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Special Issue "Nutrition and Ageing"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Siân Robinson

Univ Southampton, Southampton Gen Hosp, MRC Lifecourse Epidemiol Unit, Southampton SO16 6YD, Hants, UK
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Guest Editor
Prof. Ailsa Welch

Univ E Anglia, Norwich Med Sch, Norwich Res Pk, Norwich NR4 7TJ, Norfolk, UK
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Although eating less may be an expected feature of older age, declining food and nutrient intake can put older people at risk. Estimates of the numbers of older adults affected by poor nutrition vary across studies, depending on definitions used and the nature and age of groups included. However, a consistent message is that poor nutrition, and even malnutrition, is common in developed settings. Design of successful preventive strategies to support older adults requires a clear understanding of the personal and contextual influences that affect patterns of food choice and consumption, as well understanding effects on health.

This Special Issue of Nutrients, entitled "Nutrition and Aging", welcomes the submission of manuscripts describing either original research or systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

Potential topics may include, but are not limited to:

  • Influences on food choice in older age; psychosocial and age-related factors
  • Nutrition in mid-life and retirement transition
  • Inequalities in nutrition among older populations
  • Determinants of malnutrition risk
  • Nutrition and healthy ageing
  • Effects of poor nutrition on body composition, sarcopenia or frailty
  • Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies of nutrition and health outcomes in older age
  • Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of interventions to support good nutrition in older populations

Prof. Sian Robinson
Prof. Ailsa Welch
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  •  Ageing
  •  Malnutrition
  •  Physical function
  • Cognitive function

Published Papers (21 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Protein Intake and Distribution in Relation to Physical Functioning and Quality of Life in Community-Dwelling Elderly People: Acknowledging the Role of Physical Activity
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 506; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040506
Received: 31 January 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
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Abstract
Increasing total protein intake and a spread protein intake distribution are potential strategies to attenuate sarcopenia related loss of physical function and quality of life. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether protein intake and protein intake distribution are associated
[...] Read more.
Increasing total protein intake and a spread protein intake distribution are potential strategies to attenuate sarcopenia related loss of physical function and quality of life. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether protein intake and protein intake distribution are associated with muscle strength, physical function and quality of life in community-dwelling elderly people with a wide range of physical activity. Dietary and physical activity data were obtained from two studies (N = 140, age 81 ± 6, 64% male), with the following outcome measures: physical functioning (Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), comprising balance, gait speed and chair rise tests), handgrip strength and quality of life (EQ-5D-5L). Protein intake distribution was calculated for each participant as a coefficient of variance (CV = SD of grams of protein intake per main meal divided by the average total amount of proteins (grams) of the main meals). Based on the CV, participants were divided into tertiles and classified as spread, intermediate or pulse. The average total protein intake was 1.08 ± 0.29 g/kg/day. Total protein intake was not associated with outcome measures using multivariate regression analyses. Individuals with a spread protein diet during the main meals (CV < 0.43) had higher gait speed compared to those with an intermediate diet (CV 0.43–0.62) (β = −0.42, p = 0.035), whereas a spread and pulse protein diet were not associated with SPPB total score, chair rise, grip strength and Quality-Adjusted Life Year (QALY). The interaction of higher physical activity and higher total protein intake was significantly associated with higher quality of life (β = 0.71, p = 0.049). While this interaction was not associated with SPPB or grip strength, the association with quality of life emphasizes the need for a higher total protein intake together with an active lifestyle in the elderly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
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Open AccessArticle Relationship between Nutritional Status and Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Geriatric Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease on Dialysis
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040425
Received: 19 January 2018 / Revised: 7 March 2018 / Accepted: 15 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
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Abstract
Gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) are common in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and are associated with nutritional risks resulting from low food intake. Little is known about the relationship between GIS and malnutrition in geriatric patients with ESRD. The main objective of this
[...] Read more.
Gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) are common in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and are associated with nutritional risks resulting from low food intake. Little is known about the relationship between GIS and malnutrition in geriatric patients with ESRD. The main objective of this study was to determine the relationship between nutritional status and severity of GIS in geriatric patients on dialysis therapy. Clinically-stable geriatric patients (older than 60 years old) who were dialysis outpatients were included in this cross-sectional study. The severity of GIS was assessed using the Gastrointestinal Symptoms Questionnaire (GSQ, short version), with patients classified into three groups: mild, moderate, and severe. Nutritional status was evaluated with the Malnutrition Inflammation Score (MIS), anthropometric assessment, biochemical parameters, and bioelectrical impedance. Descriptive statistics were used and differences between groups were analyzed with ANOVA and Kruskal Wallis, with a p < 0.05 considered to indicate significance. Fifty patients completed the study; the median age was 67 years old. Twenty-three patients were on hemodialysis (HD) and 27 were on peritoneal dialysis (PD). No significant differences were found according to dialysis modality, presence of diabetes, or gender. Ninety percent of patients had at least one GIS. Poorer nutritional status (evaluated by MIS) was related to a higher severity of GIS. There were no significant differences with other nutritional parameters. Our study showed a high prevalence of GIS in geriatric patients. There were no differences in observed GIS values that were attributed to dialysis modality, gender, or presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Severe GIS values were associated with poorer nutritional status determined by MIS, however, there was no association with anthropometry, biochemical values, or bioimpedance vector analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
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Open AccessArticle The Effects of Isoflavone Supplementation Plus Combined Exercise on Lipid Levels, and Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Markers in Postmenopausal Women
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040424
Received: 31 January 2018 / Revised: 8 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
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Abstract
This study tested the effect of isoflavone supplementation in addition to combined exercise training on plasma lipid levels, inflammatory markers and oxidative stress in postmenopausal women. Thirty-two healthy and non-obese postmenopausal women without hormone therapy were randomly assigned to exercise + placebo (PLA;
[...] Read more.
This study tested the effect of isoflavone supplementation in addition to combined exercise training on plasma lipid levels, inflammatory markers and oxidative stress in postmenopausal women. Thirty-two healthy and non-obese postmenopausal women without hormone therapy were randomly assigned to exercise + placebo (PLA; n = 15) or exercise + isoflavone supplementation (ISO; n = 17) groups. They performed 30 sessions of combined exercises (aerobic plus resistance) over ten weeks and consumed 100 mg of isoflavone supplementation or placebo. Blood samples were collected after an overnight fast to analyze the lipid profile, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (FRAP), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), before and after ten weeks of the intervention. There were no differences in the changes (pre vs. post) between groups for any of the inflammatory markers, oxidative stress markers or lipid profile variables. However, interleukin-8 was different between pre- and post-tests (p < 0.001) in both groups (Δ = 7.61 and 5.61 pg/mL) as were cholesterol levels (p < 0.05), with no interaction between groups. The combination of isoflavone supplementation and exercise training did not alter oxidative stress markers in postmenopausal women, but exercise training alone may increase IL-8 and decrease total cholesterol levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
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Open AccessArticle On Your Own: Older Adults’ Food Choice and Dietary Habits
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040413
Received: 31 January 2018 / Revised: 20 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
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Abstract
The United Kingdom, in common with many countries, has an ageing demographic. Changes accompanying ageing can influence food choice and dietary habits. This study explored older adults’ perceptions and practices related to dietary behaviour and the factors influencing their food choice in later
[...] Read more.
The United Kingdom, in common with many countries, has an ageing demographic. Changes accompanying ageing can influence food choice and dietary habits. This study explored older adults’ perceptions and practices related to dietary behaviour and the factors influencing their food choice in later life. Semi-structured focus-group discussions were conducted with 30 individuals (aged 63–90 years) in a UK city. An inductive thematic approach was adopted for data analysis, and 4 themes and 12 sub-themes emerged: age-related changes (lower appetite, food changes, declining physical function); food access (food cost, support with food, maintaining independence); on your own (cooking for one, eating alone, shopping for one); and relationship with food (food variety, eating what you want, dieting). These influenced participants’ food acquisition, food preparation and cooking, as well as eating habits. Living alone and its substantial influence, as well as associated social isolation and loneliness, were highlighted in many of the discussions. Given the possible implications for nutritional intake, further work is recommended in this area. Likewise, steps should be taken to improve food access, increase opportunities for commensal eating and, fundamentally, address social isolation and loneliness in the older population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Patterns and Their Relationship with Frailty in Functionally Independent Older Adults
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040406
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 20 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 24 March 2018
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Abstract
The impact of dietary patterns rather than single foods or nutrients on health outcomes is increasingly recognized. This cross-sectional study examines the dietary patterns of 527 non-institutionalized functionally independent older people aged ≥70 years from Gipuzkoa (Spain). Sociodemographic characteristics, health status, anthropometric measures
[...] Read more.
