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Special Issue "Nutrigenetics"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2017)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Dolores Corella

Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Valencia, Blasco Ibañez, 15, 46010 - Valencia, Spain
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Precision Medicine, understood as “the emerging approach for disease treatment and prevention that takes into account individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle for each person” is currently one of the most talked about themes in biomedicine and great efforts are being made internationally to turn this concept into a reality. As the concept of Precision Medicine spreads, so too does that of “Precision Nutrition”, which would have to take individual variability into account when recommending personalized diets.
Although huge progress has been made over recent years in research into the genotype in inter-individual responses to diet, proving that this heterogeneity does indeed exist, we still do not have top level scientific evidence to make the eagerly-awaited personalized dietary recommendations, either from the prevention or treatment of different diseases point of view.
It is, therefore, essential to gather more information from studies which, from the nutrigenetic point of view, analyze gene-diet interactions in the different intermediate and final phenotypes of diseases. The ideal situation would be to have results available from randomized and controlled clinical trials. Results on gene-diet interactions obtained from large cohorts, and other types of studies with replication in independent samples, are also of great importance. Similarly, if nutrigenetic findings are accompanied by more mechanistic evidence, integrating other omics, this would be of particular interest. Lastly, another topic of interest is to share strategies for implementing genome-based nutritional interventions.
Therefore, this Special Issue of Nutrients, “Nutrigenetics”, will focus on providing evidence of the inter-individual genetic effects of diet in determining diseases phenotypes. We are looking forward to receiving many submissions from outstanding experts on these topics. Experimental papers, meta-analyses, up-to-date review articles, and commentaries are all welcome.

Prof. D. Corella Piquer
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

•    Nutrigenetics
•    Nutritional Genomics
•    Gene-diet interactions
•    Nutrigenomics
•    Molecular Nutrition
•    Precision Nutrition
•    Inter-individual response
•    Polymorphisms
•    Genetic risk scores
•    Dietary patterns
•    Diet
•    Omics

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Influence of Genetic Variations in Selenoprotein Genes on the Pattern of Gene Expression after Supplementation with Brazil Nuts
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 739; doi:10.3390/nu9070739
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 31 May 2017 / Accepted: 9 June 2017 / Published: 11 July 2017
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Abstract
Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for human health. Its beneficial effects are exerted by selenoproteins, which can be quantified in blood and used as molecular biomarkers of Se status. We hypothesize that the presence of genetic polymorphisms in selenoprotein genes may: (1)
[...] Read more.
Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for human health. Its beneficial effects are exerted by selenoproteins, which can be quantified in blood and used as molecular biomarkers of Se status. We hypothesize that the presence of genetic polymorphisms in selenoprotein genes may: (1) influence the gene expression of specific selenoproteins and (2) influence the pattern of global gene expression after Brazil nut supplementation. The study was conducted with 130 healthy volunteers in Sao Paulo, Brazil, who consumed one Brazil nut (300 μg/Se) a day for eight weeks. Gene expression of GPX1 and SELENOP and genotyping were measured by real-time PCR using TaqMan Assays. Global gene expression was assessed by microarray using Illumina HumanHT-12 v4 BeadChips. Brazil nut supplementation significantly increased GPX1 mRNA expression only in subjects with CC genotype at rs1050450 (p < 0.05). SELENOP mRNA expression was significantly higher in A-carriers at rs7579 either before or after supplementation (p < 0.05). Genotype for rs713041 in GPX4 affected the pattern of blood cell global gene expression. Genetic variations in selenoprotein genes modulated both GPX1 and SELENOP selenoprotein gene expression and global gene expression in response to Brazil nut supplementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics)
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Open AccessArticle Genome-Wide Association Study of Dietary Pattern Scores
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 649; doi:10.3390/nu9070649
Received: 13 April 2017 / Revised: 7 June 2017 / Accepted: 21 June 2017 / Published: 23 June 2017
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Abstract
Dietary patterns, representing global food supplies rather than specific nutrients or food intakes, have been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and mortality. The contribution of genetic factors in the determination of food intakes, preferences and dietary patterns has been previously established. The
[...] Read more.
