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Special Issue "Dietary Antioxidants"

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A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2010)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jeffrey B. Blumberg

Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, 711 Washington Street, Boston, MA 02111, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 617-556-3334
Fax: +1 617 556 3344
Interests: dietary antioxidants; chronic disease prevention

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Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Activity of a Mediterranean Food Product: “Fig Syrup”
Nutrients 2011, 3(3), 317-329; doi:10.3390/nu3030317
Received: 11 January 2011 / Revised: 14 February 2011 / Accepted: 25 February 2011 / Published: 28 February 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, the efficacy of fig syrup, a Mediterranean fig derivative, as a nutraceutical supplement, was demonstrated. Fig syrup is a fruit concentrate used as a common ingredient in the preparation of typical foods, and particularly in cakes. In vitro assays were
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In this work, the efficacy of fig syrup, a Mediterranean fig derivative, as a nutraceutical supplement, was demonstrated. Fig syrup is a fruit concentrate used as a common ingredient in the preparation of typical foods, and particularly in cakes. In vitro assays were performed to determine the amount of nutraceutical ingredients, such as phenolic compounds (3.92 mg equivalent of gallic acid per g) and flavonoids (0.35 mg equivalent of catechin per g), while HPLC analyses provided specific information about the composition of antioxidants in the syrup. Furthermore, total antioxidant activity, scavenging properties against DPPH and peroxyl radicals, and the anticholinesterase activity, clearly showed the efficacy of the syrup in preventing damage induced by free radicals and, thus, the applicability of this food derivative as a nutraceutical supplement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants)
Open AccessArticle Vitamin Enhanced Waters and Polyphenol Rich Beverages Analyzed for Antioxidant Capacity and Antioxidants/Calorie
Nutrients 2010, 2(12), 1290-1296; doi:10.3390/nu2121290
Received: 9 November 2010 / Revised: 6 December 2010 / Accepted: 13 December 2010 / Published: 15 December 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (394 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to analyze polyphenol rich beverages (vitamin enhanced waters (VEWs), fruit juices and berry juices) to determine free polyphenol concentrations and free polyphenols per Calorie based on a serving size. The Folin‑Ciocalteu reagent was used in a colorimetric
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The purpose of this study was to analyze polyphenol rich beverages (vitamin enhanced waters (VEWs), fruit juices and berry juices) to determine free polyphenol concentrations and free polyphenols per Calorie based on a serving size. The Folin‑Ciocalteu reagent was used in a colorimetric assay based on a catechin standard. Fruit and berry juices contained, on average, more than eight-times the concentration of free polyphenols when compared to VEWs. When Calories per serving were taken into consideration, fruit and berry juices contained more than twice the free polyphenols per Calorie Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants)
Open AccessArticle Reexamination of a Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Antioxidant Supplementation on Mortality and Health in Randomized Trials
Nutrients 2010, 2(9), 929-949; doi:10.3390/nu2090929
Received: 16 July 2010 / Revised: 17 August 2010 / Accepted: 26 August 2010 / Published: 30 August 2010
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (267 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A recent meta-analysis of selected randomized clinical trials (RCTs), in which population groups of differing ages and health status were supplemented with various doses of b-carotene, vitamin A, and/or vitamin E, found that these interventions increased all-cause mortality. However, this meta-analysis did not
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A recent meta-analysis of selected randomized clinical trials (RCTs), in which population groups of differing ages and health status were supplemented with various doses of b-carotene, vitamin A, and/or vitamin E, found that these interventions increased all-cause mortality. However, this meta-analysis did not consider the rationale of the constituent RCTs for antioxidant supplementation, none of which included mortality as a primary outcome. As the rationale for these trials was to test the hypothesis of a potential benefit of antioxidant supplementation, an alternative approach to a systematic evaluation of these RCTs would be to evaluate this outcome relative to the putative risk of greater total mortality. Thus, we examined these data based on the primary outcome of the 66 RCTs included in the meta-analysis via a decision analysis to identify whether the results provided a positive (i.e., benefit), null or negative (i.e., harm) outcome. Our evaluation indicated that of these RCTs, 24 had a positive outcome, 39 had a null outcome, and 3 had a negative outcome. We further categorized these interventions as primary (risk reduction in healthy populations) or secondary (slowing pathogenesis or preventing recurrent events and/or cause-specific mortality) prevention or therapeutic (treatment to improve quality of life, limit complications, and/or provide rehabilitation) studies, and determined positive outcomes in 8 of 20 primary prevention studies, 10 of 34 secondary prevention studies, and 6 out of 16 therapeutic studies. Seven of the eight RCTs with a positive outcome in primary prevention included participants in a population where malnutrition is frequently described. These results suggest that analyses of potential risks from antioxidant supplementation should be placed in the context of a benefit/risk ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants)