The impact of dietary patterns rather than single foods or nutrients on health outcomes is increasingly recognized. This cross-sectional study examines the dietary patterns of 527 non-institutionalized functionally independent older people aged ≥70 years from Gipuzkoa (Spain). Sociodemographic characteristics, health status, anthropometric measures and dietary data are collected. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) and cluster analysis are performed to identify dietary patterns and groups of individuals. Frequency of selected food items and compliance with food recommendations are included in the MCA. A high proportion of the sample population are overweight or obese, whereas only 3.3% are at risk of malnutrition (determined with the Mini Nutritional Assessment). Frail individuals (n = 130), measured with the Timed-Up and Go test are older, have a lower educational level, are more obese, present a poorer health status (more depressive symptoms, polypharmacy and falls, among others) and worse compliance with food recommendations than robust individuals (n = 392). Three groups of individuals are identified: cluster one (n = 285), cluster two (n = 194) and cluster three (n = 48). A gradient of increasing frailty and poorer health status is observed from cluster one to cluster three. The latter also shows the poorest dietary pattern, regarding dietary recommendations. The use of an easy-to-use tool to assess diet allows detection of differences among the three clusters. There is a need to increase awareness on the implementation of nutritional screening and a subsequent dietary assessment in primary care settings to provide nutritional care to elder, and moreover, frail individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Fiber and Telomere Length in 5674 U.S. Adults: An NHANES Study of Biological Aging
Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040400
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 28 February 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
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Abstract
The relationship between fiber intake and telomere length was evaluated using a cross-sectional design and an NHANES sample of 5674 U.S. adults. Another purpose was to test the impact of potential confounders on the association. Fiber consumption was measured using a 24 h
[...] Read more.
The relationship between fiber intake and telomere length was evaluated using a cross-sectional design and an NHANES sample of 5674 U.S. adults. Another purpose was to test the impact of potential confounders on the association. Fiber consumption was measured using a 24 h recall and telomere length was indexed using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction method. Overall, the U.S. adults had low fiber intake (median: 6.6 g per 1000 kcal)—less than one-half the recommendation of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. With age, gender, race, housing status, and misreported energy intake controlled, the relationship between fiber intake per 1000 kcal and telomere length was linear (F = 9.5, p = 0.0045). Specifically, for each 1 g increment in fiber intake per 1000 kcal, telomeres were 8.3 base pairs longer. Because each additional year of chronological age was associated with telomeres that were 15.5 base pairs shorter, results suggest that a 10 g increase in fiber intake per 1000 kcal would correspond with telomeres that are 83 base pairs longer. On average, this would equate to 5.4 fewer years of biologic aging (83 ÷ 15.5). With smoking, BMI, alcohol use, and physical activity controlled, as well as the other covariates, each 10 g increment in fiber accounted for telomeres that were 67 base pairs longer (F = 7.6, p = 0.0101), a biologic aging difference of about 4.3 years. In conclusion, significant fiber consumption accounts for longer telomeres and less biologic aging than lower levels of fiber intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
Open AccessArticle Association between the Frequency of Protein-Rich Food Intakes and Kihon-Checklist Frailty Indices in Older Japanese Adults: The Kyoto-Kameoka Study
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010084
Received: 11 November 2017 / Revised: 30 December 2017 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 13 January 2018
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Abstract
We aimed to investigate whether frequencies of protein-rich food intake were associated with frailty among older Japanese adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 among 3843 men and 4331 women in a population-based cohort of Kameoka city, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Frailty was
[...] Read more.
We aimed to investigate whether frequencies of protein-rich food intake were associated with frailty among older Japanese adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 among 3843 men and 4331 women in a population-based cohort of Kameoka city, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Frailty was assessed by the weighted score based on the 25-item Kihon-Checklist. The frequency of protein-rich food intake was examined as “seafood”, “meat”, “dairy products”, “eggs”, and “soy products”. The outcome of frailty was analyzed with a multiple logistic regression model using the frequency of protein-rich food intake. When compared to the first quartile, it was observed that there was a significant association between the lower adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) for frailty and the frequency of seafood intake in the fourth quartile among men (PR 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.42, 0.99) and from the second quartile to the third quartile among women (PR 0.61, 95% CI, 0.43, 0.85; PR 0.64, 95% CI, 0.46, 0.91). The frequency of dairy products intake in the third quartile among women was significantly associated with a lower PR for frailty (p-value = 0.013). Our findings suggest that the consumption of seafood and dairy products may help older adults in maintaining their independence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
Open AccessArticle Dose-Dependent Effects of Randomized Intraduodenal Whey-Protein Loads on Glucose, Gut Hormone, and Amino Acid Concentrations in Healthy Older and Younger Men
Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010078
Received: 2 November 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 12 January 2018
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Abstract
Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the prevention and management of malnutrition in older people. We have reported that healthy older, compared to younger, adults have less suppression of energy intake by whey-protein—effects on appetite-related hormones are unknown. The objective was to determine
[...] Read more.
Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the prevention and management of malnutrition in older people. We have reported that healthy older, compared to younger, adults have less suppression of energy intake by whey-protein—effects on appetite-related hormones are unknown. The objective was to determine the effects of intraduodenally administered whey-protein on glucose, gut hormone, and amino acid concentrations, and their relation to subsequent ad libitum energy intake at a buffet meal, in healthy older and younger men. Hydrolyzed whey-protein (30 kcal, 90 kcal, and 180 kcal) and a saline control (~0 kcal) were infused intraduodenally for 60 min in 10 younger (19–29 years, 73 ± 2 kg, 22 ± 1 kg/m2) and 10 older (68–81 years, 79 ± 2 kg, 26 ± 1 kg/m2) healthy men in a randomized, double-blind fashion. Plasma insulin, glucagon, gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY), and amino acid concentrations, but not blood glucose, increased, while ghrelin decreased during the whey-protein infusions. Plasma GIP concentrations were greater in older than younger men. Energy intake correlated positively with plasma ghrelin and negatively with insulin, glucagon, GIP, GLP-1, PYY, and amino acids concentrations (p < 0.05). In conclusion, intraduodenal whey-protein infusions resulted in increased GIP and comparable ghrelin, insulin, glucagon, GIP, GLP-1, PYY, and amino acid responses in healthy older and younger men, which correlated to subsequent energy intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
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Open AccessArticle Frequency of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and the Oral Health-Related Quality of Life among Japanese Elderly: A Cross-Sectional Study from the Kyoto-Kameoka Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1362; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121362
Received: 24 August 2017 / Revised: 10 December 2017 / Accepted: 13 December 2017 / Published: 15 December 2017
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Abstract
Objective: Many previous studies have reported that fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with a reduced risk of various disease, but whether or not their consumption is associated with the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is unclear. The objective of this study
[...] Read more.
Objective: Many previous studies have reported that fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with a reduced risk of various disease, but whether or not their consumption is associated with the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the association between the frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption and the OHRQoL in elderly subjects by sex. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data from a population-based Kyoto-Kameoka Study in 2012 of 3112 men and 3439 women (age ≥ 65 years). The frequencies of fruit and vegetable consumption were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. We evaluated the OHRQoL using the General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI), a self-reported measure designed to assess the oral health problems in old adults. Results: After adjusting for age, body mass index, alcohol, smoking, education, socioeconomic status, history of disease, medication use, mobility disability, and total energy intake, a higher frequency of combined fruit and vegetable consumption showed a significant positive association with the GOHAI score in both men and women (p-trend < 0.001 in both sexes). These associations remained significant after adjustment for poor mastication and denture use (p-trend all < 0.05 in both sexes). We observed a significant positive association even when the frequencies of fruit or vegetable consumption were analyzed separately (all p-trend < 0.05 in both sexes). Conclusions: A higher frequency of fruit and/or vegetable consumption independently showed a strong positive association with the OHRQoL in both men and women. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
Open AccessArticle Prevalence and Predictors of Subclinical Micronutrient Deficiency in German Older Adults: Results from the Population-Based KORA-Age Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1276; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121276
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 16 November 2017 / Accepted: 20 November 2017 / Published: 23 November 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (415 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Subclinical micronutrient deficiency in older adults is associated with chronic age-related diseases and adverse functional outcomes. In Germany, the older population is at risk of insufficient micronutrient intake, but representative studies on micronutrient status in old and very old adults are scarce. This
[...] Read more.
Subclinical micronutrient deficiency in older adults is associated with chronic age-related diseases and adverse functional outcomes. In Germany, the older population is at risk of insufficient micronutrient intake, but representative studies on micronutrient status in old and very old adults are scarce. This study’s objectives were to estimate the prevalence of subclinical vitamin D, folate, vitamin B12 and iron deficiencies among older adults, aged 65 to 93, from the KORA-Age study in Augsburg, Germany (n = 1079), and to examine associated predictors, using multiple logistic regression. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), folate, vitamin B12, and iron were analyzed. The prevalence of subclinical vitamin D and vitamin B12 deficiencies were high, with 52.0% and 27.3% of individuals having low 25OHD (<50 nmol/L) and low vitamin B12 concentrations (<221 pmol/L), respectively. Furthermore, 11.0% had low iron (men <11.6 µmol/L, women <9.0 µmol/L) and 8.7% had low folate levels (<13.6 nmol/L). Common predictors associated with subclinical micronutrient deficiency included very old age, physical inactivity, frailty and no/irregular use of supplements. Subclinical micronutrient deficiency is a public health concern among KORA-Age participants, especially for vitamins D and B12. The predictors identified provide further rationale for screening high-risk subgroups and developing targeted public health interventions to tackle prevailing micronutrient inadequacies among older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
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Open AccessArticle A Cross-Sectional Study on the Association between 24-h Urine Osmolality and Weight Status in Older Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1272; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111272
Received: 21 September 2017 / Revised: 18 November 2017 / Accepted: 20 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
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Abstract
Data on the association between hydration and body weight in the elderly are scarce. The objective of this work was to quantify the association between 24-h urine osmolality and weight status in the elderly. A cross-sectional study was conducted within the Nutrition UP
[...] Read more.
