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Special Issue "Phage Display of Combinatorial Libraries"

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A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2010)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Brendan Patrick Orner

Division of Chemistry & Biological Chemistry, Nanyang Technological University, 637371, Singapore
Website | E-Mail
Interests: phage display; protein-protein interactions; chemical biology; nanomaterials; combinatorial techniques; sugar mimics; ferritin; protein folding; biomineralization

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Phage display is a combinatorial molecular biology technique where libraries (commonly peptides and proteins) are fused to assembled bacteriophage scaffolds. The viability of the phage affords the technique advantages over those based on small molecules. The libraries can be amplified simply by infecting bacteria, and because the genome of the phage is encapsulated within the viron, DNA sequencing can be employed to easily deconvolute the libraries. In addition, because diversity is controlled by the synthesis of degenerate DNA, libraries with orders of magnitude more members than those using small molecules can be achieved. Moreover the generation of phage display libraries can be performed in any lab with basic microbiology facilities, and it is therefore extremely cheap compared to small-molecule library synthesis. Due to its power, versatility, ease of use, and low cost phage display has been widely used and incorporated into a variety of applications.

This special issue of Molecules will consider any submission associated with phage display whether it be its use for discovering novel ligands, the development of new phage display techniques, or its utilization in novel applications.

Dr. Brendan P. Orner
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • phage display
  • bacteriophage
  • combinatorial molecular biology
  • combinatorial libraries
  • biopanning
  • in vitro selection

Published Papers (19 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Identification of Calpain Substrates by ORF Phage Display
Molecules 2011, 16(2), 1739-1748; doi:10.3390/molecules16021739
Received: 3 January 2011 / Accepted: 18 February 2011 / Published: 21 February 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (223 KB)
Abstract
Substrate identification is the key to defining molecular pathways or cellular processes regulated by proteases. Although phage display with random peptide libraries has been used to analyze substrate specificity of proteases, it is difficult to deduce endogenous substrates from mapped peptide motifs. Phage
[...] Read more.
Substrate identification is the key to defining molecular pathways or cellular processes regulated by proteases. Although phage display with random peptide libraries has been used to analyze substrate specificity of proteases, it is difficult to deduce endogenous substrates from mapped peptide motifs. Phage display with conventional cDNA libraries identifies high percentage of non-open reading frame (non-ORF) clones, which encode short unnatural peptides, owing to uncontrollable reading frames of cellular proteins. We recently developed ORF phage display to identify endogenous proteins with specific binding or functional activity with minimal reading frame problem. Here we used calpain 2 as a protease to demonstrate that ORF phage display is capable of identifying endogenous substrates and showed its advantage to re-verify and characterize the identified substrates without requiring pure substrate proteins. An ORF phage display cDNA library with C-terminal biotin was bound to immobilized streptavidin and released by cleavage with calpain 2. After three rounds of phage selection, eleven substrates were identified, including calpastatin of endogenous calpain inhibitor. These results suggest that ORF phage display is a valuable technology to identify endogenous substrates for proteases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phage Display of Combinatorial Libraries)
Open AccessArticle Challenges in Optimizing a Prostate Carcinoma Binding Peptide, Identified through the Phage Display Technology
Molecules 2011, 16(2), 1559-1578; doi:10.3390/molecules16021559
Received: 15 December 2010 / Revised: 9 February 2011 / Accepted: 11 February 2011 / Published: 14 February 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (475 KB)
Abstract
The transfer of peptides identified through the phage display technology to clinical applications is difficult. Major drawbacks are the metabolic degradation and label instability. The aim of our work is the optimization of DUP-1, a peptide which was identified by phage display to
[...] Read more.
