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Special Issue "International Breakfast Research Consortium"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Mathilde Kersting

Research Department Child Nutrition, Pediatric University Clinic Bochum, Alexandrinenstraße 5, 44791 Bochum, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: preventive recommendations for the nutrition of infants, children of adolescents; early origins of adult disease

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nutrients is preparing a Special Issue to publish a series of papers from the International Breakfast Research Initiative (IBRI), which involves Canada, Denmark, France, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. Researchers from each centre will prepare a paper based on their own national dietary survey data along harmonised lines documenting both in children and adults the regularity of breakfast consumption, the contribution of breakfast to daily nutrient intake, the main food sources of breakfast nutrients and breakfast food and nutrient intakes across tertiles of the overall quality of the daily diet using the Nutrient Rich Foods index. The emphasis will be on nutritional outcomes of breakfast intake rather than any measure of health outcome, such as weight management, glycaemia, cognition or cardiovascular health. In addition, there will be an introductory paper to scope out the present global status. The above-mentioned papers will be complimented by a paper outlining a dietary modelling approach to derive an optimal breakfast composition. The data of the IBRI will be used in an attempt to develop specific guidelines on nutrient and food intakes at breakfast and this will form the basis of the final paper in this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Mathilde Kersting
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Breakfast
  • Breakfast nutrients
  • Breakfast foods
  • Optimizing food and nutrient guidelines for breakfast

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Breakfast Consumption in Spain: Patterns, Nutrient Intake and Quality. Findings from the ANIBES Study, a Study from the International Breakfast Research Initiative
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1324; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091324
Received: 20 August 2018 / Revised: 9 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
This study aimed to investigate energy, nutrient and food group intakes at breakfast in Spain and to examine for the first time, their relationship to the overall Diet Quality (DQ). The data used were from the Spanish ANIBES (anthropometric data, macronutrients and micronutrients
[...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate energy, nutrient and food group intakes at breakfast in Spain and to examine for the first time, their relationship to the overall Diet Quality (DQ). The data used were from the Spanish ANIBES (anthropometric data, macronutrients and micronutrients intake, practice of physical activity, socioeconomic data and lifestyles in Spain), a cross-sectional study using a nationally representative sample of the Spanish population (9–75 years old). DQ was assessed using the Nutrient Rich Foods Index, adapted to total diets (NRF9.3d). Most (>85%) of the Spanish population were regular breakfast consumers, although one in five adolescents were breakfast skippers. Breakfast provides just 16–19% of the daily intake of energy. Relative to its daily energy contribution, the Spanish breakfast contributed a higher proportion of daily total carbohydrates, added sugars, sodium, thiamin, riboflavin, folates, iron, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus and especially in calcium. By contrast, the breakfast is low in water intake, protein, dietary fibre, total fat, polyunsaturated fatty acids, beta-carotene and vitamins E and D. In children and teenagers, the most commonly consumed breakfast food was chocolate (mainly as chocolate-flavoured milk and powder), followed by bakery and pastry, whole milk and semi-skimmed milk. In the older groups, a bigger variety of foods were reported. Consumers in the highest NRF9.3d tertile for diet quality tended to have a higher intake of positive nutrients at breakfast than other tertiles, most notably among adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue International Breakfast Research Consortium)
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Open AccessArticle Breakfast in the United States: Food and Nutrient Intakes in Relation to Diet Quality in National Health and Examination Survey 2011–2014. A Study from the International Breakfast Research Initiative
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1200; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091200
Received: 5 August 2018 / Revised: 15 August 2018 / Accepted: 27 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
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Abstract
The contribution of breakfast to diet quality (DQ) can inform future dietary guidelines. This study examined breakfast nutrition in relation to overall DQ, using dietary data from the first reported day of the National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2014 (n =
[...] Read more.