Data on the association between hydration and body weight in the elderly are scarce. The objective of this work was to quantify the association between 24-h urine osmolality and weight status in the elderly. A cross-sectional study was conducted within the Nutrition UP 65 study. A quota sampling was implemented to achieve a nationally representative sample of Portuguese older adults (≥65 years) according to age, sex, education and region. From a sample size of 1500 participants, 1315 were eligible for the present analysis, 57.3% were women and 23.5% were aged ≥80 years. Participants were grouped using tertiles of 24-h urine osmolality by sex. World Health Organization cutoffs were used to classify participants according to weight status. Multinomial multivariable logistic regression models were conducted to evaluate the association of tertiles of osmolality with weight status, adjusting for confounders. Odds Ratios (OR) and respective 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Being in the 3rd urine osmolality tertile (highest) was associated with a higher risk of being obese in men, OR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.06, 3.66. No such association was found in women. These results highlight the need for implementing studies in order to clarify the association between hydration and weight status in the elderly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
Open AccessArticle A Cross-Sectional Study of Nutrient Intake and Health Status among Older Adults in Yogyakarta Indonesia
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1240; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111240
Received: 4 September 2017 / Revised: 2 November 2017 / Accepted: 7 November 2017 / Published: 13 November 2017
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Abstract
Many communities around the world, particularly developing countries including Indonesia, are experiencing population ageing. There is little knowledge regarding the impact of malnutrition, or its prevalence within rural compared to urban areas, on the nutritional, functional and mental status of community-living older residents
[...] Read more.
Many communities around the world, particularly developing countries including Indonesia, are experiencing population ageing. There is little knowledge regarding the impact of malnutrition, or its prevalence within rural compared to urban areas, on the nutritional, functional and mental status of community-living older residents in these countries. Hence, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine socio-demographic and anthropometric characteristics, nutritional, mental and functional status, and energy and nutrient intake of community-dwelling Indonesians from both rural and urban areas of Yogyakarta. Older individuals were included in the study if they had been living in Yogyakarta for the last year and were aged ≥65 years (n = 527; mean ± SD age of 74 ± 7 years). Rural compared with urban participants had a lower level of education and income, more hospital admissions, less dietary protein intake, lower cognitive function, poorer nutritional status and grip strength, but faster gait speed while being more dependent on assistance to perform daily activities (all p < 0.05). Cognitive function was more strongly associated than nutritional status with physical function. Rural older Indonesians living in Yogyakarta were more likely than urban older people to be malnourished and cognitively impaired, and to have associated reductions in functional capacity and independence. Strategies to improve cognitive function and nutritional status are therefore important for the wellbeing of Indonesian citizens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Dietary Magnesium May Be Protective for Aging of Bone and Skeletal Muscle in Middle and Younger Older Age Men and Women: Cross-Sectional Findings from the UK Biobank Cohort
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1189; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111189
Received: 25 September 2017 / Revised: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 24 October 2017 / Published: 30 October 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (737 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although fragility fractures, osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and frailty are becoming more prevalent in our aging society the treatment options are limited and preventative strategies are needed. Despite magnesium being integral to bone and muscle physiology, the relationship between dietary magnesium and skeletal muscle and
[...] Read more.
