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Special Issue "Antioxidants in Health and Disease"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Maurizio Battino

Department of Odontostomatologic and Specialized Clinical Sciences, Sez-Biochimica, Faculty of Medicine, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Ranieri 65, 60100 Ancona, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +39 071 2204646
Fax: +39 071 2204398
Interests: nutrition; periodontal diseases/periodontitis; oxidative stress; nutrition; aging; mitochondrial function and diseases; berries (strawberry, blueberry, bilberry, cranberry, etc.); olive oil (dietary fats); honey, polyphenols; flavonoids; antioxidants, apoptosis
Guest Editor
Dr. Francesca Giampieri

Department of Odontostomatologic and Specialized Clinical Sciences, Sez-Biochimica, Faculty of Medicine, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Ranieri 65, 60100 Ancona, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: nutrition; health; bioactive compounds; polyphenols; antioxidants; free radicals; oxidative stress; aging; mitochodrial functionality; apoptosis; strawberry, honey

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated that oxidative stress is associated with a number of health disorders, including cardiovascular malfunction, certain types of cancer, diabetes mellitus and many other auto-immune diseases, and even ageing. The body possesses many mechanisms to counteract oxidative stress by the use of antioxidant compounds, either naturally generated in situ (endogenous antioxidants), or externally supplied through foods (exogenous antioxidants). These antioxidants are able to counteract oxidative stress, thanks to their ability to neutralize excess free radicals and protect cellular lipids, proteins, and DNA from molecular damage. Exogenous antioxidants from the diet are of increasing interest because of their beneficial role in maintaining good health and in preventing chronic diseases. Indeed, a diet rich in dietary antioxidants, especially from fruits and vegetables, has been correlated with the prevention and lower incidence of several degenerative pathologies, including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer.
This Special Issue of Nutrients welcomes the submission of manuscripts either describing original research, or reviewing scientific literature, examining the role of diets rich in/enriched antioxidant compounds in the prevention of chronic diseases, and the characteristics of antioxidants in such diets.

Prof. Dr. Maurizio Battino
Dr. Francesca Giampieri
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • antioxidants
  • dietary supplementation
  • human health
  • chronic diseases
  • prevention

Published Papers (24 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Lipid Accumulation in HepG2 Cells Is Attenuated by Strawberry Extract through AMPK Activation
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 621; doi:10.3390/nu9060621
Received: 9 May 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 16 June 2017
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Abstract
Regulation of lipid metabolism is essential for treatment and prevention of several chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases, which are responsible for most deaths worldwide. It has been demonstrated that the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has a direct impact on
[...] Read more.
Regulation of lipid metabolism is essential for treatment and prevention of several chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases, which are responsible for most deaths worldwide. It has been demonstrated that the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has a direct impact on lipid metabolism by modulating several downstream-signaling components. The main objective of the present work was to evaluate the in vitro effect of a methanolic strawberry extract on AMPK and its possible repercussion on lipid metabolism in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). For such purpose, the lipid profile and the expression of proteins metabolically related to AMPK were determined on cells lysates. The results demonstrated that strawberry methanolic extract decreased total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and triglycerides levels (up to 0.50-, 0.30-, and 0.40-fold, respectively) while it stimulated the p-AMPK/AMPK expression (up to 3.06-fold), compared to the control. AMPK stimulation led to the phosphorylation and consequent inactivation of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) and inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), the major regulators of fatty acids and cholesterol synthesis, respectively. Strawberry treatment also entailed a 4.34-, 2.37-, and 2.47-fold overexpression of LDL receptor, sirtuin 1 (Sirt1), and the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), respectively, compared to control. The observed results were counteracted by treatment with compound C, an AMPK pharmacological inhibitor, confirming that multiple effects of strawberries on lipid metabolism are mediated by the activation of this protein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Strawberry-Based Cosmetic Formulations Protect Human Dermal Fibroblasts against UVA-Induced Damage
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 605; doi:10.3390/nu9060605
Received: 15 May 2017 / Revised: 5 June 2017 / Accepted: 8 June 2017 / Published: 14 June 2017
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Abstract
Extreme exposure of skin to Ultraviolet A (UVA)-radiation may induce a dysregulated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can interact with cellular biomolecules leading to oxidative stress, inflammation, DNA damage, and alteration of cellular molecular pathways, responsible for skin photoaging, hyperplasia, erythema,
[...] Read more.
Extreme exposure of skin to Ultraviolet A (UVA)-radiation may induce a dysregulated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can interact with cellular biomolecules leading to oxidative stress, inflammation, DNA damage, and alteration of cellular molecular pathways, responsible for skin photoaging, hyperplasia, erythema, and cancer. For these reasons, the use of dietary natural bioactive compounds with remarkable antioxidant activity could be a strategic tool to counteract these UVA-radiation-caused deleterious effects. Thus, the purpose of the present work was to test the efficacy of strawberry (50 μg/mL)-based formulations supplemented with Coenzyme Q10 (100 μg/mL) and sun protection factor 10 in human dermal fibroblasts irradiated with UVA-radiation. The apoptosis rate, the amount of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, the expression of proteins involved in antioxidant and inflammatory response, and mitochondrial functionality were evaluated. The results showed that the synergic topical use of strawberry and Coenzyme Q10 provided a significant (p < 0.05) photoprotective effect, reducing cell death and ROS, increasing antioxidant defense, lowering inflammatory markers, and improving mitochondrial functionality. The obtained results suggest the use of strawberry-based formulations as an innovative, natural, and useful tool for the prevention of UVA exposure-induced skin diseases in order to decrease or substitute the amount of synthetic sunscreen agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Alpha- and Gamma-Tocopherol and Telomere Length in 5768 US Men and Women: A NHANES Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 601; doi:10.3390/nu9060601
Received: 7 June 2017 / Revised: 7 June 2017 / Accepted: 8 June 2017 / Published: 13 June 2017
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Abstract
Antioxidants have a number of potential health benefits. The present investigation was designed to determine the relationship between serum alpha- and gamma-tocopherol levels (powerful antioxidants), and leukocyte telomere length (a biomarker of biological aging). A cross-sectional design was employed to study 5768 adults
[...] Read more.