The contribution of breakfast to diet quality (DQ) can inform future dietary guidelines. This study examined breakfast nutrition in relation to overall DQ, using dietary data from the first reported day of the National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2014 (n = 14,488). Relative DQ was assessed using the Nutrient Rich Foods Index (NRF9.3) and the USDA Healthy Eating Index 2015 (HEI 2015). The sample was stratified by NRF9.3 tertiles and by age and socioeconomic groups. Four out of 5 NHANES participants had breakfast on the day of the interview. Breakfast provided 19–22% of dietary energy depending on age. Breakfast intakes of complex carbohydrates and total sugars were proportionately higher and intakes of protein and fats were lower relative to breakfast energy intakes. Breakfast provided more that 20% of daily intakes of B vitamins, vitamins A and D, folate, calcium, iron, potassium and magnesium. Eating breakfast was associated with higher NRF9.3 DQ scores. Breakfasts associated with the top tertile of NRF9.3 scores had less added sugars and fats than those associated with the bottom tertile. Such breakfasts had more fruit and juices, more whole grain products, more milk and yogurt and less meat and eggs. Breakfast patterns and food choices that favored fruit, whole grains and dairy were associated with healthiest diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue International Breakfast Research Consortium)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Breakfast in Denmark. Prevalence of Consumption, Intake of Foods, Nutrients and Dietary Quality. A Study from the International Breakfast Research Initiative
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1085; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081085
Received: 12 July 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 14 August 2018
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Abstract
Breakfast is considered by many to be the most important meal of the day. This study examined the intake of nutrients and foods at breakfast among Danes and the relation to the overall dietary quality. Data were derived from the Danish National Survey
[...] Read more.
Breakfast is considered by many to be the most important meal of the day. This study examined the intake of nutrients and foods at breakfast among Danes and the relation to the overall dietary quality. Data were derived from the Danish National Survey on Diet and Physical Activity 2011–2013, a cross-sectional national food consumption study. A total of 3680 participants aged 6–75 years were included in the analyses of breakfast consumption. The Nutrient Rich Food Index 9.3 method was used to examine the overall dietary quality of the diet. The intake of nutrients and foods at breakfast were compared across dietary quality score tertiles by ANCOVA adjusted for energy and socio economic status. Breakfast was eaten frequently by children and adults and contributed with 18–20% of total energy intake. Breakfast was relatively high in dietary fibre, B vitamins, calcium and magnesium and low in added sugar, total fat, sodium, vitamin A and D. A decrease in the intake of added sugar, total fat and saturated fat and an increase in the intake of dietary fibre and most micronutrients were seen across tertiles of dietary quality scores. Commonly consumed foods provided at breakfast in Denmark included bread, breakfast cereals and dairy products as well as water, coffee and juice, while intakes of fruits, vegetables, cakes and soft drinks were low. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue International Breakfast Research Consortium)
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Open AccessArticle Breakfast Consumption in French Children, Adolescents, and Adults: A Nationally Representative Cross-Sectional Survey Examined in the Context of the International Breakfast Research Initiative
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1056; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081056
Received: 1 July 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
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Abstract
This study examines the consumption of breakfast on the basis of a 7-day dietary record (Comportements et Consommations Alimentaires en France 2012–2013) in a representative sample of French children (n = 426), adolescents (n = 250), and adults (n =
[...] Read more.
This study examines the consumption of breakfast on the basis of a 7-day dietary record (Comportements et Consommations Alimentaires en France 2012–2013) in a representative sample of French children (n = 426), adolescents (n = 250), and adults (n = 1045). A large majority of the participants were regular consumers of breakfast (5–7 times per week). Breakfast accounted for 17.6% of total daily energy (339.4 kcal). Breakfast was rich in carbohydrates (24% of total daily intake) and simple sugars (31% of total daily intake). Relative to its contribution in daily energy intake, breakfast contributed higher proportions in the daily intake of many vitamins (B, C), and minerals (calcium, iron, iodine, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium). The main foods/beverages contributing to breakfast changed with age, with increasing contributions of non-wholegrain “bread and toasts” and “fruits”, and a decreasing contribution of milk. Better quality of the diet, as measured by tertiles of the Nutrient Rich Food Index 9.3, was associated with higher intakes of cereal products (bread and breakfast cereals, particularly wholegrain), dairy (milk, fresh dairy), and fruit at breakfast. In conclusion, breakfast is regularly consumed in France and contributes significantly to diet quality but could be improved in terms of content in fiber and protein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue International Breakfast Research Consortium)
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Open AccessArticle Breakfast Consumption in the UK: Patterns, Nutrient Intake and Diet Quality. A Study from the International Breakfast Research Initiative Group
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 999; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10080999
Received: 9 July 2018 / Revised: 26 July 2018 / Accepted: 28 July 2018 / Published: 30 July 2018
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Abstract
Breakfast consumption is associated with higher overall dietary adequacy; however, there is a lack of quantitative guidelines for optimal nutrient intakes at breakfast in the UK. This study aimed to investigate nutrient and food group intakes at breakfast and examine their relationship to
[...] Read more.