Dietary patterns, representing global food supplies rather than specific nutrients or food intakes, have been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and mortality. The contribution of genetic factors in the determination of food intakes, preferences and dietary patterns has been previously established. The current study aimed to identify novel genetic factors associated with reported dietary pattern scores. Reported dietary patterns scores were derived from reported dietary intakes for the preceding month and were obtained through a food frequency questionnaire and genome-wide association study (GWAS) conducted in a study sample of 141 individuals. Reported Prudent and Western dietary patterns demonstrated nominal associations (p < 1 × 10−5) with 78 and 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), respectively. Among these, SNPs annotated to genes previously associated with neurological disorders, CVD risk factors and obesity were identified. Further assessment of SNPs demonstrated an impact on gene expression levels in blood for SNPs located within/near BCKDHB (p = 0.02) and the hypothalamic glucosensor PFKFB3 (p = 0.0004) genes, potentially mediated through an impact on the binding of transcription factors (TFs). Overrepresentations of glucose/energy homeostasis and hormone response TFs were also observed from SNP-surrounding sequences. Results from the current GWAS study suggest an interplay of genes involved in the metabolic response to dietary patterns on obesity, glucose metabolism and food-induced response in the brain in the adoption of dietary patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics)
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Open AccessArticle Genetic Variants Involved in One-Carbon Metabolism: Polymorphism Frequencies and Differences in Homocysteine Concentrations in the Folic Acid Fortification Era
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 539; doi:10.3390/nu9060539
Received: 24 March 2017 / Revised: 28 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 May 2017 / Published: 25 May 2017
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Abstract
Folate and other B vitamins are essential co-factors of one-carbon metabolism, and genetic variants, such as polymorphisms, can alter the metabolism. Furthermore, the adoption of food fortification with folic acid showed a decrease of homocysteine concentration. The aim of this study was to
[...] Read more.
Folate and other B vitamins are essential co-factors of one-carbon metabolism, and genetic variants, such as polymorphisms, can alter the metabolism. Furthermore, the adoption of food fortification with folic acid showed a decrease of homocysteine concentration. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequencies of the polymorphisms of enzymes and carrier proteins involved in one-carbon metabolism, and to evaluate homocysteine concentrations in the presence of these genetic variants in a population exposed to mandatory food fortification with folic acid. Using data from a population-based cross-sectional study in São Paulo, Brazil, the study population comprised 750 participants above 12 years of age of both genders. A linear regression model was used to evaluate the homocysteine concentrations according to genetic variants and folate level. The results showed that the minor allelic frequencies were 0.33 for MTHFR (rs1801133), 0.24 for MTHFR (rs1801131), 0.19 for MTR (rs1805087), 0.42 for MTRR (rs1801394), 0.46 for RFC1 (rs1051266), and 0.47 for DHFR (19-bp deletion). The genetic variants of MTHFR 677C>T, MTRR 66A>G and RFC-1 80G>A were different according to race. The homocysteine concentrations increased in the CT and TT compared to CC genotypes of polymorphism MTHFR 677C>T in all populations, and differences between the homocysteine concentrations according to the genotypes of MTHFR 677C>T were observed regardless of folate level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics)
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Open AccessArticle Novel Genetic Variants Associated with Child Refractory Esophageal Stricture with Food Allergy by Exome Sequencing
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 390; doi:10.3390/nu9040390
Received: 26 January 2017 / Revised: 5 April 2017 / Accepted: 13 April 2017 / Published: 15 April 2017
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Abstract
Background: Refractory esophageal stricture (RES) may be attributed to food allergy. Its etiology and pathogenesis are not fully understood. Identification of novel genetic variants associated with this disease by exome sequencing (exome-seq) may provide new mechanistic insights and new therapeutic targets. Methods: To
[...] Read more.