The transfer of peptides identified through the phage display technology to clinical applications is difficult. Major drawbacks are the metabolic degradation and label instability. The aim of our work is the optimization of DUP-1, a peptide which was identified by phage display to specifically target human prostate carcinoma. To investigate the influence of chelate conjugation, DOTA was coupled to DUP-1 and labeling was performed with 111In. To improve serum stability cyclization of DUP-1 and targeted D-amino acid substitution were carried out. Alanine scanning was performed for identification of the binding site and based on the results peptide fragments were chemically synthesized. The properties of modified ligands were investigated in in vitro binding and competition assays. In vivo biodistribution studies were carried out in mice, carrying human prostate tumors subcutaneously. DOTA conjugation resulted in different cellular binding kinetics, rapid in vivo renal clearance and increased tumor-to-organ ratios. Cyclization and D-amino acid substitution increased the metabolic stability but led to binding affinity decrease. Fragment investigation indicated that the sequence NRAQDY might be significant for target-binding. Our results demonstrate challenges in optimizing peptides, identified through phage display libraries, and show that careful investigation of modified derivatives is necessary in order to improve their characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phage Display of Combinatorial Libraries)
Open AccessArticle Selection of Peptides Targeting Helix 31 of Bacterial 16S Ribosomal RNA by Screening M13 Phage-Display Libraries
Molecules 2011, 16(2), 1211-1239; doi:10.3390/molecules16021211
Received: 5 January 2011 / Revised: 24 January 2011 / Accepted: 25 January 2011 / Published: 28 January 2011
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1242 KB)
Abstract
Ribosomal RNA is the catalytic portion of ribosomes, and undergoes a variety of conformational changes during translation. Structural changes in ribosomal RNA can be facilitated by the presence of modified nucleotides. Helix 31 of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA harbors two modified nucleotides, m
[...] Read more.
Ribosomal RNA is the catalytic portion of ribosomes, and undergoes a variety of conformational changes during translation. Structural changes in ribosomal RNA can be facilitated by the presence of modified nucleotides. Helix 31 of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA harbors two modified nucleotides, m2G966 and m5C967, that are highly conserved among bacteria, though the degree and nature of the modifications in this region are different in eukaryotes. Contacts between helix 31 and the P-site tRNA, initiation factors, and ribosomal proteins highlight the importance of this region in translation. In this work, a heptapeptide M13 phage-display library was screened for ligands that target the wild-type, naturally modified bacterial helix 31. Several peptides, including TYLPWPA, CVRPFAL, TLWDLIP, FVRPFPL, ATPLWLK, and DIRTQRE, were found to be prevalent after several rounds of screening. Several of the peptides exhibited moderate affinity (in the high nM to low µM range) to modified helix 31 in biophysical assays, including surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and were also shown to bind 30S ribosomal subunits. These peptides also inhibited protein synthesis in cell-free translation assays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phage Display of Combinatorial Libraries)
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Open AccessArticle Efficient In Vivo Selection of a Novel Tumor-Associated Peptide from a Phage Display Library
Molecules 2011, 16(1), 900-914; doi:10.3390/molecules16010900
Received: 15 December 2010 / Revised: 14 January 2011 / Accepted: 18 January 2011 / Published: 21 January 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (450 KB)
Abstract
We developed a screening procedure to identify ligands from a phage display random peptide library that are selective for circulating bone marrow derived cells homing to angiogenic tumors. Panning the library on blood outgrowth endothelial cell suspension in vitro followed by in vivo
[...] Read more.
We developed a screening procedure to identify ligands from a phage display random peptide library that are selective for circulating bone marrow derived cells homing to angiogenic tumors. Panning the library on blood outgrowth endothelial cell suspension in vitro followed by in vivo selection based on homing of bone marrow-bound phage to angiogenic tumors, yielded the peptide QFPPKLTNNSML. Upon intravenous injection phage displaying this peptide homed to Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) tumors in vivo whereas control phage did not localize to tumor tissue. Phage carrying the QFPPKLTNNSML peptide labeled with 64Cu radionuclide when administered intravenously into a tumor bearing mouse was detected noninvasively with positron emission tomography (PET) around the tumor. These proof-of-principle experiments demonstrate the ability of the QFPPKLTNNSML peptide to deliver payload (radiolabeled phage conjugates) in vivo to sites of ongoing angiogenesis and point to its potential clinical utility in a variety of physiologic and pathologic processes where neovascular growth is a critical component. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phage Display of Combinatorial Libraries)
Open AccessCommunication Frameshifting in the P6 cDNA Phage Display System
Molecules 2010, 15(12), 9380-9390; doi:10.3390/molecules15129380
Received: 9 November 2010 / Revised: 3 December 2010 / Accepted: 16 December 2010 / Published: 20 December 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (427 KB)
Abstract
Phage display is a powerful technique that enables easy identification of targets for any type of ligand. Targets are displayed at the phage surface as a fusion protein to one of the phage coat proteins. By means of a repeated process of affinity
[...] Read more.