Review

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Open AccessReview Polyphenols and Human Health: Prevention of Disease and Mechanisms of Action
Nutrients 2010, 2(11), 1106-1131; doi:10.3390/nu2111106
Received: 25 September 2010 / Revised: 25 October 2010 / Accepted: 1 November 2010 / Published: 8 November 2010
Cited by 163 | PDF Full-text (353 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polyphenols are found ubiquitously in plants and their regular consumption has been associated with a reduced risk of a number of chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and neurodegenerative disorders. Rather than exerting direct antioxidant effects, the mechanisms by which polyphenols express
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Polyphenols are found ubiquitously in plants and their regular consumption has been associated with a reduced risk of a number of chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and neurodegenerative disorders. Rather than exerting direct antioxidant effects, the mechanisms by which polyphenols express these beneficial properties appear to involve their interaction with cellular signaling pathways and related machinery that mediate cell function under both normal and pathological conditions. We illustrate that their interactions with two such pathways, the MAP kinase (ERK, JNK, p38) and PI3 kinase/Akt signaling cascades, allow them to impact upon normal and abnormal cell function, thus influencing the cellular processes involved in the initiation and progression of cancer, CVD and neurodegeneration. For example, their ability to activate ERK in neurons leads to a promotion of neuronal survival and cognitive enhancements, both of which influence the progression of Alzheimer’s disease, whilst ERK activation by polyphenols in vascular endothelial cells influences nitric oxide production, blood pressure and ultimately CVD risk. The main focus of this review is to provide an overview of the role that polyphenols play in the prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease and neurodegeneration. We present epidemiological data, human intervention study findings, as well as animal and in vitro studies in support of these actions and in each case we consider how their actions at the cellular level may underpin their physiological effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants)
Open AccessReview The Role of Phytonutrients in Skin Health
Nutrients 2010, 2(8), 903-928; doi:10.3390/nu2080903
Received: 13 July 2010 / Revised: 5 August 2010 / Accepted: 6 August 2010 / Published: 24 August 2010
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (209 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Photodamage is known to occur in skin with exposure to sunlight, specifically ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Such damage includes inflammation, oxidative stress, breakdown of the extracellular matrix, and development of cancer in the skin. Sun exposure is considered to be one of the most
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Photodamage is known to occur in skin with exposure to sunlight, specifically ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Such damage includes inflammation, oxidative stress, breakdown of the extracellular matrix, and development of cancer in the skin. Sun exposure is considered to be one of the most important risk factors for both nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Many phytonutrients have shown promise as photoprotectants in clinical, animal and cell culture studies. In part, the actions of these phytonutrients are thought to be through their actions as antioxidants. In regard to skin health, phytonutrients of interest include vitamin E, certain flavonoids, and the carotenoids, b-carotene, lycopene and lutein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants)
Open AccessReview Flavonoids: Antioxidants Against Atherosclerosis
Nutrients 2010, 2(8), 889-902; doi:10.3390/nu2080889
Received: 12 July 2010 / Revised: 2 August 2010 / Accepted: 6 August 2010 / Published: 12 August 2010
Cited by 50 | PDF Full-text (654 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Oxidative stress results from an imbalance between excessive formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or reactive nitrogen species and limited antioxidant defences. Endothelium and nitric oxide (NO) are key regulators of vascular health. NO bioavailability is modulated by ROS that degrade NO, uncouple
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Oxidative stress results from an imbalance between excessive formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or reactive nitrogen species and limited antioxidant defences. Endothelium and nitric oxide (NO) are key regulators of vascular health. NO bioavailability is modulated by ROS that degrade NO, uncouple NO synthase, and inhibit synthesis. Cardiovascular risk conditions contribute to oxidative stress, causing an imbalance between NO and ROS, with a relative decrease in NO bioavailability. Dietary flavonoids represent a range of polyphenolic compounds naturally occurring in plant foods. Flavonoids are potentially involved in cardiovascular prevention mainly by decreasing oxidative stress and increasing NO bioavailability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants)
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Open AccessReview Bioavailability of Coffee Chlorogenic Acids and Green Tea Flavan-3-ols
Nutrients 2010, 2(8), 820-833; doi:10.3390/nu2080820
Received: 5 July 2010 / Revised: 27 July 2010 / Accepted: 28 July 2010 / Published: 29 July 2010