Background: Refractory esophageal stricture (RES) may be attributed to food allergy. Its etiology and pathogenesis are not fully understood. Identification of novel genetic variants associated with this disease by exome sequencing (exome-seq) may provide new mechanistic insights and new therapeutic targets. Methods: To identify new and novel disease-associating variants, whole-exome sequencing was performed on an Illumina NGS platform in three children with RES as well as food allergy. Results: A total of 91,024 variants were identified. By filtering out ‘normal variants’ against those of the 1000 Genomes Project, we identified 12,741 remaining variants which are potentially associated with RES plus food allergy. Among these variants, there are 11,539 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 627 deletions, 551 insertions and 24 mixture variants. These variants are located in 1370 genes. They are enriched in biological processes or pathways such as cell adhesion, digestion, receptor metabolic process, bile acid transport and the neurological system. By the PubMatrix analysis, 50 out of the top 100 genes, which contain most variants, have not been previously associated with any of the 17 allergy-associated diseases. These 50 genes represent newly identified allergy-associated genes. Those variants of 627 deletions and 551 insertions have also not been reported before in RES with food allergy. Conclusions: Exome-seq is potentially a powerful tool to identify potential new biomarkers for RES with food allergy. This study has identified a number of novel genetic variants, opening new avenues of research in RES plus food allergy. Additional validation in larger and different patient populations and further exploration of the underlying molecular mechanisms are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics)
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Open AccessArticle High Fat Diets Sex-Specifically Affect the Renal Transcriptome and Program Obesity, Kidney Injury, and Hypertension in the Offspring
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 357; doi:10.3390/nu9040357
Received: 19 February 2017 / Revised: 12 March 2017 / Accepted: 24 March 2017 / Published: 3 April 2017
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Abstract
Obesity and related disorders have increased concurrently with an increased consumption of saturated fatty acids. We examined whether post-weaning high fat (HF) diet would exacerbate offspring vulnerability to maternal HF-induced programmed hypertension and kidney disease sex-specifically, with a focus on the kidney. Next,
[...] Read more.
Obesity and related disorders have increased concurrently with an increased consumption of saturated fatty acids. We examined whether post-weaning high fat (HF) diet would exacerbate offspring vulnerability to maternal HF-induced programmed hypertension and kidney disease sex-specifically, with a focus on the kidney. Next, we aimed to elucidate the gene–diet interactions that contribute to maternal HF-induced renal programming using the next generation RNA sequencing (NGS) technology. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received either a normal diet (ND) or HF diet (D12331, Research Diets) for five weeks before the delivery. The offspring of both sexes were put on either the ND or HF diet from weaning to six months of age, resulting in four groups of each sex (maternal diet/post-weaning diet; n = 5–7/group): ND/ND, ND/HF, HF/ND, and HF/HF. Post-weaning HF diet increased bodyweights of both ND/HF and HF/HF animals from three to six months only in males. Post-weaning HF diet increased systolic blood pressure in male and female offspring, irrespective of whether they were exposed to maternal HF or not. Male HF/HF offspring showed greater degrees of glomerular and tubular injury compared to the ND/ND group. Our NGS data showed that maternal HF diet significantly altered renal transcriptome with female offspring being more HF-sensitive. HF diet induced hypertension and renal injury are associated with oxidative stress, activation of renin-angiotensin system, and dysregulated sodium transporters and circadian clock. Post-weaning HF diet sex-specifically exacerbates the development of obesity, kidney injury, but not hypertension programmed by maternal HF intake. Better understanding of the sex-dependent mechanisms that underlie HF-induced renal programming will help develop a novel personalized dietary intervention to prevent obesity and related disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics)
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Open AccessArticle CYP1A2 Genotype Variations Do Not Modify the Benefits and Drawbacks of Caffeine during Exercise: A Pilot Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 269; doi:10.3390/nu9030269
Received: 7 December 2016 / Revised: 20 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 March 2017 / Published: 11 March 2017
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Abstract
