E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Dendrimers - from Synthesis to Applications"

Quicklinks

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Organic Synthesis".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 February 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Afang Zhang (Website)

Department of Polymer Materials, Shanghai University, Chengzhong Street 20, Shanghai 201800, China
Phone: +41 44 633 1390

Keywords

  • biomedical applications
  • chiral dendrimer
  • dendrimer assembly
  • dendrimer block copolymers
  • dendrimer chirality
  • dendrimer conjugates
  • dendrimer-like star polymers
  • dendrimer MRI contrast agents
  • dendrimer nanoparticles
  • dendrimer nonreactors
  • dendrimer nano-templates
  • dendrimer synthesis
  • dendron
  • dendronized polymers
  • drug delivery
  • hyperbranched polymers
  • organocatalysis
  • peptide dendrimer
  • stimuli-responsive dendrimers
  • supramolecular dendrimers

Published Papers (9 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-9
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Thermal Hazard Evaluation of Lauroyl Peroxide Mixed with Nitric Acid
Molecules 2012, 17(7), 8056-8067; doi:10.3390/molecules17078056
Received: 19 April 2012 / Revised: 20 June 2012 / Accepted: 25 June 2012 / Published: 4 July 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (276 KB)
Abstract
Many thermal runaway incidents have been caused by organic peroxides due to the peroxy group, –O–O–, which is essentially unstable and active. Lauroyl peroxide (LPO) is also sensitive to thermal sources and is incompatible with many materials, such as acids, bases, metals, [...] Read more.
Many thermal runaway incidents have been caused by organic peroxides due to the peroxy group, –O–O–, which is essentially unstable and active. Lauroyl peroxide (LPO) is also sensitive to thermal sources and is incompatible with many materials, such as acids, bases, metals, and ions. From the thermal decomposition reaction of various concentrations of nitric acid (HNO3) (from lower to higher concentrations) with LPO, experimental data were obtained as to its exothermic onset temperature (T0), heat of decomposition (ΔHd), isothermal time to maximum rate (TMRiso), and other safety parameters exclusively for loss prevention of runaway reactions and thermal explosions. As a novel finding, LPO mixed with HNO3 can produce the detonation product of 1-nitrododecane. We used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal activity monitor III (TAM III), and gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) analyses of the reactivity for LPO and itself mixed with HNO3 to corroborate the decomposition reactions and reaction mechanisms in these investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dendrimers - from Synthesis to Applications)
Open AccessArticle Hydrogel of Ketoconazole and PAMAM Dendrimers: Formulation and Antifungal Activity
Molecules 2012, 17(4), 4612-4624; doi:10.3390/molecules17044612
Received: 21 February 2012 / Revised: 30 March 2012 / Accepted: 9 April 2012 / Published: 18 April 2012
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (262 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ketoconazole (KET), an imidazole derivative with well-known antifungal properties, is lipophilic and practically insoluble in water, therefore its clinical use has some practical disadvantages. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of PAMAM-NH2 and PAMAM-OH dendrimers generation [...] Read more.
Ketoconazole (KET), an imidazole derivative with well-known antifungal properties, is lipophilic and practically insoluble in water, therefore its clinical use has some practical disadvantages. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of PAMAM-NH2 and PAMAM-OH dendrimers generation 2 and generation 3 on the solubility and antifungal activity of KET and to design and evaluate KET hydrogel with PAMAM dendrimers. It was shown that the surface charge of PAMAM dendrimers strongly affects their influence on the improvement of solubility and antifungal activity of KET. The MIC and MFC values obtained by broth dilution method indicate that PAMAM-NH2 dendrimers significantly (up to 16-fold) increased the antifungal activity of KET against Candida strains (e.g., in culture Candida albicans 1103059/11 MIC value was 0.008 μg/mL and 0.064 μg/mL, and MFC was 2 μg/mL and 32 μg/mL for KET in 10 mg/mL solution of PAMAM-NH2 G2 and pure KET, respectively). Antifungal activity of designed KET hydrogel with PAMAM-NH2 dendrimers measured by the plate diffusion method was definitely higher than pure KET hydrogel and than commercial available product. It was shown that the improvement of solubility and in the consequence the higher KET release from hydrogels seems to be a very significant factor affecting antifungal activity of KET in hydrogels containing PAMAM dendrimers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dendrimers - from Synthesis to Applications)
Open AccessArticle Antifungal Activity of Eugenol Analogues. Influence of Different Substituents and Studies on Mechanism of Action
Molecules 2012, 17(1), 1002-1024; doi:10.3390/molecules17011002
Received: 26 December 2011 / Revised: 13 January 2012 / Accepted: 13 January 2012 / Published: 19 January 2012
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (324 KB)
Abstract
Twenty one phenylpropanoids (including eugenol and safrole) and synthetic analogues, thirteen of them new compounds, were evaluated for antifungal properties, first with non-targeted assays against a panel of human opportunistic pathogenic fungi. Some structure-activity relationships could be observed, mainly related to the [...] Read more.