Antioxidants have a number of potential health benefits. The present investigation was designed to determine the relationship between serum alpha- and gamma-tocopherol levels (powerful antioxidants), and leukocyte telomere length (a biomarker of biological aging). A cross-sectional design was employed to study 5768 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). DNA was obtained via blood samples. Telomere length was assessed using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction method. Serum concentrations of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that for each one-year increase in age, telomeres were 15.6 base pairs shorter (F = 410.4, p < 0.0001). After adjusting for differences in the demographic covariates, for each µg/dL higher level of gamma-tocopherol, telomeres were 0.33 base pairs shorter (F = 7.1, p = 0.0126). Telomeres were approximately 1 year shorter (15.6 base pairs) for each increment of 47.3 to 55.7 µg/dL of gamma-tocopherol in the blood, depending on the variables controlled. Adults at the 75th percentile of gamma-tocopherol had 2.8–3.4 years greater cellular aging than those at the 25th percentile, depending on the covariates in the model. However, alpha-tocopherol was not related to telomere length. Evidently, gamma-tocopherol levels, but not alpha-tocopherol, account for meaningful increases in biological aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
Open AccessArticle Melatonin Modulates Neuronal Cell Death Induced by Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress under Insulin Resistance Condition
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 593; doi:10.3390/nu9060593
Received: 30 April 2017 / Revised: 6 June 2017 / Accepted: 8 June 2017 / Published: 10 June 2017
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Abstract
Insulin resistance (IR) is an important stress factor in the central nervous system, thereby aggravating neuropathogenesis and triggering cognitive decline. Melatonin, which is an antioxidant phytochemical and synthesized by the pineal gland, has multiple functions in cellular responses such as apoptosis and survival
[...] Read more.
Insulin resistance (IR) is an important stress factor in the central nervous system, thereby aggravating neuropathogenesis and triggering cognitive decline. Melatonin, which is an antioxidant phytochemical and synthesized by the pineal gland, has multiple functions in cellular responses such as apoptosis and survival against stress. This study investigated whether melatonin modulates the signaling of neuronal cell death induced by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress under IR condition using SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Apoptosis cell death signaling markers (cleaved Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP), p53, and Bax) and ER stress markers (phosphorylated eIF2α (p-eIF2α), ATF4, CHOP, p-IRE1, and spliced XBP1 (sXBP1)) were measured using reverse transcription-PCR, quantitative PCR, and western blottings. Immunofluorescence staining was also performed for p-ASK1 and p-IRE1. The mRNA or protein expressions of cell death signaling markers and ER stress markers were increased under IR condition, but significantly attenuated by melatonin treatment. Insulin-induced activation of ASK1 (p-ASK1) was also dose dependently attenuated by melatonin treatment. The regulatory effect of melatonin on neuronal cells under IR condition was associated with ASK1 signaling. In conclusion, the result suggested that melatonin may alleviate ER stress under IR condition, thereby regulating neuronal cell death signaling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Curcumin Anti-Apoptotic Action in a Model of Intestinal Epithelial Inflammatory Damage
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 578; doi:10.3390/nu9060578
Received: 24 April 2017 / Revised: 27 May 2017 / Accepted: 1 June 2017 / Published: 6 June 2017
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Abstract
The purpose of this study is to determine if a preventive treatment with curcumin can protect intestinal epithelial cells from inflammatory damage induced by IFNγ. To achieve this goal we have used a human intestinal epithelial cell line (HT29) treated with IFNγ to
[...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to determine if a preventive treatment with curcumin can protect intestinal epithelial cells from inflammatory damage induced by IFNγ. To achieve this goal we have used a human intestinal epithelial cell line (HT29) treated with IFNγ to undergo apoptotic changes that can reproduce the damage of intestinal epithelia exposed to inflammatory cytokines. In this model, we measured the effect of curcumin (curcuminoid from Curcuma Longa) added as a pre-treatment at different time intervals before stimulation with IFNγ. Curcumin administration to HT29 culture before the inflammatory stimulus IFNγ reduced the cell apoptosis rate. This effect gradually declined with the reduction of the curcumin pre-incubation time. This anti-apoptotic action by curcumin pre-treatment was paralleled by a reduction of secreted IL7 in the HT29 culture media, while there was no relevant change in the other cytokine levels. Even though curcumin pre-administration did not impact the activation of the NF-κB pathway, a slight effect on the phosphorylation of proteins in this inflammatory signaling pathway was observed. In conclusion, curcumin pre-treatment can protect intestinal cells from inflammatory damage. These results can be the basis for studying the preventive role of curcumin in inflammatory bowel diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Different Intestinal Microbial Profile in Over-Weight and Obese Subjects Consuming a Diet with Low Content of Fiber and Antioxidants
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 551; doi:10.3390/nu9060551
Received: 18 April 2017 / Revised: 18 May 2017 / Accepted: 23 May 2017 / Published: 27 May 2017
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Abstract
Obesity has been related to an increased risk of multiple diseases in which oxidative stress and inflammation play a role. Gut microbiota has emerged as a mediator in this interaction, providing new mechanistic insights at the interface between fat metabolism dysregulation and obesity
[...] Read more.