Although fragility fractures, osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and frailty are becoming more prevalent in our aging society the treatment options are limited and preventative strategies are needed. Despite magnesium being integral to bone and muscle physiology, the relationship between dietary magnesium and skeletal muscle and bone health has not been investigated concurrently to date. We analysed cross-sectional associations between dietary magnesium and skeletal muscle mass (as fat free mass—FFM), grip strength, and bone density (BMD) in 156,575 men and women aged 39–72 years from the UK Biobank cohort. FFM was measured with bioelectrical impedance and was expressed as the percentage of body weight (FFM%) or as divided by body mass index (FFMBMI). Adjusted mean grip strength, FFM%, FFMBMI, and BMD were calculated according to quintiles of dietary magnesium, while correcting for covariates. Significant inter-quintile differences across intakes of magnesium existed in men and women, respectively, of 1.1% and 2.4% for grip strength, 3.0% and 3.6% for FFM%, 5.1% and 5.5% for FFMBMI, and 2.9% and 0.9% for BMD. These associations are as great or greater than annual measured losses of these musculoskeletal outcomes, indicating potential clinical significance. Our study suggests that dietary magnesium may play a role in musculoskeletal health and has relevance for population prevention strategies for sarcopenia, osteoporosis, and fractures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
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Open AccessArticle Milk Intake at Midlife and Cognitive Decline over 20 Years. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1134; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101134
Received: 8 August 2017 / Revised: 29 August 2017 / Accepted: 10 October 2017 / Published: 17 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1118 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Background: Faster rates of cognitive decline are likely to result in earlier onset of cognitive impairment and dementia. d-galactose, a derivative of lactose, is used in animal studies to induce neurodegeneration. Milk is the primary source of lactose in the human
[...] Read more.
Background: Faster rates of cognitive decline are likely to result in earlier onset of cognitive impairment and dementia. d-galactose, a derivative of lactose, is used in animal studies to induce neurodegeneration. Milk is the primary source of lactose in the human diet, and its effects on cognitive decline have not been fully evaluated. Objective: Assess the association of milk intake with change in cognitive function over 20 years. Methods: A total of 13,751 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort completed a food frequency questionnaire and three neurocognitive evaluations from 1990 through 2013. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used to determine lactase persistence (LCT-13910 C/T for Whites and LCT-14010 G/C for Blacks). Mixed-effects models were used to study the association of milk intake with cognitive change. Multiple imputations by chained equations were used to account for attrition. Results: Milk intake greater than 1 glass/day was associated with greater decline in the global z-score over a 20-year period. The difference in decline was 0.10 (95% CI: 0.16, 0.03) z-scores, or an additional 10% decline, relative to the group reporting “almost never” consuming milk. Conclusions: Replication of these results is warranted in diverse populations with greater milk intake and higher variability of lactase persistence genotype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
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Open AccessArticle Higher Protein Intake Does Not Improve Lean Mass Gain When Compared with RDA Recommendation in Postmenopausal Women Following Resistance Exercise Protocol: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1007; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9091007
Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 12 September 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a higher protein intake on lean body mass (LBM) gain in postmenopausal women practicing resistance exercise and compare it to the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) recommendation. Twenty-three postmenopausal women (63.2 ± 7.8
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a higher protein intake on lean body mass (LBM) gain in postmenopausal women practicing resistance exercise and compare it to the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) recommendation. Twenty-three postmenopausal women (63.2 ± 7.8 years) were randomized into two groups. The group with higher protein intake (n = 11) (HP) received a dietary plan with ~1.2 g·kg−1·day−1 of protein, while the normal protein (NP) group (n = 12) was instructed to ingest ~0.8 g·kg−1·day−1 of protein (RDA recommendation). Both groups performed the same resistance training protocol, 3 times a week, with progression of the number of sets (from 1 to 6 sets) and 8–12 repetitions. The intervention occurred over 10 weeks. Body composition evaluation was performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The diet was evaluated by nine 24-h food recall summaries over the course of the study. During the intervention period, the HP group presented a higher protein (1.18 ± 0.3 vs. 0.87 ± 0.2 g·kg−1·day−1, p = 0.008) and leucine (6.0 ± 1.4 vs. 4.3 ± 0.9 g/day, p < 0.001) intake than the NP group, respectively. At the end of the intervention, there were increases in LBM both in HP (37.1 ± 6.2 to 38.4 ± 6.5 kg, p = 0.004) and in NP (37.6 ± 6.2 to 38.8 ± 6.4 kg, p < 0.001), with no differences between the groups (p = 0.572). In conclusion, increased protein intake did not promote higher LBM gain when compared to RDA recommendation in postmenopausal women performing resistance exercise during 10 weeks. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT03024125. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
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Open AccessReview Nutritional Status and Nutritional Treatment Are Related to Outcomes and Mortality in Older Adults with Hip Fracture
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050555
Received: 31 January 2018 / Revised: 9 April 2018 / Accepted: 25 April 2018 / Published: 30 April 2018
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Abstract
Malnutrition is very prevalent in geriatric patients with hip fracture. Nevertheless, its importance is not fully recognized. The objective of this paper is to review the impact of malnutrition and of nutritional treatment upon outcomes and mortality in older people with hip fracture.