Phage display is a powerful technique that enables easy identification of targets for any type of ligand. Targets are displayed at the phage surface as a fusion protein to one of the phage coat proteins. By means of a repeated process of affinity selection on a ligand, specific enrichment of displayed targets will occur. In our studies using C-terminal display of cDNA fragments to phage coat protein p6, we noticed the occasional enrichment of targets that do not contain an open reading frame. This event has previously been described in other phage display studies using N-terminal display of targets to phage coat proteins and was due to uncommon translational events like frameshifting. The aim of this study was to examine if C-terminal display of targets to p6 is also subjected to frameshifting. To this end, an enriched target not containing an open reading frame was selected and an E-tag was coupled at the C-terminus in order to measure target display at the surface of the phage. The tagged construct was subsequently expressed in 3 different reading frames and display of both target and E-tag measured to detect the occurrence of frameshifting. As a result, we were able to demonstrate display of the target both in the 0 and in the +1 reading frame indicating that frameshifting can also take place when C-terminal fusion to minor coat protein p6 is applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phage Display of Combinatorial Libraries)
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Open AccessArticle MimoDB: a New Repository for Mimotope Data Derived from Phage Display Technology
Molecules 2010, 15(11), 8279-8288; doi:10.3390/molecules15118279
Received: 21 October 2010 / Revised: 4 November 2010 / Accepted: 12 November 2010 / Published: 15 November 2010
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (656 KB)
Abstract
Peptides selected from phage-displayed random peptide libraries are valuable in two aspects. On one hand, these peptides are candidates for new diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines. On the other hand, they can be used to predict the networks or sites of protein-protein interactions. MimoDB,
[...] Read more.
Peptides selected from phage-displayed random peptide libraries are valuable in two aspects. On one hand, these peptides are candidates for new diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines. On the other hand, they can be used to predict the networks or sites of protein-protein interactions. MimoDB, a new repository for these peptides, was developed, in which 10,716 peptides collected from 571 publications were grouped into 1,229 sets. Besides peptide sequences, other important information, such as the target, template, library and complex structure, was also included. MimoDB can be browsed and searched through a user-friendly web interface. For computational biologists, MimoDB can be used to derive customized data sets and benchmarks, which are useful for new algorithm development and tool evaluation. For experimental biologists, their results can be searched against the MimoDB database to exclude possible target-unrelated peptides. The MimoDB database is freely accessible at http://immunet.cn/mimodb/. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phage Display of Combinatorial Libraries)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview High Affinity, Developability and Functional Size: The Holy Grail of Combinatorial Antibody Library Generation
Molecules 2011, 16(5), 3675-3700; doi:10.3390/molecules16053675
Received: 23 March 2011 / Revised: 20 April 2011 / Accepted: 22 April 2011 / Published: 3 May 2011
Cited by 48 | PDF Full-text (723 KB)
Abstract
Since the initial description of phage display technology for the generation of human antibodies, a variety of selection methods has been developed. The most critical parameter for all in vitro-based approaches is the quality of the antibody library. Concurrent evolution of the
[...] Read more.
Since the initial description of phage display technology for the generation of human antibodies, a variety of selection methods has been developed. The most critical parameter for all in vitro-based approaches is the quality of the antibody library. Concurrent evolution of the libraries has allowed display and selection technologies to reveal their full potential. They come in different flavors, from naïve to fully synthetic and differ in terms of size, quality, method of preparation, framework and CDR composition. Early on, the focus has mainly been on affinities and thus on library size and diversity. Subsequently, the increased awareness of developability and cost of goods as important success factors has spurred efforts to generate libraries with improved biophysical properties and favorable production characteristics. More recently a major focus on reduction of unwanted side effects through reduced immunogenicity and improved overall biophysical behavior has led to a re-evaluation of library design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phage Display of Combinatorial Libraries)
Open AccessReview Phage Display of Combinatorial Peptide Libraries: Application to Antiviral Research
Molecules 2011, 16(5), 3499-3518; doi:10.3390/molecules16053499
Received: 12 March 2011 / Revised: 21 April 2011 / Accepted: 22 April 2011 / Published: 26 April 2011
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (292 KB)
Abstract
Given the growing number of diseases caused by emerging or endemic viruses, original strategies are urgently required: (1) for the identification of new drugs active against new viruses and (2) to deal with viral mutants in which resistance to existing antiviral molecules has
[...] Read more.