Obesity has been related to an increased risk of multiple diseases in which oxidative stress and inflammation play a role. Gut microbiota has emerged as a mediator in this interaction, providing new mechanistic insights at the interface between fat metabolism dysregulation and obesity development. Our aim was to analyze the interrelationship among obesity, diet, oxidative stress, inflammation and the intestinal microbiota in 68 healthy adults (29.4% normal-weight). Diet was assessed through a food frequency questionnaire and converted into nutrients and dietary compounds using food composition tables. The intestinal microbiota was assessed by quantitative PCR, fecal short chain fatty acids by gas chromatography and serum biomarkers by standard protocols. Higher levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), C reactive protein (CRP), serum leptin, glucose, fat percentage and the intestinal Lactobacillus group were found in the obese people. Cluster analysis of body mass index, fat mass, glucose, LDL/HDL ratio, leptin, MDA and CRP classified the subjects into two groups. The levels of the intestinal Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group were lower in the cluster and linked to a higher pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory status, whose individuals also had lower intake of fruits, dried fruits, and fish. These results could be useful for designing strategies targeted to obesity prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Improvement of Antioxidant Defences and Mood Status by Oral GABA Tea Administration in a Mouse Model of Post-Stroke Depression
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 446; doi:10.3390/nu9050446
Received: 26 February 2017 / Revised: 2 April 2017 / Accepted: 24 April 2017 / Published: 29 April 2017
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Abstract
Green GABA (GGABA) and Oolong GABA (OGABA) teas are relatively new varieties of tea, whose chemical composition and functional properties are largely under-studied, despite their promising health capacities. Post stroke depression (PSD) is a complication of stroke with high clinical relevance, yielding increasing
[...] Read more.
Green GABA (GGABA) and Oolong GABA (OGABA) teas are relatively new varieties of tea, whose chemical composition and functional properties are largely under-studied, despite their promising health capacities. Post stroke depression (PSD) is a complication of stroke with high clinical relevance, yielding increasing mortality and morbidity rates, and a lower response to common therapies and rehabilitation. Methods: Two chemically characterized commercial samples of GGABA and OGABA were investigated for effects on mood following oral administration using a mouse model of PSD, through common validated tests including the Despair Swimming Test and Tail Suspension Test. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of GGABA and OGABA was evaluated by determining the levels of lipid peroxidation products and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the mouse brain in vivo. Results: GGABA and OGABA attenuated depressed mood by influencing behavioral parameters linked to depression. GGABA was more active than OGABA in this study, and this effect may be likely due to a higher content of polyphenolic substances and amino acids in GGABA compared to OGABA. GGABA also exerted a greater antioxidant activity. Conclusions: Our data suggests that GABA tea is a promising candidate that can be used as an adjuvant in the management of PSD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Inhibition of Neoplastic Transformation and Chemically-Induced Skin Hyperplasia in Mice by Traditional Chinese Medicinal Formula Si-Wu-Tang
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 300; doi:10.3390/nu9030300
Received: 9 February 2017 / Revised: 12 March 2017 / Accepted: 12 March 2017 / Published: 18 March 2017
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Abstract
Exploring traditional medicines may lead to the development of low-cost and non-toxic cancer preventive agents. Si-Wu-Tang (SWT), comprising the combination of four herbs, Rehmanniae, Angelica, Chuanxiong, and Paeoniae, is one of the most popular traditional Chinese medicines for women’s diseases. In our previous
[...] Read more.
Exploring traditional medicines may lead to the development of low-cost and non-toxic cancer preventive agents. Si-Wu-Tang (SWT), comprising the combination of four herbs, Rehmanniae, Angelica, Chuanxiong, and Paeoniae, is one of the most popular traditional Chinese medicines for women’s diseases. In our previous studies, the antioxidant Nrf2 pathways were strongly induced by SWT in vitro and in vivo. Since Nrf2 activation has been associated with anticarcinogenic effects, the purpose of this study is to evaluate SWT’s activity of cancer prevention. In the Ames test, SWT demonstrated an antimutagenic activity against mutagenicity induced by the chemical carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). In JB6 P+ cells, a non-cancerous murine epidermal model for studying tumor promotion, SWT inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced neoplastic transformation. The luciferase reporter gene assays demonstrated that SWT suppressed EGF-induced AP-1 and TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation, which are essential factors involved in skin carcinogenesis. In a DMBA-induced skin hyperplasia assay in ‘Sensitivity to Carcinogenesis’ (SENCAR) mice, both topical and oral SWT inhibited DMBA-induced epidermal hyperplasia, expression of the proliferation marker Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and H-ras mutations. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, that SWT prevents tumor promoter and chemical-induced carcinogenesis in vitro and in vivo, partly by inhibiting DNA damage and blocking the activation of AP-1 and NF-κB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Enantioselective Modulatory Effects of Naringenin  Enantiomers on the Expression Levels of miR‐17‐3p  Involved in Endogenous Antioxidant Defenses
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 215; doi:10.3390/nu9030215
Received: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
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Abstract
Naringenin is a flavanone present in citrus fruit as a mixture of chiral isomers. The numerous biological properties attributed to this compound include antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory activities, even though the molecular mechanisms of these remain unknown. This study aims to evaluate the effects
[...] Read more.
