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Special Issue "Phytochemicals with Signaling, Medicinal and Therapeutic Properties"

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A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2010)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Swee Ngin Tan

National Institute of Education (NIE), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore
Interests: separation science; electrochemistry; phytoremediation and development of green solvent techniques
Guest Editor
Dr. Jean W. H. Yong

National Institute of Education (NIE), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore
Interests: growth regulators/hormones and especially cytokinins for plant sciences and cancer-therapy; green life sciences
Guest Editor
Dr. Liya Ge

National Institute of Education (NIE), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore
Interests: analytical & bioanalytical chemistry; polymer chemistry & polymer chemical engineering

Keywords

  • phytochemicals
  • extraction
  • characterization
  • biological activity
  • medicinal property
  • therapeutic effect

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle An Improved in Vivo Deuterium Labeling Method for Measuring the Biosynthetic Rate of Cytokinins
Molecules 2010, 15(12), 9214-9229; doi:10.3390/molecules15129214
Received: 10 October 2010 / Accepted: 14 December 2010 / Published: 15 December 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (253 KB)
Abstract
An improved method for determining the relative biosynthetic rate of isoprenoid cytokinins has been developed. A set of 11 relevant isoprenoid cytokinins, including zeatin isomers, was separated by ultra performance liquid chromatography in less than 6 min. The iP-type cytokinins were observed [...] Read more.
An improved method for determining the relative biosynthetic rate of isoprenoid cytokinins has been developed. A set of 11 relevant isoprenoid cytokinins, including zeatin isomers, was separated by ultra performance liquid chromatography in less than 6 min. The iP-type cytokinins were observed to give rise to a previously-unknown fragment at m/z 69; we suggest that the diagnostic (204-69) transition can be used to monitor the biosynthetic rate of isopentenyladenine. Furthermore, we found that by treating the cytokinin nucleotides with alkaline phosphatase prior to analysis, the sensitivity of the detection process could be increased. In addition, derivatization (propionylation) improved the ESI-MS response by increasing the analytes' hydrophobicity. Indeed, the ESI-MS response of propionylated isopentenyladenosine was about 34% higher than that of its underivatized counterpart. Moreover, the response of the derivatized zeatin ribosides was about 75% higher than that of underivatized zeatin ribosides. Finally, we created a web-based calculator (IZOTOP) that facilitates MS/MS data processing and offer it freely to the research community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemicals with Signaling, Medicinal and Therapeutic Properties)
Open AccessArticle Microwave Assisted Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Four Different Spices
Molecules 2010, 15(9), 6365-6374; doi:10.3390/molecules15096365
Received: 9 July 2010 / Revised: 28 July 2010 / Accepted: 30 July 2010 / Published: 9 September 2010
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (125 KB)
Abstract
Spices and herbs are known not only for their taste, aroma and flavour, but also for their medical properties and value. Both spices and herbs have been used for centuries in traditional medical systems to cure various kinds of illnesses such as [...] Read more.
Spices and herbs are known not only for their taste, aroma and flavour, but also for their medical properties and value. Both spices and herbs have been used for centuries in traditional medical systems to cure various kinds of illnesses such as common cold, diabetes, cough and cancers. The aim of this work was the comparison between two different extractive techniques in order to get qualitative and quantitative data regarding bioactive compounds of four different spices (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Coriandrum sativum, Cuminum cyminum, Crocus sativus). The plants were extracted employing ultrasonication and microwave-assisted extractions. The efficiency of extraction of bioactive compounds obtained with the microwave extraction process was in general about four times higher than that resulting from sonication extraction. The various extracts obtained were analyzed for their antioxidant activity using ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays and for their total polyphenolic content. It can be concluded that microwave-assisted extractions provide significant advantages in terms of extraction efficiency and time savings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemicals with Signaling, Medicinal and Therapeutic Properties)
Open AccessArticle Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity against Aedes aegypti Larvae of Essential Oils from Four Guarea Species
Molecules 2010, 15(8), 5734-5741; doi:10.3390/molecules15085734
Received: 6 July 2010 / Revised: 31 July 2010 / Accepted: 5 August 2010 / Published: 19 August 2010
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (165 KB)
Abstract
The essential oils of four Guarea species collected at Manaus (Amazonas, Brazil) were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. Except for one diterpene detected, the compounds identified in the essential oils were hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The major sesquiterpenes were α-santalene [...] Read more.