Previous investigations have determined that some individuals have minimal or even ergolytic performance effects after caffeine ingestion. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of the genetic variations of the CYP1A2 gene on the performance enhancement effects of ingesting a
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Previous investigations have determined that some individuals have minimal or even ergolytic performance effects after caffeine ingestion. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of the genetic variations of the CYP1A2 gene on the performance enhancement effects of ingesting a moderate dose of caffeine. In a double-blind randomized experimental design, 21 healthy active participants (29.3 ± 7.7 years) ingested 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body mass or a placebo in testing sessions separated by one week. Performance in the 30 s Wingate test, visual attention, and side effects were evaluated. DNA was obtained from whole blood samples and the CYP1A2 polymorphism was analyzed (rs762551). We obtained two groups: AA homozygotes (n = 5) and C-allele carriers (n = 16). Caffeine ingestion increased peak power (682 ± 140 vs. 667 ± 137 W; p = 0.008) and mean power during the Wingate test (527 ± 111 vs. 518 ± 111 W; p < 0.001) with no differences between AA homozygotes and C-allele carriers (p > 0.05). Reaction times were similar between caffeine and placebo conditions (276 ± 31 vs. 269 ± 71 milliseconds; p = 0.681) with no differences between AA homozygotes and C-allele carriers. However, 31.3% of the C-allele carriers reported increased nervousness after caffeine ingestion, while none of the AA homozygotes perceived this side effect. Genetic variations of the CYP1A2 polymorphism did not affect the ergogenic effects and drawbacks derived from the ingestion of a moderate dose of caffeine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluating Changes in Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake after Receiving Personal FADS1 Genetic Information: A Randomized Nutrigenetic Intervention
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 240; doi:10.3390/nu9030240
Received: 25 January 2017 / Revised: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 3 March 2017 / Published: 6 March 2017
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Abstract
Nutrigenetics research is anticipated to lay the foundation for personalized dietary recommendations; however, it remains unclear if providing individuals with their personal genetic information changes dietary behaviors. Our objective was to evaluate if providing information for a common variant in the fatty acid
[...] Read more.
Nutrigenetics research is anticipated to lay the foundation for personalized dietary recommendations; however, it remains unclear if providing individuals with their personal genetic information changes dietary behaviors. Our objective was to evaluate if providing information for a common variant in the fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) gene changed omega-3 fatty acid (FA) intake and blood levels in young female adults (18–25 years). Participants were randomized into Genetic (intervention) and Non-Genetic (control) groups, with measurements taken at Baseline and Final (12 weeks). Dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was assessed using an omega-3 food frequency questionnaire. Red blood cell (RBC) FA content was quantified by gas chromatography. Implications of participation in a nutrigenetics study and awareness of omega-3 FAs were assessed with online questionnaires. Upon completion of the study, EPA and DHA intake increased significantly (p = 1.0 × 10−4) in all participants. This change was reflected by small increases in RBC %EPA. Participants in the Genetic group showed increased awareness of omega-3 terminology by the end of the study, reported that the dietary recommendations were more useful, and rated cost as a barrier to omega-3 consumption less often than those in the Non-Genetic group. Providing participants FADS1 genetic information did not appear to influence omega-3 intake during the 12 weeks, but did change perceptions and behaviors related to omega-3 FAs in this timeframe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics)
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Open AccessArticle Lipidomic and Antioxidant Response to Grape Seed, Corn and Coconut Oils in Healthy Wistar Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(1), 82; doi:10.3390/nu9010082
Received: 5 November 2016 / Revised: 28 December 2016 / Accepted: 11 January 2017 / Published: 20 January 2017
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Abstract
Specialty oils differ in fatty acid, phytosterol and antioxidant content, impacting their benefits for cardiovascular health. The lipid (fatty acid, phytosterol) and antioxidant (total phenolics, radical scavenging capacity) profiles of grapeseed (GSO), corn (CO) and coconut (CNO) oils and their physiological (triacylglycerides, total
[...] Read more.