Twenty one phenylpropanoids (including eugenol and safrole) and synthetic analogues, thirteen of them new compounds, were evaluated for antifungal properties, first with non-targeted assays against a panel of human opportunistic pathogenic fungi. Some structure-activity relationships could be observed, mainly related to the influence of an allyl substituent at C-4, an OH group at C-1 and an OCH3 at C-2 or the presence of one or two NO2 groups in different positions of the benzene ring. All active compounds were tested in a second panel of clinical isolates of C. albicans and non-albicans Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans and dermatophytes. The eugenol derivative 4-allyl-2-methoxy-5-nitrophenol (2) was the most active structure against all strains tested, and therefore it was submitted to targeted assays. These studies showed that the antifungal activity of 2 was not reversed in the presence of an osmotic support such as sorbitol, suggesting that it does not act by inhibiting the fungal cell wall synthesis or assembly. On the other hand, the Ergosterol Assay showed that 2 did not bind to the main sterol of the fungal membrane up to 250 µg mL−1. In contrast, a 22% of fungal membrane damage was observed at concentrations = 1 × MIC and 71% at 4× MIC, when 2 was tested in the Cellular Leakage assay. The comparison of log P and MICs for all compounds revealed that the antifungal activity of the eugenol analogues would not to be related to lipophilicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dendrimers - from Synthesis to Applications)
Open AccessArticle Design of Antimicrobially Active Small Amphiphilic Peptide Dendrimers
Molecules 2009, 14(10), 3881-3905; doi:10.3390/molecules14103881
Received: 31 August 2009 / Revised: 22 September 2009 / Accepted: 27 September 2009 / Published: 29 September 2009
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (272 KB)
Abstract
Novel polyfunctional small amphiphilic peptide dendrimers characterized by incorporation of a new core compounds – tris-amino acids or tetrakis-amino alcohols that originated from a series of basic amino acids – were efficiently synthesized. These new core elements yielded molecules with [...] Read more.
Novel polyfunctional small amphiphilic peptide dendrimers characterized by incorporation of a new core compounds – tris-amino acids or tetrakis-amino alcohols that originated from a series of basic amino acids – were efficiently synthesized. These new core elements yielded molecules with multiple branching and (+5)/(+6) charge at the 1-st dendrimer generation. Dendrimers exhibited significant antimicrobial potency against Gram(+) and Gram(-) strains involving also multiresistant reference strains (S. aureus ATCC 43300 and E. coli ATCC BAA-198). In addition, high activity against fungi from the Candida genus was detected. More charged and more hydrophobic peptide dendrimers expressed hemolytic properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dendrimers - from Synthesis to Applications)
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Dye Density on the Efficiency of Photosensitization of TiO2 Films: Light-Harvesting by Phenothiazine-Labelled Dendritic Ruthenium Complexes
Molecules 2009, 14(10), 3851-3867; doi:10.3390/molecules14103851
Received: 10 August 2009 / Revised: 14 September 2009 / Accepted: 22 September 2009 / Published: 28 September 2009
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1062 KB)
Abstract
A family of dendritic tris-bipyridyl ruthenium coordination complexes incorporating two or four carboxylate groups for binding to a TiO2 surface site and another dendritic linker between the metal complex and highly absorptive dyes were formulated as thin films on TiO2 [...] Read more.
A family of dendritic tris-bipyridyl ruthenium coordination complexes incorporating two or four carboxylate groups for binding to a TiO2 surface site and another dendritic linker between the metal complex and highly absorptive dyes were formulated as thin films on TiO2 coated glass. The family included phenothiazine-substituted dendrons of increasing structural complexity and higher optical density. The dye-loaded films were characterized by steady-state emission and absorption measurements and by kinetic studies of luminescence and transient absorption. Upon photoexcitation of the bound dyes, rapid electron injection into the metal oxide film was the dominant observed process, producing oxidized dye that persisted for hundreds of milliseconds. Complex decay profiles for emission, transient absorption, and optical bleaching of the dendritic dyes point to highly heterogeneous behavior for the films, with observed persistence lifetimes related directly to structurally enhance electronic coupling between the metal oxide support and the dendritic dyes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dendrimers - from Synthesis to Applications)
Open AccessArticle Theoretical Study on Exciton Dynamics in Dendritic Systems: Exciton Recurrence and Migration
Molecules 2009, 14(9), 3700-3718; doi:10.3390/molecules14093700
Received: 25 August 2009 / Revised: 11 September 2009 / Accepted: 21 September 2009 / Published: 22 September 2009
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (922 KB)
Abstract
The optical functionalities such as exciton recurrence and migration for dendritic systems, e.g., dendrimers, are investigated using the quantum master equation (QME) approach based on the ab initio molecular orbital configuration interaction (MOCI) method, which can treat both the coherent and incoherent [...] Read more.