Naringenin is a flavanone present in citrus fruit as a mixture of chiral isomers. The numerous biological properties attributed to this compound include antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory activities, even though the molecular mechanisms of these remain unknown. This study aims to evaluate the effects of racemic and enantiomeric naringenin on the expression levels of miR‐17‐3p, miR‐25‐5p and relative mRNA targets, to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory properties. Caco‐2 cells, a well characterized in vitro model which mimics the intestinal barrier, were treated with subtoxic concentrations of racemate and enantiomers. The expression levels of miR‐17‐3p and miR‐25‐5p were determined by Real‐Time PCR and were found to be decreased for both miRNAs. miR‐17‐3p behavior was in agreement with the increased levels of target mRNAs coding for two antioxidant enzymes, manganese‐dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and glutathione peroxidase 2 (GPx2), while expression levels of miR‐25‐5p were not in agreement with its target mRNAs, coding for two pro‐inflammatory cytokines, Tumor necrosis factor‐alpha (TNF‐α) and Interleukin‐6 (IL‐6). These results lead to the conclusion that naringenin could exert its antioxidant activity through epigenetic regulation operated by miRNAs, while anti‐inflammatory activity is regulated by other miRNAs and/or mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle The Combination of Blueberry Juice and Probiotics Ameliorate Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) by Affecting SREBP-1c/PNPLA-3 Pathway via PPAR-α
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 198; doi:10.3390/nu9030198
Received: 17 December 2016 / Revised: 14 February 2017 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
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Abstract
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is liver inflammation and a major threat to public health. Several pharmaceutical agents have been used for NASH therapy but their high-rate side effects limit the use. Blueberry juice and probiotics (BP) have anti-inflammation and antibacterial properties, and may be
[...] Read more.
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is liver inflammation and a major threat to public health. Several pharmaceutical agents have been used for NASH therapy but their high-rate side effects limit the use. Blueberry juice and probiotics (BP) have anti-inflammation and antibacterial properties, and may be potential candidates for NASH therapy. To understand the molecular mechanism, Sprague Dawley rats were used to create NASH models and received different treatments. Liver tissues were examined using HE (hematoxylin and eosin) and ORO (Oil Red O) stain, and serum biochemical indices were measured. The levels of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR)-α, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA-3), inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis biomarkers in liver tissues were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blot. HE and ORO analysis indicated that the hepatocytes were seriously damaged with more and larger lipid droplets in NASH models while BP reduced the number and size of lipid droplets (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, BP increased the levels of SOD (superoxide dismutase), GSH (reduced glutathione) and HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), and reduced the levels of AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine aminotransferase), TG (triglycerides), LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and MDA (malondialdehyde) in NASH models (p < 0.05). BP increased the level of PPAR-α (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α), and reduced the levels of SREBP-1c (sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c) and PNPLA-3 (Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3) (p < 0.05). BP reduced hepatic inflammation and apoptosis by affecting IL-6 (interleukin 6), TNF-α (Tumor necrosis factor α), caspase-3 and Bcl-2 in NASH models. Furthermore, PPAR-α inhibitor increased the level of SREBP-1c and PNPLA-3. Therefore, BP prevents NASH progression by affecting SREBP-1c/PNPLA-3 pathway via PPAR-α. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Age-Related Loss in Bone Mineral Density of Rats Fed Lifelong on a Fish Oil-Based Diet Is Avoided by Coenzyme Q10 Addition
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 176; doi:10.3390/nu9020176
Received: 11 November 2016 / Revised: 24 January 2017 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
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Abstract
During aging, bone mass declines increasing osteoporosis and fracture risks. Oxidative stress has been related to this bone loss, making dietary compounds with antioxidant properties a promising weapon. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 6 or 24 months on diets with fish oil
[...] Read more.
During aging, bone mass declines increasing osteoporosis and fracture risks. Oxidative stress has been related to this bone loss, making dietary compounds with antioxidant properties a promising weapon. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 6 or 24 months on diets with fish oil as unique fat source, supplemented or not with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), to evaluate the potential of adding this molecule to the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA)-based diet for bone mineral density (BMD) preservation. BMD was evaluated in the femur. Serum osteocalcin, osteopontin, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, ostroprotegerin, parathyroid hormone, urinary F2-isoprostanes, and lymphocytes DNA strand breaks were also measured. BMD was lower in aged rats fed a diet without CoQ10 respect than their younger counterparts, whereas older animals receiving CoQ10 showed the highest BMD. F2-isoprostanes and DNA strand breaks showed that oxidative stress was higher during aging. Supplementation with CoQ10 prevented oxidative damage to lipid and DNA, in young and old animals, respectively. Reduced oxidative stress associated to CoQ10 supplementation of this n-3 PUFA-rich diet might explain the higher BMD found in aged rats in this group of animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Oxyresveratrol Supplementation to C57bl/6 Mice Fed with a High-Fat Diet Ameliorates Obesity-Associated Symptoms
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 147; doi:10.3390/nu9020147
Received: 16 January 2017 / Revised: 6 February 2017 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 16 February 2017
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Abstract
Oxyresveratrol has been proven effective in inhibiting adipogenesis in a 3T3-L1 cell model. We investigated the preventive effect of oxyresveratrol supplementation on obesity development in high-fat diet-fed mice. Male C57bl/6 mice were randomly subjected to control (5% fat by weight, LF), high-fat (30%
[...] Read more.