Specialty oils differ in fatty acid, phytosterol and antioxidant content, impacting their benefits for cardiovascular health. The lipid (fatty acid, phytosterol) and antioxidant (total phenolics, radical scavenging capacity) profiles of grapeseed (GSO), corn (CO) and coconut (CNO) oils and their physiological (triacylglycerides, total and HDL-cholesterol and antioxidant capacity (FRAP) in serum and fatty acid and phytosterol hepatic deposition) and genomic (HL, LCAT, ApoA-1 and SR-BP1 mRNA hepatic levels) responses after their sub-chronic intake (10% diet for 28 days) was examined in healthy albino rats. Fatty acid, phytosterol and antioxidant profiles differed between oils (p ≤ 0.01). Serum and hepatic triacylglycerides and total cholesterol increased (p ≤ 0.01); serum HDL-Cholesterol decreased (p < 0.05); but serum FRAP did not differ (p > 0.05) in CNO-fed rats as compared to CO or GSO groups. Hepatic phytosterol deposition was higher (+2.2 mg/g; p ≤ 0.001) in CO- than GSO-fed rats, but their fatty acid deposition was similar. All but ApoA-1 mRNA level increased in GSO-fed rats as compared to other groups (p ≤ 0.01). Hepatic fatty acid handling, but not antioxidant response, nor hepatic phytosterol deposition, could be related to a more efficient reverse-cholesterol transport in GSO-fed rats as compared to CO or CNO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics)
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Open AccessArticle Splenic Immune Response Is Down-Regulated in C57BL/6J Mice Fed Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Enriched High Fat Diet
Nutrients 2017, 9(1), 50; doi:10.3390/nu9010050
Received: 8 November 2016 / Revised: 16 December 2016 / Accepted: 5 January 2017 / Published: 10 January 2017
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Abstract
Dietary n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are associated with reduction of inflammation, although the mechanisms are poorly understood, especially how the spleen, as a secondary lymphoid organ, is involved. To investigate the effects of EPA and DHA
[...] Read more.
Dietary n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are associated with reduction of inflammation, although the mechanisms are poorly understood, especially how the spleen, as a secondary lymphoid organ, is involved. To investigate the effects of EPA and DHA on spleen gene expression, male C57BL/6J mice were fed high fat diets (HFD) differing in fatty acid composition, either based on corn oil (HFD-CO), or CO enriched with 2 g/100 g EPA and DHA (HFD-ED), for eight weeks. Spleen tissue was analyzed using transcriptomics and for fatty acids profiling. Biological processes (BPs) related to the immune response, including T-cell receptor signaling pathway, T-cell differentiation and co-stimulation, myeloid dendritic cell differentiation, antigen presentation and processing, and the toll like receptor pathway were downregulated by HFD-ED compared with control and HFD-CO. These findings were supported by the down-regulation of NF-κB in HFD-ED compared with HFD-CO fed mice. Lower phospholipid arachidonic acid levels in HFD-ED compared with HFD-CO, and control mice suggest attenuation of pathways via prostaglandins and leukotrienes. The HFD-ED also upregulated BPs related to erythropoiesis and hematopoiesis compared with control and HFD-CO fed mice. Our findings suggest that EPA and DHA down-regulate the splenic immune response induced by HFD-CO, supporting earlier work that the spleen is a target organ for the anti-inflammatory effects of these n-3 fatty acids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics)
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Open AccessArticle Polymorphism of the Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 Gene (TCF7L2) Interacts with Obesity on Type-2 Diabetes in the PREDIMED Study Emphasizing the Heterogeneity of Genetic Variants in Type-2 Diabetes Risk Prediction: Time for Obesity-Specific Genetic Risk Scores
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 793; doi:10.3390/nu8120793
Received: 23 September 2016 / Revised: 17 November 2016 / Accepted: 17 November 2016 / Published: 6 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1864 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Nutrigenetic studies analyzing gene–diet interactions of the TCF7L2-rs7903146 C > T polymorphism on type-2 diabetes (T2D) have shown controversial results. A reason contributing to this may be the additional modulation by obesity. Moreover, TCF7L2-rs7903146 is one of the most influential variants in T2D-genetic
[...] Read more.