Given the growing number of diseases caused by emerging or endemic viruses, original strategies are urgently required: (1) for the identification of new drugs active against new viruses and (2) to deal with viral mutants in which resistance to existing antiviral molecules has been selected. In this context, antiviral peptides constitute a promising area for disease prevention and treatment. The identification and development of these inhibitory peptides require the high-throughput screening of combinatorial libraries. Phage-display is a powerful technique for selecting unique molecules with selective affinity for a specific target from highly diverse combinatorial libraries. In the last 15 years, the use of this technique for antiviral purposes and for the isolation of candidate inhibitory peptides in drug discovery has been explored. We present here a review of the use of phage display in antiviral research and drug discovery, with a discussion of optimized strategies combining the strong screening potential of this technique with complementary rational approaches for identification of the best target. By combining such approaches, it should be possible to maximize the selection of molecules with strong antiviral potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phage Display of Combinatorial Libraries)
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Open AccessReview Lambda-Display: A Powerful Tool for Antigen Discovery
Molecules 2011, 16(4), 3089-3105; doi:10.3390/molecules16043089
Received: 12 January 2011 / Revised: 7 April 2011 / Accepted: 12 April 2011 / Published: 13 April 2011
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (395 KB)
Abstract
Since its introduction in 1985, phage display technology has been successfully used in projects aimed at deciphering biological processes and isolating molecules of practical value in several applications. Bacteriophage lambda, representing a classical molecular cloning and expression system has also been exploited for
[...] Read more.
Since its introduction in 1985, phage display technology has been successfully used in projects aimed at deciphering biological processes and isolating molecules of practical value in several applications. Bacteriophage lambda, representing a classical molecular cloning and expression system has also been exploited for generating large combinatorial libraries of small peptides and protein domains exposed on its capsid. More recently, lambda display has been consistently and successfully employed for domain mapping, antigen discovery and protein interaction studies or, more generally, in functional genomics. We show here the results obtained by the use of large libraries of cDNA and genomic DNA for the molecular dissection of the human B-cell response against complex pathogens, including protozoan parasites, bacteria and viruses. Moreover, by reviewing the experimental work performed in recent investigations we illustrate the potential of lambda display in the diagnostics field and for identifying antigens useful as targets for vaccine development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phage Display of Combinatorial Libraries)
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Open AccessReview Miniproteins as Phage Display-Scaffolds for Clinical Applications
Molecules 2011, 16(3), 2467-2485; doi:10.3390/molecules16032467
Received: 23 December 2010 / Revised: 4 March 2011 / Accepted: 7 March 2011 / Published: 14 March 2011
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (1214 KB)
Abstract
Miniproteins are currently developed as alternative, non-immunoglobin proteins for the generation of novel binding motifs. Miniproteins are rigid scaffolds that are stabilised by alpha-helices, beta-sheets and disulfide-constrained secondary structural elements. They are tolerant to multiple amino acid substitutions, which allow for the integration
[...] Read more.