Oxyresveratrol has been proven effective in inhibiting adipogenesis in a 3T3-L1 cell model. We investigated the preventive effect of oxyresveratrol supplementation on obesity development in high-fat diet-fed mice. Male C57bl/6 mice were randomly subjected to control (5% fat by weight, LF), high-fat (30% fat by weight, HF), and high-fat supplemented with 0.25% and 0.5% oxyresveratrol (OXY1 and OXY2, respectively) diet groups for eight weeks. Oxyresveratrol supplementation effectively alleviated obesity-associated symptoms such as insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-fed mice. Compared to the high-fat diet group, oxyresveratrol supplementation suppressed expression of glucose-6-phosphatase, sterol regulatory element-binding proteins 1, fatty acid synthase and CCAAT/Enhancer-binding proteins α, and elevated AMP-activated protein kinase (α2-catalytic subunit) level in liver, upregulated insulin-dependent glucose transporter type 4 level in adipose tissue, and increased expression of insulin receptor substrate 1, insulin-dependent glucose transporter type 4, AMP-activated protein kinase α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α, and sirtuin 1 in muscle to regulate lipid and glucose homeostasis in these tissues. This study demonstrated that oxyresveratrol supplementation effectively ameliorated obesity-associated symptoms in high-fat diet-fed mice, presumably attributed to mediating critical regulators involved in lipid and glucose homeostasis in liver, visceral fat, and muscle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of an Encapsulated Fruit and Vegetable Juice Concentrate on Obesity-Induced Systemic Inflammation: A Randomised Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 116; doi:10.3390/nu9020116
Received: 20 December 2016 / Revised: 23 January 2017 / Accepted: 24 January 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
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Abstract
Phytochemicals from fruit and vegetables reduce systemic inflammation. This study examined the effects of an encapsulated fruit and vegetable (F&V) juice concentrate on systemic inflammation and other risk factors for chronic disease in overweight and obese adults. A double-blinded, parallel, randomized placebo-controlled trial
[...] Read more.
Phytochemicals from fruit and vegetables reduce systemic inflammation. This study examined the effects of an encapsulated fruit and vegetable (F&V) juice concentrate on systemic inflammation and other risk factors for chronic disease in overweight and obese adults. A double-blinded, parallel, randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 56 adults aged ≥40 years with a body mass index (BMI) ≥28 kg/m2. Before and after eight weeks daily treatment with six capsules of F&V juice concentrate or placebo, peripheral blood gene expression (microarray, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)), plasma tumour necrosis factor (TNF)α (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)), body composition (Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)) and lipid profiles were assessed. Following consumption of juice concentrate, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and plasma TNFα decreased and total lean mass increased, while there was no change in the placebo group. In subjects with high systemic inflammation at baseline (serum C-reactive protein (CRP) ≥3.0 mg/mL) who were supplemented with the F&V juice concentrate (n = 16), these effects were greater, with decreased total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and plasma TNFα and increased total lean mass; plasma CRP was unchanged by the F&V juice concentrate following both analyses. The expression of several genes involved in lipogenesis, the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signalling pathways was altered, including phosphomevalonate kinase (PMVK), zinc finger AN1-type containing 5 (ZFAND5) and calcium binding protein 39 (CAB39), respectively. Therefore, F&V juice concentrate improves the metabolic profile, by reducing systemic inflammation and blood lipid profiles and, thus, may be useful in reducing the risk of obesity-induced chronic disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Preventive Effects of Drinking Hydrogen-Rich Water on Gingival Oxidative Stress and Alveolar Bone Resorption in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet
Nutrients 2017, 9(1), 64; doi:10.3390/nu9010064
Received: 29 November 2016 / Revised: 10 January 2017 / Accepted: 11 January 2017 / Published: 13 January 2017
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Abstract
Obesity induces gingival oxidative stress, which is involved in the progression of alveolar bone resorption. The antioxidant effect of hydrogen-rich water may attenuate gingival oxidative stress and prevent alveolar bone resorption in cases of obesity. We examined whether hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival
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Obesity induces gingival oxidative stress, which is involved in the progression of alveolar bone resorption. The antioxidant effect of hydrogen-rich water may attenuate gingival oxidative stress and prevent alveolar bone resorption in cases of obesity. We examined whether hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Male Fischer 344 rats (n = 18) were divided into three groups of six rats each: a control group (fed a regular diet and drinking distilled water) and two experimental groups (fed a high-fat diet and drinking distilled water or hydrogen-rich water). The level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was determined to evaluate oxidative stress. The bone mineral density of the alveolar bone was analyzed by micro-computerized tomography. Obese rats, induced by a high-fat diet, showed a higher gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and a lower level of alveolar bone density compared to the control group. Drinking hydrogen-rich water suppressed body weight gain, lowered gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, and reduced alveolar bone resorption in rats on a high-fat diet. The results indicate that hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption by limiting obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Coenzyme Q10 and Oxidative Stress: Inflammation Status in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients after Surgery
Nutrients 2017, 9(1), 29; doi:10.3390/nu9010029
Received: 25 November 2016 / Revised: 27 December 2016 / Accepted: 28 December 2016 / Published: 4 January 2017
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Abstract
(1) Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, and surgical resection is the main treatment for HCC. To date, no published study has examined the status of coenzyme Q10 in patients with HCC after surgery. Thus, the