Nutrigenetic studies analyzing gene–diet interactions of the TCF7L2-rs7903146 C > T polymorphism on type-2 diabetes (T2D) have shown controversial results. A reason contributing to this may be the additional modulation by obesity. Moreover, TCF7L2-rs7903146 is one of the most influential variants in T2D-genetic risk scores (GRS). Therefore, to increase the predictive value (PV) of GRS it is necessary to first see whether the included polymorphisms have heterogeneous effects. We comprehensively investigated gene-obesity interactions between the TCF7L2-rs7903146 C > T polymorphism on T2D (prevalence and incidence) and analyzed other T2D-polymorphisms in a sub-sample. We studied 7018 PREDIMED participants at baseline and longitudinally (8.7 years maximum follow-up). Obesity significantly interacted with the TCF7L2-rs7903146 on T2D prevalence, associations being greater in non-obese subjects. Accordingly, we prospectively observed in non-T2D subjects (n = 3607) that its association with T2D incidence was stronger in non-obese (HR: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.13–2.92, p = 0.013 for TT versus CC) than in obese subjects (HR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.61–1.66; p = 0.979; p-interaction = 0.048). Accordingly, TCF7L2-PV was higher in non-obese subjects. Additionally, we created obesity-specific GRS with ten T2D-polymorphisms and demonstrated for the first time their higher strata-specific PV. In conclusion, we provide strong evidence supporting the need for considering obesity when analyzing the TCF7L2 effects and propose the use of obesity-specific GRS for T2D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Gene–Dairy Food Interactions and Health Outcomes: A Review of Nutrigenetic Studies
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 710; doi:10.3390/nu9070710
Received: 18 May 2017 / Revised: 10 June 2017 / Accepted: 3 July 2017 / Published: 6 July 2017
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Abstract
Each person differs from the next by an average of over 3 million genetic variations in their DNA. This genetic diversity is responsible for many of the interindividual differences in food preferences, nutritional needs, and dietary responses between humans. The field of nutrigenetics
[...] Read more.
Each person differs from the next by an average of over 3 million genetic variations in their DNA. This genetic diversity is responsible for many of the interindividual differences in food preferences, nutritional needs, and dietary responses between humans. The field of nutrigenetics aims to utilize this type of genetic information in order to personalize diets for optimal health. One of the most well-studied genetic variants affecting human dietary patterns and health is the lactase persistence mutation, which enables an individual to digest milk sugar into adulthood. Lactase persistence is one of the most influential Mendelian factors affecting human dietary patterns to occur since the beginning of the Neolithic Revolution. However, the lactase persistence mutation is only one of many mutations that can influence the relationship between dairy intake and disease risk. The purpose of this review is to summarize the available nutrigenetic literature investigating the relationships between genetics, dairy intake, and health outcomes. Nonetheless, the understanding of an individual’s nutrigenetic responses is just one component of personalized nutrition. In addition to nutrigenetic responses, future studies should also take into account nutrigenomic responses (epigenomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic), and phenotypic/characteristic traits (age, gender, activity level, disease status, etc.), as these factors all interact with diet to influence health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics)
Open AccessReview Calcium Intake and the Risk of Ovarian Cancer: A Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 679; doi:10.3390/nu9070679
Received: 16 April 2017 / Revised: 23 June 2017 / Accepted: 24 June 2017 / Published: 30 June 2017
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Abstract
Several epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between calcium intake and the risk of ovarian cancer. However, the results of these studies remain controversial. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to explore the association between calcium intake and the risk of ovarian cancer. Pubmed,
[...] Read more.