Miniproteins are currently developed as alternative, non-immunoglobin proteins for the generation of novel binding motifs. Miniproteins are rigid scaffolds that are stabilised by alpha-helices, beta-sheets and disulfide-constrained secondary structural elements. They are tolerant to multiple amino acid substitutions, which allow for the integration of a randomised affinity function into the stably folded framework. These properties classify miniprotein scaffolds as promising tools for lead structure generation using phage display technologies. Owing to their high enzymatic resistance and structural stability, miniproteins are ideal templates to display binding epitopes for medical applications in vivo. This review summarises the characteristics and the engineering of miniproteins as a novel class of scaffolds to generate of alternative binding agents using phage display screening. Moreover, recent developments for therapeutic and especially diagnostic applications of miniproteins are reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phage Display of Combinatorial Libraries)
Open AccessReview Diversity of Phage-Displayed Libraries of Peptides during Panning and Amplification
Molecules 2011, 16(2), 1776-1803; doi:10.3390/molecules16021776
Received: 27 December 2010 / Revised: 10 February 2011 / Accepted: 17 February 2011 / Published: 21 February 2011
Cited by 75 | PDF Full-text (1815 KB)
Abstract
The amplification of phage-displayed libraries is an essential step in the selection of ligands from these libraries. The amplification of libraries, however, decreases their diversity and limits the number of binding clones that a screen can identify. While this decrease might not be
[...] Read more.
The amplification of phage-displayed libraries is an essential step in the selection of ligands from these libraries. The amplification of libraries, however, decreases their diversity and limits the number of binding clones that a screen can identify. While this decrease might not be a problem for screens against targets with a single binding site (e.g., proteins), it can severely hinder the identification of useful ligands for targets with multiple binding sites (e.g., cells). This review aims to characterize the loss in the diversity of libraries during amplification. Analysis of the peptide sequences obtained in several hundred screens of peptide libraries shows explicitly that there is a significant decrease in library diversity that occurs during the amplification of phage in bacteria. This loss during amplification is not unique to specific libraries: it is observed in many of the phage display systems we have surveyed. The loss in library diversity originates from competition among phage clones in a common pool of bacteria. Based on growth data from the literature and models of phage growth, we show that this competition originates from growth rate differences of only a few percent for different phage clones. We summarize the findings using a simple two-dimensional “phage phase diagram”, which describes how the collapse of libraries, due to panning and amplification, leads to the identification of only a subset of the available ligands. This review also highlights techniques that allow elimination of amplification-induced losses of diversity, and how these techniques can be used to improve phage-display selection and enable the identification of novel ligands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phage Display of Combinatorial Libraries)
Open AccessReview Design and Screening of M13 Phage Display cDNA Libraries
Molecules 2011, 16(2), 1667-1681; doi:10.3390/molecules16021667
Received: 21 December 2010 / Revised: 14 February 2011 / Accepted: 15 February 2011 / Published: 17 February 2011
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (359 KB)
Abstract
The last decade has seen a steady increase in screening of cDNA expression product libraries displayed on the surface of filamentous bacteriophage. At the same time, the range of applications extended from the identification of novel allergens over disease markers to protein-protein interaction
[...] Read more.
The last decade has seen a steady increase in screening of cDNA expression product libraries displayed on the surface of filamentous bacteriophage. At the same time, the range of applications extended from the identification of novel allergens over disease markers to protein-protein interaction studies. However, the generation and selection of cDNA phage display libraries is subjected to intrinsic biological limitations due to their complex nature and heterogeneity, as well as technical difficulties regarding protein presentation on the phage surface. Here, we review the latest developments in this field, discuss a number of strategies and improvements anticipated to overcome these challenges making cDNA and open reading frame (ORF) libraries more readily accessible for phage display. Furthermore, future trends combining phage display with next generation sequencing (NGS) will be presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phage Display of Combinatorial Libraries)
Open AccessReview DNA Libraries for the Construction of Phage Libraries: Statistical and Structural Requirements and Synthetic Methods
Molecules 2011, 16(2), 1625-1641; doi:10.3390/molecules16021625
Received: 22 December 2010 / Revised: 26 January 2011 / Accepted: 11 February 2011 / Published: 15 February 2011
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (261 KB)
Abstract
Peptide-based molecular probes identified by bacteriophage (phage) display technology expand the peptide repertoire for in vivo diagnosis and therapy of cancer. Numerous peptides that bind cancer-associated antigens have been discovered by panning phage libraries. However, until now only few of the peptides selected
[...] Read more.