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(1) Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, and surgical resection is the main treatment for HCC. To date, no published study has examined the status of coenzyme Q10 in patients with HCC after surgery. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the correlations between the level of coenzyme Q10, oxidative stress, and inflammation in patients with HCC after surgery; (2) Methods: 71 primary HCC patients were recruited. Levels of coenzyme Q10, vitamin E, oxidative stress (malondialdehyde), antioxidant enzymes activity (superoxidase dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase), and inflammatory markers (high sensitivity C-reactive protein; tumor necrosis factor-α; and interleukin-6) were measured; (3) Results: Patients with HCC had a significantly lower levels of coenzyme Q10 (p = 0.01) and oxidative stress (p < 0.01), and significantly higher levels of antioxidant enzymes activities and inflammation after surgery (p < 0.05). The level of coenzyme Q10 was significantly positively correlated with antioxidant capacity (vitamin E and glutathione peroxidase activity) and negatively correlated with inflammation markers after surgery; (4) Conclusion: Hepatocarcinogenesis is associated with oxidative stress, and coenzyme Q10 may be considered an antioxidant therapy for patients with HCC, particularly those with higher inflammation after surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Proteins on the Uptake, Distribution, and Excretion of Phenolics in the Human Body
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 814; doi:10.3390/nu8120814
Received: 4 November 2016 / Revised: 6 December 2016 / Accepted: 8 December 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
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Abstract
Polyphenols, a complex group of secondary plant metabolites, including flavonoids and phenolic acids, have been studied in depth for their health-related benefits. The activity of polyphenols may, however, be hampered when consumed together with protein-rich food products, due to the interaction between polyphenols
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Polyphenols, a complex group of secondary plant metabolites, including flavonoids and phenolic acids, have been studied in depth for their health-related benefits. The activity of polyphenols may, however, be hampered when consumed together with protein-rich food products, due to the interaction between polyphenols and proteins. To that end we have tested the bioavailability of representatives of a range of polyphenol classes when consumed for five days in different beverage matrices. In a placebo-controlled, randomized, cross-over study, 35 healthy males received either six placebo gelatine capsules consumed with 200 mL of water, six capsules with 800 mg polyphenols derived from red wine and grape extracts, or the same dose of polyphenols incorporated into 200 mL of either pasteurized dairy drink, soy drink (both containing 3.4% proteins) or fruit-flavoured protein-free drink . At the end of the intervention urine and blood was collected and analysed for a broad range of phenolic compounds using Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Liquid Chromatography–Multiple Reaction Monitoring–Mass Spectrometry (LC-MRM-MS), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy techniques. The plasma and urine concentrations of the polyphenols identified increased with all formats, including the protein-rich beverages. Compared to capsule ingestion, consumption of polyphenol-rich beverages containing either dairy, soy or no proteins had minor to no effect on the bioavailability and excretion of phenolic compounds in plasma (118% ± 9%) and urine (98% ± 2%). We conclude that intake of polyphenols incorporated in protein-rich drinks does not have a major impact on the bioavailability of a range of different polyphenols and phenolic metabolites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Regressive Effect of Myricetin on Hepatic Steatosis in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 799; doi:10.3390/nu8120799
Received: 9 October 2016 / Revised: 4 December 2016 / Accepted: 5 December 2016 / Published: 11 December 2016
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Abstract
Myricetin is an effective antioxidant in the treatment of obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders. The objective of this study was to explore the regressive effect of myricetin on pre-existing hepatic steatosis induced by high-fat diet (HFD). C57BL/6 mice were fed either a standard
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Myricetin is an effective antioxidant in the treatment of obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders. The objective of this study was to explore the regressive effect of myricetin on pre-existing hepatic steatosis induced by high-fat diet (HFD). C57BL/6 mice were fed either a standard diet or a HFD for 12 weeks and then half of the mice were treated with myricetin (0.12% in the diet, w/w) while on their respective diets for further 12 weeks. Myricetin treatment significantly alleviated HFD-induced steatosis, decreased hepatic lipid accumulation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels, and increased antioxidative enzyme activities, including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Microarray analysis of hepatic gene expression profiles showed that myricetin significantly altered the expression profiles of 177 genes which were involved in 12 biological pathways, including the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway and peroxisome. Further research indicated that myricetin elevated hepatic nuclear Nrf2 translocation, increased the protein expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1), reduced the protein expression of PPARγ, and normalized the expressions of genes that were involved in peroxisome and the PPAR signaling pathway. Our data indicated that myricetin might represent an effective therapeutic agent to treat HFD-induced hepatic steatosis via activating the Nrf2 pathway and the PPAR signaling pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Curcumin and Boswellia serrata Modulate the Glyco-Oxidative Status and Lipo-Oxidation in Master Athletes
Nutrients 2016, 8(11), 745; doi:10.3390/nu8110745
Received: 21 October 2016 / Revised: 10 November 2016 / Accepted: 15 November 2016 / Published: 21 November 2016
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Abstract
Background: Chronic intensive exercise is associated with a greater induction of oxidative stress and with an excess of endogenous advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Curcumin can reduce the accumulation of AGEs in vitro and in animal models. We examined whether supplementation with curcumin and