Several epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between calcium intake and the risk of ovarian cancer. However, the results of these studies remain controversial. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to explore the association between calcium intake and the risk of ovarian cancer. Pubmed, Embase and Web of Science were searched for eligible publications up to April 2017. Pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the random-effects model. Small-study effect was estimated using Egger’s test and the funnel plot. Among 15 epidemiological studies involving 493,415 participants and 7453 cases eligible for this meta-analysis, 13 studies were about dietary calcium intake, 4 studies about dairy calcium intake and 7 studies about dietary plus supplemental calcium intake. When comparing the highest with the lowest intake, the pooled RRs of ovarian cancer were 0.80 (95% CI 0.72–0.89) for dietary calcium, 0.80 (95% CI 0.66–0.98) for dairy calcium and 0.90 (95% CI 0.65–1.24) for dietary plus supplemental calcium, respectively. Dietary calcium was significantly associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer among cohort studies (RR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.74–0.99) and among case-control studies (RR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.64–0.89). In subgroup analysis by ovarian cancer subtypes, we found a statistically significant association between the dietary calcium (RR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.69–0.88) and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). This meta-analysis indicated that increased calcium intake might be inversely associated with the risk of ovarian cancer; this still needs to be confirmed by larger prospective cohort studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics)
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Open AccessReview Genetic Variations Associated with Vitamin A Status and Vitamin A Bioavailability
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 246; doi:10.3390/nu9030246
Received: 24 January 2017 / Revised: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 6 March 2017 / Published: 8 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1312 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Blood concentration of vitamin A (VA), which is present as different molecules, i.e., mainly retinol and provitamin A carotenoids, plus retinyl esters in the postprandial period after a VA-containing meal, is affected by numerous factors: dietary VA intake, VA absorption efficiency, efficiency of
[...] Read more.
Blood concentration of vitamin A (VA), which is present as different molecules, i.e., mainly retinol and provitamin A carotenoids, plus retinyl esters in the postprandial period after a VA-containing meal, is affected by numerous factors: dietary VA intake, VA absorption efficiency, efficiency of provitamin A carotenoid conversion to VA, VA tissue uptake, etc. Most of these factors are in turn modulated by genetic variations in genes encoding proteins involved in VA metabolism. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and candidate gene association studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with blood concentrations of retinol and β-carotene, as well as with β-carotene bioavailability. These genetic variations likely explain, at least in part, interindividual variability in VA status and in VA bioavailability. However, much work remains to be done to identify all of the SNPs involved in VA status and bioavailability and to assess the possible involvement of other kinds of genetic variations, e.g., copy number variants and insertions/deletions, in these phenotypes. Yet, the potential usefulness of this area of research is exciting regarding the proposition of more personalized dietary recommendations in VA, particularly in populations at risk of VA deficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics)
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Open AccessReview Genetic Variations as Modifying Factors to Dietary Zinc Requirements—A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 148; doi:10.3390/nu9020148
Received: 11 January 2017 / Revised: 9 February 2017 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 17 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (649 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Due to reduced cost and accessibility, the use of genetic testing has appealed to health professionals for personalising nutrition advice. However, translation of the evidence linking polymorphisms, dietary requirements, and pathology risk proves to be challenging for nutrition and dietetic practitioners. Zinc status