The optical functionalities such as exciton recurrence and migration for dendritic systems, e.g., dendrimers, are investigated using the quantum master equation (QME) approach based on the ab initio molecular orbital configuration interaction (MOCI) method, which can treat both the coherent and incoherent exciton dynamics at the first principle level. Two types of phenylacetylene dendrimers, Cayley-tree dendrimer and nanostar dendrimer with anthracene core, are examined to elucidate the features of excion recurrence and migration motions in relation to their structural dependences. It is found that the nanostar dendrimer exhibits faster exciton migration from the periphery to the core than Cayley-tree dendrimer, which alternatively exhibits exciton recurrence motion among dendron parts in case of small relaxation parameters. Such strong structural dependence of exciton dynamics demonstrates the advantage of dendritic molecular systems for future applications in nano-optical and light-harvesting devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dendrimers - from Synthesis to Applications)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Dendrimer-Capped Nanoparticles Prepared by Picosecond Laser Ablation in Liquid Environment
Molecules 2009, 14(9), 3731-3753; doi:10.3390/molecules14093731
Received: 27 August 2009 / Revised: 17 September 2009 / Accepted: 21 September 2009 / Published: 22 September 2009
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1646 KB)
Abstract
Fifth generation ethylendiamine-core poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM G5) is presented as an efficient capping agent for the preparation of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles by ps laser ablation in water. In particular, we describe results obtained with the fundamental, second and third harmonic of a [...] Read more.
Fifth generation ethylendiamine-core poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM G5) is presented as an efficient capping agent for the preparation of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles by ps laser ablation in water. In particular, we describe results obtained with the fundamental, second and third harmonic of a ps Nd:YAG laser and the influence of laser wavelength and pulse energy on gold particle production and subsequent photofragmentation. In this framework, the role of the dendrimer and, in particular, its interactions with gold clusters and cations are accounted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dendrimers - from Synthesis to Applications)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Carbosilane and Carbosiloxane Dendrimers
Molecules 2009, 14(9), 3719-3730; doi:10.3390/molecules14093719
Received: 1 September 2009 / Revised: 10 September 2009 / Accepted: 15 September 2009 / Published: 22 September 2009
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (247 KB)
Abstract
This review focuses on novel carbosilane dendrimers containing branches with Si-C and Si-O-C bonds. Introduction of organic moieties into the dendrimers is performed by hydrosilation of carbon-carbon double/triple bonds. Versatile organic or organometallic moieties are introduced onto the peripheral regions of dendrimers [...] Read more.
This review focuses on novel carbosilane dendrimers containing branches with Si-C and Si-O-C bonds. Introduction of organic moieties into the dendrimers is performed by hydrosilation of carbon-carbon double/triple bonds. Versatile organic or organometallic moieties are introduced onto the peripheral regions of dendrimers by coupling and complexation reactions, which clearly demonstrates their potential for variation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dendrimers - from Synthesis to Applications)
Open AccessReview Multiscale Modeling of Dendrimers and Their Interactions with Bilayers and Polyelectrolytes
Molecules 2009, 14(1), 423-438; doi:10.3390/molecules14010423
Received: 10 December 2008 / Revised: 3 January 2009 / Accepted: 16 January 2009 / Published: 19 January 2009
Cited by 67 | PDF Full-text (765 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent advances in molecular dynamics simulation methodologies and computational power have allowed accurate predictions of dendrimer size, shape, and interactions with bilayers and polyelectrolytes with modest computational effort. Atomistic and coarse-grained (CG) models show strong interactions of cationic dendrimers with lipid bilayers. [...] Read more.
Recent advances in molecular dynamics simulation methodologies and computational power have allowed accurate predictions of dendrimer size, shape, and interactions with bilayers and polyelectrolytes with modest computational effort. Atomistic and coarse-grained (CG) models show strong interactions of cationic dendrimers with lipid bilayers. The CG simulations with explicit lipid and water capture bilayer penetration and pore formation, showing that pore formation is enhanced at high dendrimer concentration, but suppressed at low temperature and high salt concentration, in agreement with experiments. Cationic linear polymers have also been simulated, but do not perforate membranes, evidently because by deforming into a pancake, the charges on a linear polymer achieve intimate contact with a single bilayer leaflet. The relatively rigid dendrimers, on the other hand, penetrate the bilayer, because only by interacting with both leaflets can they achieve a similar degree of contact between charged groups. Also, a “dendrimer-filled vesicle” structure for the dendrimer-membrane interaction is predicted by mesoscale thermodynamic simulations, in agreement with a picture derived from experimental observations. In simulations of complexes of dendrimer and polyelectrolyte, anionic linear chains wrap around the cationic dendrimer and penetrate inside it. Overall, these new results indicate that simulations can now provide predictions in excellent agreement with experimental observations, and provide atomic-scale insights into dendrimer structure and dynamics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dendrimers - from Synthesis to Applications)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Molecules Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
molecules@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Molecules
Back to Top