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Background: Chronic intensive exercise is associated with a greater induction of oxidative stress and with an excess of endogenous advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Curcumin can reduce the accumulation of AGEs in vitro and in animal models. We examined whether supplementation with curcumin and Boswellia serrata (BSE) gum resin for 3 months could affect plasma levels of markers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and glycation in healthy master cyclists. Methods. Forty-seven healthy male athletes were randomly assigned to Group 1, consisting of 22 subjects given a Mediterranean diet (MD) alone (MD group), and Group 2 consisted of 25 subjects given a MD plus curcumin and BSE (curcumin/BSE group). Interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), high-sensitivity c-reactive protein (hs-CRP), total AGE, soluble receptor for AGE (sRAGE), malondialdehyde (MDA), plasma phospholipid fatty acid (PPFA) composition, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were tested at baseline and after 12 weeks. Results: sRAGE, NEFA, and MDA decreased significantly in both groups, while only the curcumin/BSE group showed a significant decline in total AGE. Only the changes in total AGE and MDA differed significantly between the curcumin/BSE and MD groups. Conclusions. Our data suggest a positive effect of supplementation with curcumin and BSE on glycoxidation and lipid peroxidation in chronically exercising master athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
Open AccessArticle Black Tea Increases Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Improves Flow Mediated Dilatation Counteracting Deleterious Effects from a Fat Load in Hypertensive Patients: A Randomized Controlled Study
Nutrients 2016, 8(11), 727; doi:10.3390/nu8110727
Received: 13 September 2016 / Revised: 3 November 2016 / Accepted: 7 November 2016 / Published: 16 November 2016
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Abstract
(1) Background: Endothelial dysfunction predicts cardiovascular events. Circulating angiogenic cells (CACs) maintain and repair the endothelium regulating its function. Tea flavonoids reduce cardiovascular risk. We investigated the effects of black tea on the number of CACs and on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) before and
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(1) Background: Endothelial dysfunction predicts cardiovascular events. Circulating angiogenic cells (CACs) maintain and repair the endothelium regulating its function. Tea flavonoids reduce cardiovascular risk. We investigated the effects of black tea on the number of CACs and on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) before and after an oral fat in hypertensives; (2) Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, controlled, cross-over study, 19 patients were assigned to black tea (150 mg polyphenols) or a placebo twice a day for eight days. Measurements were obtained in a fasted state and after consuming whipping cream, and FMD was measured at baseline and after consumption of the products; (3) Results: Compared with the placebo, black tea ingestion increased functionally active CACs (36 ± 22 vs. 56 ± 21 cells per high-power field; p = 0.006) and FMD (5.0% ± 0.3% vs. 6.6% ± 0.3%, p < 0.0001). Tea further increased FMD 1, 2, 3, and 4 h after consumption, with maximal response 2 h after intake (p < 0.0001). Fat challenge decreased FMD, while tea consumption counteracted FMD impairment (p < 0.0001); (4) Conclusions: We demonstrated the vascular protective properties of black tea by increasing the number of CACs and preventing endothelial dysfunction induced by acute oral fat load in hypertensive patients. Considering that tea is the most consumed beverage after water, our findings are of clinical relevance and interest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Proanthocyanidins Attenuation of Chronic Lead-Induced Liver Oxidative Damage in Kunming Mice via the Nrf2/ARE Pathway
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 656; doi:10.3390/nu8100656
Received: 29 August 2016 / Revised: 5 October 2016 / Accepted: 14 October 2016 / Published: 21 October 2016
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Abstract
Lead is harmful for human health and animals. Proanthocyanidins (PCs), a natural antioxidant, possess a broad spectrum of pharmacological and medicinal properties. However, its protective effects against lead-induced liver damage have not been clarified. This study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect
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Lead is harmful for human health and animals. Proanthocyanidins (PCs), a natural antioxidant, possess a broad spectrum of pharmacological and medicinal properties. However, its protective effects against lead-induced liver damage have not been clarified. This study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of PCs on the hepatotoxicity of male Kunming mice induced by chronic lead exposure. A total of 70 healthy male Kunming mice were averagely divided into four groups: control group, i.e., the group exposed to lead, the group treated with PCs, and the group co-treated with lead and PCs. The mice exposed to lead were given water containing 0.2% lead acetate. Mice treated in the PCs and PCs lead co-treated groups were given PC (100 mg/kg) in 0.9% saline by oral gavage. Lead exposure caused a significant elevation in the liver function parameters, lead level, lipid peroxidation, and inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activities. The induction of oxidative stress and histological alterations in the liver were minimized by co-treatment with PCs. Meanwhile, the number of Transferase-Mediated Deoxyuridine Triphosphate-Biotin Nick End Labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells was significantly reduced in the PCs/lead co-treated group compared to the lead group. In addition, the lead group showed an increase in the expression level of Bax, while the expression of Bcl-2 was decreased. Furthermore, the lead group showed an increase in the expression level of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related genes and protein (GRP78 and CHOP). Co-treated with PCs significantly reversed these expressions in the liver. PCs were, therefore, demonstrated to have protective, antioxidant, and anti-ER stress and anti-apoptotic activities in liver damage caused by chronic lead exposure in the Kunming mouse. This may be due to the ability of PCs to enhance the ability of liver tissue to protect against oxidative stress via the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway, resulting in decreasing ER stress and apoptosis of liver tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessReview Dietary Sources and Bioactivities of Melatonin
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 367; doi:10.3390/nu9040367
Received: 21 January 2017 / Revised: 14 March 2017 / Accepted: 31 March 2017 / Published: 7 April 2017
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Abstract
Insomnia is a serious worldwide health threat, affecting nearly one third of the general population. Melatonin has been reported to improve sleep efficiency and it was found that eating melatonin-rich foods could assist sleep. During the last decades, melatonin has been widely identified