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Due to reduced cost and accessibility, the use of genetic testing has appealed to health professionals for personalising nutrition advice. However, translation of the evidence linking polymorphisms, dietary requirements, and pathology risk proves to be challenging for nutrition and dietetic practitioners. Zinc status and polymorphisms of genes coding for zinc-transporters have been associated with chronic diseases. The present study aimed to systematically review the literature to assess whether recommendations for zinc intake could be made according to genotype. Eighteen studies investigating 31 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in relation to zinc intake and/or status were identified. Five studies examined type 2 diabetes; zinc intake was found to interact independently with two polymorphisms in the zinc-transporter gene SLC30A8 to affect glucose metabolism indicators. While the outcomes were statistically significant, the small size of the effect and lack of replication raises issues regarding translation into nutrition and dietetic practice. Two studies assessed the relationship of polymorphisms and cognitive performance; seven studies assessed the association between a range of outcomes linked to chronic conditions in aging population; two papers described the analysis of the genetic contribution in determining zinc concentration in human milk; and two papers assessed zinc concentration in plasma without linking to clinical outcomes. The data extracted confirmed a connection between genetics and zinc requirements, although the direction and magnitude of the dietary modification for carriers of specific genotypes could not be defined. This study highlights the need to summarise nutrigenetics studies to enable health professionals to translate scientific evidence into dietary recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics)
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Open AccessBrief Report The IL6 Gene Promoter SNP and Plasma IL-6 in Response to Diet Intervention
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 552; doi:10.3390/nu9060552
Received: 16 March 2017 / Revised: 9 May 2017 / Accepted: 22 May 2017 / Published: 27 May 2017
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Abstract
We recently reported that interleukin-6 (IL-6), an inflammatory marker associated with breast pathology and the development of breast cancer, decreases with diet intervention and weight loss in both insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant obese women. Here, we tested whether an individual’s genotype at an IL6
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We recently reported that interleukin-6 (IL-6), an inflammatory marker associated with breast pathology and the development of breast cancer, decreases with diet intervention and weight loss in both insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant obese women. Here, we tested whether an individual’s genotype at an IL6 SNP, rs1800795, which has previously been associated with circulating IL-6 levels, contributes to changes in IL-6 levels or modifies the effect of diet composition on IL-6 in these women. We genotyped rs1800795 in overweight/obese women (N = 242) who were randomly assigned to a lower fat (20% energy), higher carbohydrate (65% energy) diet; a lower carbohydrate (45% energy), higher fat (35% energy) diet; or a walnut-rich (18% energy), higher fat (35% energy), lower carbohydrate (45% energy) diet in a 1-year weight loss intervention study of obesity-related biomarkers for breast cancer incidence and mortality. Plasma IL-6 levels were measured at baseline, 6 and 12 months. At baseline, individuals with a CC genotype had significantly lower IL-6 levels than individuals with either a GC or GG genotype (p < 0.03; 2.72 pg/mL vs. 2.04 pg/mL), but this result was not significant when body mass index (BMI) was accounted for; the CC genotype group had lower BMI (p = 0.03; 32.5 kg/m2 vs. 33.6 kg/m2). We did not observe a 2-way interaction of time*rs1800795 genotype or diet*rs1800795 genotype. Our findings provide evidence that rs1800795 is associated with IL-6 levels, but do not support a differential interaction effect of rs1800795 and diet composition or time on changes in circulating IL-6 levels. Diet intervention and weight loss are an important strategy for reducing plasma IL-6, a risk factor of breast cancer in women, regardless of their rs1800795 genotype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics)
Open AccessCommentary Translation of Nutritional Genomics into Nutrition Practice: The Next Step
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 366; doi:10.3390/nu9040366
Received: 17 March 2017 / Revised: 29 March 2017 / Accepted: 4 April 2017 / Published: 6 April 2017
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Abstract
Genetics is an important piece of every individual health puzzle. The completion of the Human Genome Project sequence has deeply changed the research of life sciences including nutrition. The analysis of the genome is already part of clinical care in oncology, pharmacology, infectious
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Genetics is an important piece of every individual health puzzle. The completion of the Human Genome Project sequence has deeply changed the research of life sciences including nutrition. The analysis of the genome is already part of clinical care in oncology, pharmacology, infectious disease and, rare and undiagnosed diseases. The implications of genetic variations in shaping individual nutritional requirements have been recognised and conclusively proven, yet routine use of genetic information in nutrition and dietetics practice is still far from being implemented. This article sets out the path that needs to be taken to build a framework to translate gene–nutrient interaction studies into best-practice guidelines, providing tools that health professionals can use to understand whether genetic variation affects nutritional requirements in their daily clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics)

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