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Special Issue "Polyphenolics"

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A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2011)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Kelly Meckling

Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Canada
E-Mail
Fax: +1 537 425 3728
Interests: vitamin D; omega-3 fatty acids; cancer; cell differentiation; breast cell maturation; polyphenolics; phytochemicals; chemotherapy; cell signalling

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Polyphenols are a complex group of phytochemicals that have ubiquitous distribution in plants, some fungi and even some micro-organisms. Most are best known for their potent antioxidant potential, however this is only one of a plethora of activities that have been associated with polyphenols. Some have hormone-like activity, behaving as estrogens or estrogen antagonists (e.g. phytoestrogens), others are protein kinase inhibitors, anti-inflammatory agents, antimicrobials, anti-fungals, and even insect repellants or attractants. Others control cell cycle progression, cellular differentiation, senescence and apoptosis. They may modulate enzymes associated with eicosanoid metabolism and thereby affect cell signaling, lipid peroxidation, and DNA-damage. Some polyphenols are excellent chelating agents and can interfere with metal induced oxidative damage. As well as being antioxidants themselves, several polyphenols, particularly the flavonoids, have been shown to modulate the expression of endogenous antioxidant molecules and proteins such as glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase. Because of their wide-ranging activities, polyphenols are aggressively being studies for their activities as human and animal health promotion agents and effective disease preventive or treatment agents for a number of human ailments including: Alzheimer’s disease, cancer, atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases, multiple sclerosis, and autoimmune disorders. Major issues continue to be identifying the “active metabolites” and their mechanisms of action as well as determining the barriers to bioavailability of polyphenols from foods, herbs and extracts, and determining the “recommended” levels that should be being consumed by humans for optimal health.

Prof. Dr. Kelly Meckling
Guest Editor

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Flavan-3-ol Compounds from Wine Wastes with in Vitro and in Vivo Antioxidant Activity
Nutrients 2010, 2(10), 1048-1059; doi:10.3390/nu2101048
Received: 8 September 2010 / Revised: 28 September 2010 / Accepted: 30 September 2010 / Published: 11 October 2010
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (344 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It has been suggested that the dietary intake of antioxidant supplements could be a useful strategy to reduce the incidence of diseases associated with oxidative stress. The aim of present work is to study the possibility to obtain compounds with antioxidant activity from
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It has been suggested that the dietary intake of antioxidant supplements could be a useful strategy to reduce the incidence of diseases associated with oxidative stress. The aim of present work is to study the possibility to obtain compounds with antioxidant activity from wine wastes using water as solvent. Results have shown that it is possible to obtain flavan-3-ol compounds from wine wastes both from V. vinifera (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot) and V. labrusca (cv. Bordo and Isabella) species. The main phenolic compounds found in the extracts were catechin and epicatechin, followed by procyanidin B3, procyanidin B1, procyanidin B2, gallic acid, epigallocatechin, and procyanidin B4. All flavan-3-ol extracts showed significant in vitro and in vivo activities. It was found that the extracts were able to prevent lipid and protein oxidative damage in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus tissues of rats. Although further studies are necessary, these flavan-3-ol extracts show potential to be used to reduce the incidence of degenerative diseases associated with oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenolics)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Chemistry and Biochemistry of Dietary Polyphenols
Nutrients 2010, 2(12), 1231-1246; doi:10.3390/nu2121231
Received: 30 October 2010 / Revised: 29 November 2010 / Accepted: 9 December 2010 / Published: 10 December 2010
Cited by 255 | PDF Full-text (330 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polyphenols are the biggest group of phytochemicals, and many of them have been found in plant-based foods. Polyphenol-rich diets have been linked to many health benefits. This paper is intended to review the chemistry and biochemistry of polyphenols as related to classification, extraction,
[...] Read more.
Polyphenols are the biggest group of phytochemicals, and many of them have been found in plant-based foods. Polyphenol-rich diets have been linked to many health benefits. This paper is intended to review the chemistry and biochemistry of polyphenols as related to classification, extraction, separation and analytical methods, their occurrence and biosynthesis in plants, and the biological activities and implications in human health. The discussions are focused on important and most recent advances in the above aspects, and challenges are identified for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenolics)

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