-Microbiologists
Microorganisms 2017, 5(4), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms5040066
Received: 30 August 2017 / Revised: 28 September 2017 / Accepted: 9 October 2017 / Published: 12 October 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1031 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Objectives: To comprehensively review the scientific knowledge on the gut–brain axis. Methods: Various publications on the gut–brain axis, until 31 July 2017, were screened using the Medline, Google, and Cochrane Library databases. The search was performed using the following keywords: “gut-brain axis”, “gut-microbiota-brain
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Objectives: To comprehensively review the scientific knowledge on the gut–brain axis. Methods: Various publications on the gut–brain axis, until 31 July 2017, were screened using the Medline, Google, and Cochrane Library databases. The search was performed using the following keywords: “gut-brain axis”, “gut-microbiota-brain axis”, “nutrition microbiome/microbiota”, “enteric nervous system”, “enteric glial cells/network”, “gut-brain pathways”, “microbiome immune system”, “microbiome neuroendocrine system” and “intestinal/gut/enteric neuropeptides”. Relevant articles were selected and reviewed. Results: Tremendous progress has been made in exploring the interactions between nutrients, the microbiome, and the intestinal, epithelium–enteric nervous, endocrine and immune systems and the brain. The basis of the gut–brain axis comprises of an array of multichannel sensing and trafficking pathways that are suggested to convey the enteric signals to the brain. These are mediated by neuroanatomy (represented by the vagal and spinal afferent neurons), the neuroendocrine–hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis (represented by the gut hormones), immune routes (represented by multiple cytokines), microbially-derived neurotransmitters, and finally the gate keepers of the intestinal and brain barriers. Their mutual and harmonious but intricate interaction is essential for human life and brain performance. However, a failure in the interaction leads to a number of inflammatory-, autoimmune-, neurodegenerative-, metabolic-, mood-, behavioral-, cognitive-, autism-spectrum-, stress- and pain-related disorders. The limited availability of information on the mechanisms, pathways and cause-and-effect relationships hinders us from translating and implementing the knowledge from the bench to the clinic. Implications: Further understanding of this intricate field might potentially shed light on novel preventive and therapeutic strategies to combat these disorders. Nutritional approaches, microbiome manipulations, enteric and brain barrier reinforcement and sensing and trafficking modulation might improve physical and mental health outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiome Gut Brain Axis)
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Other

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Open AccessOpinion Bacteriophages as New Human Viral Pathogens
Microorganisms 2018, 6(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms6020054
Received: 23 April 2018 / Revised: 4 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
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Abstract
The pathogenesis of numerous human multifaceted devastating diseases, including a variety of neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases, is associated with alterations in the gut microbiota; however, the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. Our recent human metagenome and phagobiota proteome analyses and studies in
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The pathogenesis of numerous human multifaceted devastating diseases, including a variety of neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases, is associated with alterations in the gut microbiota; however, the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. Our recent human metagenome and phagobiota proteome analyses and studies in relevant animal models suggested that bacterial viruses might be implicated in the progression and maintenance of at least some pathologies, including those associated with protein misfolding. Here, for the first time, we propose the concept of bacteriophages as human pathogens. We suggest that bacterial viruses have different ways to directly and indirectly interact with eukaryotic cells and proteins, leading to human diseases. Furthermore, we suggest different causes of bacteriophages infection on the basis of the unique ways of interplay of phages, microbiota, and the human host. This concept opens a discussion of the role of bacteriophages as previously overlooked pathogenic factors and suggests that bacterial viruses have to be further explored as a diagnostic and treatment target for therapeutic intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiome Gut Brain Axis)
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