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Malnutrition is very prevalent in geriatric patients with hip fracture. Nevertheless, its importance is not fully recognized. The objective of this paper is to review the impact of malnutrition and of nutritional treatment upon outcomes and mortality in older people with hip fracture. We searched the PubMed database for studies evaluating nutritional aspects in people aged 70 years and over with hip fracture. The total number of studies included in the review was 44, which analyzed 26,281 subjects (73.5% women, 83.6 ± 7.2 years old). Older people with hip fracture presented an inadequate nutrient intake for their requirements, which caused deterioration in their already compromised nutritional status. The prevalence of malnutrition was approximately 18.7% using the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) (large or short form) as a diagnostic tool, but the prevalence was greater (45.7%) if different criteria were used (such as Body Mass Index (BMI), weight loss, or albumin concentration). Low scores in anthropometric indices were associated with a higher prevalence of complications during hospitalization and with a worse functional recovery. Despite improvements in the treatment of geriatric patients with hip fracture, mortality was still unacceptably high (30% within 1 year and up to 40% within 3 years). Malnutrition was associated with an increase in mortality. Nutritional intervention was cost effective and was associated with an improvement in nutritional status and a greater functional recovery. To conclude, in older people, the prevention of malnutrition and an early nutritional intervention can improve recovery following a hip fracture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
Open AccessReview Potential Roles of n-3 PUFAs during Skeletal Muscle Growth and Regeneration
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030309
Received: 21 January 2018 / Revised: 1 March 2018 / Accepted: 2 March 2018 / Published: 5 March 2018
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Abstract
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), which are commonly found in fish oil supplements, are known to possess anti-inflammatory properties and more recently alter skeletal muscle function. In this review, we discuss novel findings related to how n-3 PUFAs modulate molecular signaling responsible
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Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), which are commonly found in fish oil supplements, are known to possess anti-inflammatory properties and more recently alter skeletal muscle function. In this review, we discuss novel findings related to how n-3 PUFAs modulate molecular signaling responsible for growth and hypertrophy as well as the activity of muscle stem cells. Muscle stem cells commonly known as satellite cells, are primarily responsible for driving the skeletal muscle repair process to potentially damaging stimuli, such as mechanical stress elicited by exercise contraction. To date, there is a paucity of human investigations related to the effects of n-3 PUFAs on satellite cell content and activity. Based on current in vitro investigations, this review focuses on novel mechanisms linking n-3 PUFA’s to satellite cell activity and how they may improve muscle repair. Understanding the role of n-3 PUFAs during muscle growth and regeneration in association with exercise could lead to the development of novel supplementation strategies that increase muscle mass and strength, therefore possibly reducing the burden of muscle wasting with age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Diet Quality and Sarcopenia in Older Adults: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030308
Received: 29 January 2018 / Revised: 1 March 2018 / Accepted: 2 March 2018 / Published: 5 March 2018
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Abstract
The increasing recognition of sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function (muscle strength and physical performance), as a determinant of poor health in older age, has emphasized the importance of understanding more about its aetiology to inform strategies both for
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The increasing recognition of sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function (muscle strength and physical performance), as a determinant of poor health in older age, has emphasized the importance of understanding more about its aetiology to inform strategies both for preventing and treating this condition. There is growing interest in the effects of modifiable factors such as diet; some nutrients have been studied but less is known about the influence of overall diet quality on sarcopenia. We conducted a systematic review of the literature examining the relationship between diet quality and the individual components of sarcopenia, i.e., muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance, and the overall risk of sarcopenia, among older adults. We identified 23 studies that met review inclusion criteria. The studies were diverse in terms of the design, setting, measures of diet quality, and outcome measurements. A small body of evidence suggested a relationship between “healthier” diets and better muscle mass outcomes. There was limited and inconsistent evidence for a link between “healthier” diets and lower risk of declines in muscle strength. There was strong and consistent observational evidence for a link between “healthier” diets and lower risk of declines in physical performance. There was a small body of cross-sectional evidence showing an association between “healthier” diets and lower risk of sarcopenia. This review provides observational evidence to support the benefits of diets of higher quality for physical performance among older adults. Findings for the other outcomes considered suggest some benefits, although the evidence is either limited in its extent (sarcopenia) or inconsistent/weak in its nature (muscle mass, muscle strength). Further studies are needed to assess the potential of whole-diet interventions for the prevention and management of sarcopenia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Nutrition in the Very Old
Nutrients 2018, 10(3), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10030269
Received: 31 January 2018 / Revised: 21 February 2018 / Accepted: 26 February 2018 / Published: 27 February 2018
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Abstract