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (365 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reviews recent human studies on the bioavailability of chlorogenic acids in coffee and green tea flavan-3-ols in which the identification of metabolites, catabolites and parent compounds in plasma, urine and ileal fluid was based on mass spectrometric methodology. Both the chlorogenic
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This paper reviews recent human studies on the bioavailability of chlorogenic acids in coffee and green tea flavan-3-ols in which the identification of metabolites, catabolites and parent compounds in plasma, urine and ileal fluid was based on mass spectrometric methodology. Both the chlorogenic acids and the flavan-3-ols are absorbed in the small intestine and appear in the circulatory system predominantly as glucuronide, sulfate and methylated metabolites. Even when absorption occurs in the small intestine, feeding studies with ileostomists reveal that substantial amounts of the parent compounds and some of their metabolites appear in ileal fluid indicating that in volunteers with a functioning colon these compounds will pass to the large intestine where they are subjected to the action of the colonic microflora. A diversity of colonic-derived catabolites are absorbed into the bloodstream and pass through the body prior to excretion in urine. There is growing evidence that these compounds, which were little investigated until recently, are produced in quantity in the colon and form a key part of the bioavailability equation of flavonoids and related compounds that occur in fruits, vegetables and beverages. Recent evidence indicates that some colon-derived phenolic acids have in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants)
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Open AccessReview Dietary Polyphenols and Obesity
Nutrients 2010, 2(7), 737-751; doi:10.3390/nu2070737
Received: 4 June 2010 / Revised: 1 July 2010 / Accepted: 7 July 2010 / Published: 8 July 2010
Cited by 93 | PDF Full-text (138 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The prevalence of overweight and obesity and their associated metabolic disorders are considered a major threat to the public’s health. While several diet and exercise programs are available for weight loss and prevention of weight regain, progress is often slow and disappointing. Recently,
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The prevalence of overweight and obesity and their associated metabolic disorders are considered a major threat to the public’s health. While several diet and exercise programs are available for weight loss and prevention of weight regain, progress is often slow and disappointing. Recently, natural bioactive phytochemicals present in foods have been discovered for their potential health benefit effects on the prevention of chronic disorders such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory and metabolic diseases including obesity.Polyphenols are a class of naturally-occurring phytochemicals, of which some such as catechins, anthocynines, resveratrol and curcumin have been shown to modulate physiological and molecular pathways that are involved in energy metabolism, adiposity, and obesity. The potential in vivo, beneficial effects of these polyphenols on adiposity and obesity as complementary agents in the up-regulation of energy expenditure have emerged by investigating these compounds in cell cultures, animal models of obesity and in some human clinical and epidemiological studies. In this brief review, the efficacy of the above-named polyphenols and their potential efficacy to modulate obesity and some associated disorders are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants)
Open AccessReview Lipophilic Compound-Mediated Gene Expression and Implication for Intervention in Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-Related Diseases: Mini-review
Nutrients 2010, 2(7), 725-736; doi:10.3390/nu2070725
Received: 24 May 2010 / Revised: 2 July 2010 / Accepted: 5 July 2010 / Published: 7 July 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (96 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In addition to exhibiting antioxidant properties, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vitamin E may modulate gene expression of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. Depending on cellular microenvironments, such modulation reflects either antioxidant or prooxidant outcomes. Although epidemiological/experimental studies have indicated that CLA and vitamin E
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In addition to exhibiting antioxidant properties, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vitamin E may modulate gene expression of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. Depending on cellular microenvironments, such modulation reflects either antioxidant or prooxidant outcomes. Although epidemiological/experimental studies have indicated that CLA and vitamin E have health promoting properties, recent findings from clinical trials have been inconclusive. Discrepancies between the results found from prospective studies and recent clinical trials might be attributed to concentration-dependent cellular microenvironment alterations. We give a perspective of possible molecular mechanisms of actions of these lipophilic compounds and their implications for interventions of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants)

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