Breakfast consumption is associated with higher overall dietary adequacy; however, there is a lack of quantitative guidelines for optimal nutrient intakes at breakfast in the UK. This study aimed to investigate nutrient and food group intakes at breakfast and examine their relationship to overall Diet Quality (DQ). Data from the most recent National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS, 2008–2014) were accessed to provide a representative sample (n = 8174) of the UK population, aged 5–96 years, mean age of 33 years. Food intake was measured by a 4-day estimated food diary and DQ was assessed by the Nutrient Rich Food Index 9.3 method. Energy- and socio-economic-adjusted nutrient and food group intakes were compared across age groups and DQ tertiles by ANCOVA. Breakfast contributed 20–22% to total energy intake. Breakfast intakes of carbohydrate and non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES) were higher, and intakes of protein, total fat and saturated fatty acid (SFA) were lower, than relative daily intakes. Breakfast was particularly rich in B vitamins, vitamin D, calcium, iron, iodine and magnesium. From the lowest to the highest DQ tertile decreasing intakes of NMES, SFA and total fat and increasing intakes of carbohydrate, protein, fibre and most micronutrients were found. These findings could help to inform the development of nutrient-based recommendations for a balanced breakfast for the first time in the UK. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue International Breakfast Research Consortium)
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Open AccessArticle Breakfast in Canada: Prevalence of Consumption, Contribution to Nutrient and Food Group Intakes, and Variability across Tertiles of Daily Diet Quality. A Study from the International Breakfast Research Initiative
Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 985; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10080985
Received: 26 June 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 24 July 2018 / Published: 27 July 2018
PDF Full-text (556 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This study used 24-h recall data from the nationally representative 2015 Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition to assess breakfast intake among Canadians aged 6–12 years (n = 2331), 13–17 years (n = 2026), 18–54 years (n = 7651), and 55+ years
[...] Read more.
This study used 24-h recall data from the nationally representative 2015 Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition to assess breakfast intake among Canadians aged 6–12 years (n = 2331), 13–17 years (n = 2026), 18–54 years (n = 7651), and 55+ years (n = 6279). Overall, 90% consumed breakfast; breakfast consumers reported higher intakes of energy and key nutrients and had higher daily diet quality scores assessed using the Nutrient-Rich Foods Index 9.3 (NRF 9.3). Among breakfast consumers (n = 16,484), breakfast contributed a mean of 389 kcal (1628 kJ) and 21.6% of daily energy intake. Relative to its contribution to energy, breakfast contributed higher intakes of fruit, whole grains, and fluid milk, as well as associated nutrients (e.g., carbohydrate, total sugars, fiber, calcium, and vitamin D). Among breakfast consumers classified by daily dietary quality (NRF 9.3 score), energy intake at breakfast did not differ across tertiles for either children or adults. However, intakes of key nutrients, fiber, and total sugars increased across tertiles, and among adults, intakes of saturated fat and sodium decreased. Mean intakes of fruit, whole grains, and fluid milk also increased across tertiles, as did the proportion of individuals consuming these foods; higher fruit and milk intakes may explain higher sugar intakes as diet quality increased. Promoting the consumption of these foods at breakfast could contribute to improved diet quality among Canadians. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue International Breakfast Research Consortium)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Breakfast in Human Nutrition: The International Breakfast Research Initiative
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 559; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050559
Received: 12 March 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 27 April 2018 / Published: 1 May 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (282 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Breakfast is often referred to as the most important meal of the day and in recent years has been implicated in weight control, cardio-metabolic risk factors and cognitive performance although, at present, the literature remains inconclusive as to the precise health benefits of
[...] Read more.
Breakfast is often referred to as the most important meal of the day and in recent years has been implicated in weight control, cardio-metabolic risk factors and cognitive performance although, at present, the literature remains inconclusive as to the precise health benefits of breakfast. There are extensive reports of breakfast’s contributions to daily food and nutrient intakes, as well as many studies that have compared daily food and nutrient intakes by breakfast consumers and skippers. However, significant variation exists in the definitions of breakfast and breakfast skippers, and in methods used to relate breakfast nutrient intakes to overall diet quality. The present review describes a novel and harmonised approach to the study of the nutritional impact of breakfast through The International Breakfast research Initiative involving national dietary survey data from Canada, Denmark, France, Spain, the UK and the USA. It is anticipated that the analysis of such data along harmonised lines, will allow the project to achieve its primary goal of exploring approaches to defining optimal breakfast food and nutrient intakes. Such data will be of value to public health nutrition policy-makers and food manufacturers and will also allow consistent messaging to help consumers to optimize food choices at breakfast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue International Breakfast Research Consortium)
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