The population of older adults aged 85 years and over (the very old) is growing rapidly in many societies because of increases in life expectancy and reduced mortality at older ages. In 2016, 27.3 million very old adults were living in the European
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The population of older adults aged 85 years and over (the very old) is growing rapidly in many societies because of increases in life expectancy and reduced mortality at older ages. In 2016, 27.3 million very old adults were living in the European Union, and in the UK, 2.4% of the population (1.6 million) were aged 85 and over. Very old age is associated with increased risks of malnutrition, multimorbidity, and disability. Diet (nutrition) is a modifiable risk factor for multiple age-related conditions, including sarcopenia and functional decline. Dietary characteristics and nutrient intakes of the very old have been investigated in several European studies of ageing to better understand their nutritional requirements, which may differ from those in the young-old. However, there is a major gap in regard to evidence for the role of dietary patterns, protein, vitamin D and other nutrients for the maintenance of physical and cognitive functioning in later life. The Newcastle 85+ Study, UK and the Life and Living in Advanced Age, New Zealand are unique studies involving single birth cohorts which aim to assess health trajectories in very old adults and their biological, social and environmental influences, including nutrition. In this review, we have updated the latest findings in nutritional epidemiology with results from these studies, concentrating on the diet–physical functioning relationship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
Open AccessReview A Systematic Review of Behavioural Interventions Promoting Healthy Eating among Older People
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020128
Received: 5 October 2017 / Revised: 19 January 2018 / Accepted: 24 January 2018 / Published: 26 January 2018
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Abstract
Because eating habits are inseparably linked with people’s physical health, effective behaviour interventions are highly demanded to promote healthy eating among older people. The aim of this systematic review was to identify effective diet interventions for older people and provide useful evidence and
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Because eating habits are inseparably linked with people’s physical health, effective behaviour interventions are highly demanded to promote healthy eating among older people. The aim of this systematic review was to identify effective diet interventions for older people and provide useful evidence and direction for further research. Three electronic bibliographic databases—PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science Core Collection were used to conduct a systematic literature search based on fixed inclusion and exclusion criteria. English language peer-reviewed journal articles published between 2011 and 2016 were selected for data extraction and quality assessment. Finally, a total of 16 studies were identified. The studies’ duration ranged from three weeks to seven years. The majority of studies were carried out in European countries. Seven studies had a moderate quality while the remaining studies were at a less than moderate level. Three dietary educational interventions and all meal service related interventions reported improvements in older people’s dietary variety, nutrition status, or other health-related eating behaviours. Multicomponent dietary interventions mainly contributed to the reduction of risk of chronic disease. The results supported that older people could achieve a better dietary quality if they make diet-related changes by receiving either dietary education or healthier meal service. Further high-quality studies are required to promote healthy eating among older people by taking regional diet patterns, advanced information technology, and nudging strategies into account. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
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Open AccessReview Aging Gut Microbiota at the Cross-Road between Nutrition, Physical Frailty, and Sarcopenia: Is There a Gut–Muscle Axis?
Nutrients 2017, 9(12), 1303; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9121303
Received: 20 October 2017 / Revised: 22 November 2017 / Accepted: 27 November 2017 / Published: 30 November 2017
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Abstract
Inadequate nutrition and physical inactivity are the mainstays of primary sarcopenia–physiopathology in older individuals. Gut microbiota composition is strongly dependent on both of these elements, and conversely, can also influence the host physiology by modulating systemic inflammation, anabolism, insulin sensitivity, and energy production.
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Inadequate nutrition and physical inactivity are the mainstays of primary sarcopenia–physiopathology in older individuals. Gut microbiota composition is strongly dependent on both of these elements, and conversely, can also influence the host physiology by modulating systemic inflammation, anabolism, insulin sensitivity, and energy production. The bacterial metabolism of nutrients theoretically influences skeletal muscle cell functionality through producing mediators that drive all of these systemic effects. In this study, we review the scientific literature supporting the concept of the involvement of gut microbiota in primary sarcopenia physiopathology. First, we examine studies associating fecal microbiota alterations with physical frailty, i.e., the loss of muscle performance and normal muscle mass. Then, we consider studies exploring the effects of exercise on gut microbiota composition. Finally, we examine studies demonstrating the possible effects of mediators produced by gut microbiota on skeletal muscle, and intervention studies considering the effects of prebiotic or probiotic administration on muscle function. Even if there is no evidence of a distinct gut microbiota composition in older sarcopenic patients, we conclude that the literature supports the possible presence of a “gut–muscle axis”, whereby gut microbiota may act as the mediator of the effects of nutrition on muscle cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
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