Peptide-based molecular probes identified by bacteriophage (phage) display technology expand the peptide repertoire for in vivo diagnosis and therapy of cancer. Numerous peptides that bind cancer-associated antigens have been discovered by panning phage libraries. However, until now only few of the peptides selected by phage display have entered clinical applications. The success of phage derived peptides essentially depends on the quality of the library screened. This review summarizes the methods to achieve highly homogenous libraries that cover a maximal sequence space. Biochemical and chemical strategies for the synthesis of DNA libraries and the techniques for their integration into the viral genome are discussed in detail. A focus is set on the methods that enable the exclusion of disturbing sequences. In addition, the parameters that define the variability, the minimal numbers of copies per library and the use of alternating panning cycles to avoid the loss of selected hits are evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phage Display of Combinatorial Libraries)
Open AccessReview Material Binding Peptides for Nanotechnology
Molecules 2011, 16(2), 1426-1451; doi:10.3390/molecules16021426
Received: 17 December 2010 / Revised: 6 February 2011 / Accepted: 8 February 2011 / Published: 9 February 2011
Cited by 65 | PDF Full-text (3416 KB)
Abstract
Remarkable progress has been made to date in the discovery of material binding peptides and their utilization in nanotechnology, which has brought new challenges and opportunities. Nowadays phage display is a versatile tool, important for the selection of ligands for proteins and peptides.
[...] Read more.
Remarkable progress has been made to date in the discovery of material binding peptides and their utilization in nanotechnology, which has brought new challenges and opportunities. Nowadays phage display is a versatile tool, important for the selection of ligands for proteins and peptides. This combinatorial approach has also been adapted over the past decade to select material-specific peptides. Screening and selection of such phage displayed material binding peptides has attracted great interest, in particular because of their use in nanotechnology. Phage display selected peptides are either synthesized independently or expressed on phage coat protein. Selected phage particles are subsequently utilized in the synthesis of nanoparticles, in the assembly of nanostructures on inorganic surfaces, and oriented protein immobilization as fusion partners of proteins. In this paper, we present an overview on the research conducted on this area. In this review we not only focus on the selection process, but also on molecular binding characterization and utilization of peptides as molecular linkers, molecular assemblers and material synthesizers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phage Display of Combinatorial Libraries)
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Open AccessReview Peptide Phage Display as a Tool for Drug Discovery: Targeting Membrane Receptors
Molecules 2011, 16(1), 857-887; doi:10.3390/molecules16010857
Received: 7 December 2010 / Revised: 14 January 2011 / Accepted: 19 January 2011 / Published: 21 January 2011
Cited by 74 | PDF Full-text (338 KB)
Abstract
Ligands selected from phage-displayed random peptide libraries tend to be directed to biologically relevant sites on the surface of the target protein. Consequently, peptides derived from library screenings often modulate the target protein’s activity in vitro and in vivo and can be used
[...] Read more.
Ligands selected from phage-displayed random peptide libraries tend to be directed to biologically relevant sites on the surface of the target protein. Consequently, peptides derived from library screenings often modulate the target protein’s activity in vitro and in vivo and can be used as lead compounds in drug design and as alternatives to antibodies for target validation in both genomics and drug discovery. This review discusses the use of phage display to identify membrane receptor modulators with agonistic or antagonistic activities. Because isolating or producing recombinant membrane proteins for use as target molecules in library screening is often impossible, innovative selection strategies such as panning against whole cells or tissues, recombinant receptor ectodomains, or neutralizing antibodies to endogenous binding partners were devised. Prominent examples from a two-decade history of peptide phage display will be presented, focusing on the design of affinity selection experiments, methods for improving the initial hits, and applications of the identified peptides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phage Display of Combinatorial Libraries)
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Open AccessReview The Discovery of Small-Molecule Mimicking Peptides through Phage Display
Molecules 2011, 16(1), 774-789; doi:10.3390/molecules16010774
Received: 16 December 2010 / Revised: 12 January 2011 / Accepted: 18 January 2011 / Published: 19 January 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (376 KB)
Abstract
Using peptides to achieve the functional and structural mimicry of small-molecules, especially those with biological activity or clear biotechnological applications, has great potential in overcoming difficulties associated with synthesis, or unfavorable physical properties. Combinatorial techniques like phage display can aid in the discovery
[...] Read more.