The essential oils of four Guarea species collected at Manaus (Amazonas, Brazil) were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. Except for one diterpene detected, the compounds identified in the essential oils were hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The major sesquiterpenes were α-santalene (26.26%) and α-copaene (14.61%) from G. convergens branches; caryophyllene epoxide (40.91%) and humulene epoxide II (14.43%) from G. humaitensis branches; cis-caryophyllene (33.37%) and α-trans-bergamotene (11.88%) from G. scabra leaves; caryophyllene epoxide (36.54%) in leaves and spathulenol (14.34%) in branches from G. silvatica. The diterpene kaurene (15.61%) was found in G. silvatica leaves. Larvicidal activity assay of essential oils against third-instar Aedes aegypti larvae revealed that at higher concentrations (500 and 250 μg/mL), all the essential oils caused 100% mortality after 24 h of exposure. The most active essential oils were those of G. humaitensis branches (LC50 48.6 μg/mL), G. scabra leaves (LC50 98.6 μg/mL) and G. silvatica (LC50 117.9 μg/mL). The differences in the toxicity of essential oils of Guarea species on A. aegypti are due to qualitative and quantitative variations of the components, therefore the larvicidal effect may be due to higher amount of the sesquiterpenes with caryophyllane skeleton. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemicals with Signaling, Medicinal and Therapeutic Properties)
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Carbohydrates in Natural and Cultured Cordyceps by Pressurized Liquid Extraction and Gas Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry
Molecules 2010, 15(6), 4227-4241; doi:10.3390/molecules15064227
Received: 31 May 2010 / Revised: 9 June 2010 / Accepted: 10 June 2010 / Published: 11 June 2010
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (1150 KB)
Abstract
Free and polymeric carbohydrates in Cordyceps, a valued edible mushroom and well-known traditional Chinese medicine, were determined using stepwise pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) extraction and GC-MS. Based on the optimized PLE conditions, acid hydrolysis and derivatization, ten monosaccharides, namely rhamnose, ribose, [...] Read more.
Free and polymeric carbohydrates in Cordyceps, a valued edible mushroom and well-known traditional Chinese medicine, were determined using stepwise pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) extraction and GC-MS. Based on the optimized PLE conditions, acid hydrolysis and derivatization, ten monosaccharides, namely rhamnose, ribose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose, galactose, mannitol, fructose and sorbose in 13 samples of natural and cultured Cordyceps were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed and compared with myo-inositol hexaacetate as internal standard. The results showed that natural C. sinensis contained more than 7.99% free mannitol and a small amount of glucose, while its polysaccharides were usually composed of mannose, glucose and galactose with a molar ratio of 1.00:16.61~3.82:1.60~1.28. However, mannitol in cultured C. sinensis and cultured C. militaris were less than 5.83%, and free glucose was only detected in a few samples, while their polysaccharides were mainly composed of mannose, glucose and galactose with molar ratios of 1.00:3.01~1.09:3.30~1.05 and 1.00:2.86~1.28:1.07~0.78, respectively. Natural and cultured Cordyceps could be discriminated by hierarchical clustering analysis based on its free carbohydrate contents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemicals with Signaling, Medicinal and Therapeutic Properties)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Bignoniaceae Metabolites as Semiochemicals
Molecules 2010, 15(10), 7090-7105; doi:10.3390/molecules15107090
Received: 5 August 2010 / Revised: 7 September 2010 / Accepted: 22 September 2010 / Published: 14 October 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (77 KB)
Abstract
Members of the family Bignoniaceae are mostly found in tropical and neo-tropical regions in America, Asia and Africa, although some of them are cultivated in other regions as ornamentals. Species belonging to this family have been extensively studied in regard to their [...] Read more.
Members of the family Bignoniaceae are mostly found in tropical and neo-tropical regions in America, Asia and Africa, although some of them are cultivated in other regions as ornamentals. Species belonging to this family have been extensively studied in regard to their pharmacological properties (as extracts and isolated compounds). The aim of this review is to summarize the reported scientific evidence about the chemical properties as well as that of the extracts and isolated compounds from species of this family, focusing mainly in insect-plant interactions. As it is known, this family is recognized for the presence of iridoids which are markers of oviposition and feeding preference to species which have became specialist feeders. Some herbivore species have also evolved to the point of been able to sequester iridoids and use them as defenses against their predators. However, iridoids also exhibit anti-insect properties, and therefore they may be good lead molecules to develop botanical pesticides. Other secondary metabolites, such as quinones, and whole extracts have also shown potential as anti-insect agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemicals with Signaling, Medicinal and Therapeutic Properties)
Open AccessReview The Chemical Composition and Biological Properties of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) Water
Molecules 2009, 14(12), 5144-5164; doi:10.3390/molecules14125144
Received: 3 November 2009 / Revised: 3 December 2009 / Accepted: 8 December 2009 / Published: 9 December 2009
Cited by 110 | PDF Full-text (319 KB)
Abstract
Coconut water (coconut liquid endosperm), with its many applications, is one of the world’s most versatile natural product. This refreshing beverage is consumed worldwide as it is nutritious and beneficial for health. There is increasing scientific evidence that supports the role of [...] Read more.
Coconut water (coconut liquid endosperm), with its many applications, is one of the world’s most versatile natural product. This refreshing beverage is consumed worldwide as it is nutritious and beneficial for health. There is increasing scientific evidence that supports the role of coconut water in health and medicinal applications. Coconut water is traditionally used as a growth supplement in plant tissue culture/micropropagation. The wide applications of coconut water can be justified by its unique chemical composition of sugars, vitamins, minerals, amino acids and phytohormones. This review attempts to summarise and evaluate the chemical composition and biological properties of coconut water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemicals with Signaling, Medicinal and Therapeutic Properties)

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