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Insomnia is a serious worldwide health threat, affecting nearly one third of the general population. Melatonin has been reported to improve sleep efficiency and it was found that eating melatonin-rich foods could assist sleep. During the last decades, melatonin has been widely identified and qualified in various foods from fungi to animals and plants. Eggs and fish are higher melatonin-containing food groups in animal foods, whereas in plant foods, nuts are with the highest content of melatonin. Some kinds of mushrooms, cereals and germinated legumes or seeds are also good dietary sources of melatonin. It has been proved that the melatonin concentration in human serum could significantly increase after the consumption of melatonin containing food. Furthermore, studies show that melatonin exhibits many bioactivities, such as antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory characteristics, boosting immunity, anticancer activity, cardiovascular protection, anti-diabetic, anti-obese, neuroprotective and anti-aging activity. This review summaries the dietary sources and bioactivities of melatonin, with special attention paid to the mechanisms of action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessReview Antioxidants for Healthy Skin: The Emerging Role of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptors and Nuclear Factor-Erythroid 2-Related Factor-2
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 223; doi:10.3390/nu9030223
Received: 1 February 2017 / Revised: 24 February 2017 / Accepted: 28 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
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Abstract
Skin is the outermost part of the body and is, thus, inevitably exposed to UV rays and environmental pollutants. Oxidative stress by these hazardous factors accelerates skin aging and induces skin inflammation and carcinogenesis. Aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AHRs) are chemical sensors that are
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Skin is the outermost part of the body and is, thus, inevitably exposed to UV rays and environmental pollutants. Oxidative stress by these hazardous factors accelerates skin aging and induces skin inflammation and carcinogenesis. Aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AHRs) are chemical sensors that are abundantly expressed in epidermal keratinocytes and mediate the production of reactive oxygen species. To neutralize or minimize oxidative stress, the keratinocytes also express nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (NRF2), which is a master switch for antioxidant signaling. Notably, there is fine-tuned crosstalk between AHR and NRF2, which mutually increase or decrease their activation states. Many NRF2-mediated antioxidant phytochemicals are capable of up- and downmodulating AHR signaling. The precise mechanisms by which these phytochemicals differentially affect the AHR and NRF2 system remain largely unknown and warrant future investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessReview Antioxidants and Dementia Risk: Consideration through a Cerebrovascular Perspective
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 828; doi:10.3390/nu8120828
Received: 15 November 2016 / Revised: 16 December 2016 / Accepted: 16 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
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Abstract
A number of natural and chemical compounds that exert anti-oxidative properties are demonstrated to be beneficial for brain and cognitive function, and some are reported to reduce the risk of dementia. However, the detailed mechanisms by which those anti-oxidative compounds show positive effects
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A number of natural and chemical compounds that exert anti-oxidative properties are demonstrated to be beneficial for brain and cognitive function, and some are reported to reduce the risk of dementia. However, the detailed mechanisms by which those anti-oxidative compounds show positive effects on cognition and dementia are still unclear. An emerging body of evidence suggests that the integrity of the cerebrovascular blood-brain barrier (BBB) is centrally involved in the onset and progression of cognitive impairment and dementia. While recent studies revealed that some anti-oxidative agents appear to be protective against the disruption of BBB integrity and structure, few studies considered the neuroprotective effects of antioxidants in the context of cerebrovascular integrity. Therefore, in this review, we examine the mechanistic insights of antioxidants as a pleiotropic agent for cognitive impairment and dementia through a cerebrovascular axis by primarily focusing on the current available data from physiological studies. Conclusively, there is a compelling body of evidence that suggest antioxidants may prevent cognitive decline and dementia by protecting the integrity and function of BBB and, indeed, further studies are needed to directly examine these effects in addition to underlying molecular mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessReview Fish Consumption and Age-Related Macular Degeneration Incidence: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of Prospective Cohort Studies
Nutrients 2016, 8(11), 743; doi:10.3390/nu8110743
Received: 22 August 2016 / Revised: 2 October 2016 / Accepted: 11 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
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Abstract
The association between fish consumption and risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is still unclear. The aim of the current meta-analysis and systematic review was to quantitatively evaluate findings from observational studies on fish consumption and the risk of AMD. Relevant studies were
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The association between fish consumption and risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is still unclear. The aim of the current meta-analysis and systematic review was to quantitatively evaluate findings from observational studies on fish consumption and the risk of AMD. Relevant studies were identified by searching electronic databases (Medline and EMBASE) and reviewing the reference lists of relevant articles up to August, 2016. Prospective cohort studies that reported relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the link between fish consumption and risk of AMD were included. A total of 4202 cases with 128,988 individuals from eight cohort studies were identified in the current meta-analysis. The meta-analyzed RR was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.65–0.90) when any AMD was considered. Subgroup analyses by AMD stages showed that fish consumption would reduce the risk of both early (RR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.72–0.96) and late (RR; 0.76; 95% CI, 0.60–0.97) AMD. When stratified by the follow-up duration, fish consumption was a protective factor of AMD in both over 10 years (n = 5; RR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.67–0.97) and less than 10 years (n = 3; RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.97) follow-up duration. Stratified analyses by fish type demonstrated that dark meat fish (RR, 0.68, 95% CI, 0.46–0.99), especially tuna fish (RR, 0.58; 95% CI, 95% CI, 0.47–0.71) intake was associated with reduced AMD risk. Evidence of a linear association between dose of fish consumption and risk of AMD was demonstrated. The results of this meta-analysis demonstrated that fish consumption can reduce AMD risk. Advanced, well-designed, randomized clinical trials are required in order to validate the conclusions in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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