Using peptides to achieve the functional and structural mimicry of small-molecules, especially those with biological activity or clear biotechnological applications, has great potential in overcoming difficulties associated with synthesis, or unfavorable physical properties. Combinatorial techniques like phage display can aid in the discovery of these peptides even if their mechanism of mimicry is not rationally obvious.The major focus of this field has been limited to developing biotin and sugar mimetics. However, the full “mimicry” of these peptides has not yet been fully established as some bind to the target with a different mechanism than that of the natural ligand and some do not share all of the natural ligand’s binding partners. In this article, mimicry of small-molecules by phage display-discovered peptides is reviewed and their potential in biochemical and medical applications is analyzed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phage Display of Combinatorial Libraries)
Open AccessReview Phage Display: Selecting Straws Instead of a Needle from a Haystack
Molecules 2011, 16(1), 790-817; doi:10.3390/molecules16010790
Received: 9 December 2010 / Revised: 12 January 2011 / Accepted: 17 January 2011 / Published: 19 January 2011
Cited by 58 | PDF Full-text (195 KB)
Abstract
An increasing number of peptides with specific binding affinity to various protein and even non-protein targets are being discovered from phage display libraries. The power of this method lies in its ability to efficiently and rapidly identify ligands with a desired target property
[...] Read more.
An increasing number of peptides with specific binding affinity to various protein and even non-protein targets are being discovered from phage display libraries. The power of this method lies in its ability to efficiently and rapidly identify ligands with a desired target property from a large population of phage clones displaying diverse surface peptides. However, the search for the needle in the haystack does not always end successfully. False positive results may appear. Thus instead of specific binders phage with no actual affinity toward the target are recovered due to their propagation advantages or binding to other components of the screening system, such as the solid phase, capturing reagents, contaminants in the target sample or blocking agents, rather than the target. Biopanning experiments on different targets performed in our laboratory revealed some previously identified and many new target-unrelated peptide sequences, which have already been frequently described and published, but not yet recognized as target-unrelated. Distinguishing true binders from false positives is an important step toward phage display selections of greater integrity. This article thoroughly reviews and discusses already identified and new target-unrelated peptides and suggests strategies to avoid their isolation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phage Display of Combinatorial Libraries)
Open AccessReview Bioinformatics Resources and Tools for Phage Display
Molecules 2011, 16(1), 694-709; doi:10.3390/molecules16010694
Received: 20 December 2010 / Revised: 1 January 2011 / Accepted: 17 January 2011 / Published: 18 January 2011
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (140 KB)
Abstract
Databases and computational tools for mimotopes have been an important part of phage display study. Five special databases and eighteen algorithms, programs and web servers and their applications are reviewed in this paper. Although these bioinformatics resources have been widely used to exclude
[...] Read more.
Databases and computational tools for mimotopes have been an important part of phage display study. Five special databases and eighteen algorithms, programs and web servers and their applications are reviewed in this paper. Although these bioinformatics resources have been widely used to exclude target-unrelated peptides, characterize small molecules-protein interactions and map protein-protein interactions, a lot of problems are still waiting to be solved. With the improvement of these tools, they are expected to serve the phage display community better. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phage Display of Combinatorial Libraries)
Open AccessReview Phage Display for the Generation of Antibodies for Proteome Research, Diagnostics and Therapy
Molecules 2011, 16(1), 412-426; doi:10.3390/molecules16010412
Received: 10 November 2010 / Revised: 4 January 2011 / Accepted: 7 January 2011 / Published: 10 January 2011
Cited by 42 | PDF Full-text (251 KB)
Abstract
Twenty years after its development, antibody phage display using filamentous bacteriophage represents the most successful in vitro antibody selection technology. Initially, its development was encouraged by the unique possibility of directly generating recombinant human antibodies for therapy. Today, antibody phage display has been
[...] Read more.
Twenty years after its development, antibody phage display using filamentous bacteriophage represents the most successful in vitro antibody selection technology. Initially, its development was encouraged by the unique possibility of directly generating recombinant human antibodies for therapy. Today, antibody phage display has been developed as a robust technology offering great potential for automation. Generation of monospecific binders provides a valuable tool for proteome research, leading to highly enhanced throughput and reduced costs. This review presents the phage display technology, application areas of antibodies in research, diagnostics and therapy and the use of antibody phage display for these applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phage Display of Combinatorial Libraries)

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