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Special Issue "Polyphenols and Human Health"

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A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Winston Craig

Department of Nutrition and Wellness, Marsh Hall 301C, Andrews University, Berrien Springs, Michigan 49104-0210, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: herbal therapies; health-promoting phytochemicals; cardiovascular disease; vegetarian diet

Special Issue Information

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charges (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 500 CHF (Swiss Francs) for well prepared manuscripts submitted before 30 June 2012. The APC for manuscripts submitted from 1 July 2012 onwards are 1000 CHF per accepted paper. In addition, a fee of 250 CHF may apply if English editing or extensive revisions must be undertaken by the Editorial Office.

Keywords

  • phytochemicals
  • flavonoids
  • fruits
  • vegetables
  • cancer
  • cardiovascular disease
  • diabetes
  • botanical extracts
  • whole grains

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Extracts, Anthocyanins and Procyanidins from Aronia melanocarpa as Radical Scavengers and Enzyme Inhibitors
Nutrients 2013, 5(3), 663-678; doi:10.3390/nu5030663
Received: 15 January 2013 / Revised: 2 February 2013 / Accepted: 15 February 2013 / Published: 4 March 2013
Cited by 37 | PDF Full-text (300 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Extracts, subfractions, isolated anthocyanins and isolated procyanidins B2, B5 and C1 from the berries and bark of Aronia melanocarpa were investigated for their antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities. Four different bioassays were used, namely scavenging of the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, inhibition of 15-lipoxygenase
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Extracts, subfractions, isolated anthocyanins and isolated procyanidins B2, B5 and C1 from the berries and bark of Aronia melanocarpa were investigated for their antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities. Four different bioassays were used, namely scavenging of the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, inhibition of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO), inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XO) and inhibition of α-glucosidase. Among the anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-arabinoside possessed the strongest and cyanidin 3-xyloside the weakest radical scavenging and enzyme inhibitory activity. These effects seem to be influenced by the sugar units linked to the anthocyanidin. Subfractions enriched in procyanidins were found to be potent α-glucosidase inhibitors; they possessed high radical scavenging properties, strong inhibitory activity towards 15-LO and moderate inhibitory activity towards XO. Trimeric procyanidin C1 showed higher activity in the biological assays compared to the dimeric procyanidins B2 and B5. This study suggests that different polyphenolic compounds of A. melanocarpa can have beneficial effects in reducing blood glucose levels due to inhibition of α-glucosidase and may have a potential to alleviate oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) Is the Most Effective Cancer Chemopreventive Polyphenol in Green Tea
Nutrients 2012, 4(11), 1679-1691; doi:10.3390/nu4111679
Received: 10 October 2012 / Revised: 23 October 2012 / Accepted: 5 November 2012 / Published: 8 November 2012
Cited by 70 | PDF Full-text (875 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Green tea is a popular drink consumed daily by millions of people around the world. Previous studies have shown that some polyphenol compounds from green tea possess anticancer activities. However, systemic evaluation was limited. In this study, we determined the cancer chemopreventive potentials
[...] Read more.
Green tea is a popular drink consumed daily by millions of people around the world. Previous studies have shown that some polyphenol compounds from green tea possess anticancer activities. However, systemic evaluation was limited. In this study, we determined the cancer chemopreventive potentials of 10 representative polyphenols (caffeic acid, CA; gallic acid, GA; catechin, C; epicatechin, EC; gallocatechin, GC; catechin gallate, CG; gallocatechin gallate, GCG; epicatechin gallate, ECG; epigallocatechin, EGC; and epigallocatechin gallate, EGCG), and explored their structure-activity relationship. The effect of the 10 polyphenol compounds on the proliferation of HCT-116 and SW-480 human colorectal cancer cells was evaluated using an MTS assay. Cell cycle distribution and apoptotic effects were analyzed by flow cytometry after staining with propidium iodide (PI)/RNase or annexin V/PI. Among the 10 polyphenols, EGCG showed the most potent antiproliferative effects, and significantly induced cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase and cell apoptosis. When the relationship between chemical structure and anticancer activity was examined, C and EC did not show antiproliferative effects, and GA showed some antiproliferative effects. When C and EC esterified with GA to produce CG and ECG, the antiproliferative effects were increased significantly. A similar relationship was found between EGC and EGCG. The gallic acid group significantly enhanced catechin’s anticancer potential. This property could be utilized in future semi-synthesis of flavonoid derivatives to develop novel anticancer agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols and Human Health)

Review

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Open AccessReview Recent Advances and Uses of Grape Flavonoids as Nutraceuticals
Nutrients 2014, 6(1), 391-415; doi:10.3390/nu6010391
Received: 1 March 2013 / Revised: 4 January 2014 / Accepted: 10 January 2014 / Published: 21 January 2014
Cited by 45 | PDF Full-text (3269 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Grape is one of the oldest fruit crops domesticated by humans. The numerous uses of grape in making wine, beverages, jelly, and other products, has made it one of the most economically important plants worldwide. The complex phytochemistry of the berry is characterized
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Grape is one of the oldest fruit crops domesticated by humans. The numerous uses of grape in making wine, beverages, jelly, and other products, has made it one of the most economically important plants worldwide. The complex phytochemistry of the berry is characterized by a wide variety of compounds, most of which have been demonstrated to have therapeutic or health promoting properties. Among them, flavonoids are the most abundant and widely studied, and have enjoyed greater attention among grape researchers in the last century. Recent studies have shown that the beneficial health effects promoted by consumption of grape and grape products are attributed to the unique mix of polyphenolic compounds. As the largest group of grape polyphenols, flavonoids are the main candidates considered to have biological properties, including but not limited to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective activities. Here, we discuss the recent scientific advances supporting the beneficial health qualities of grape and grape-derived products, mechanisms of their biological activity, bioavailability, and their uses as nutraceuticals. The advantages of modern plant cell based biotechnology as an alternative method for production of grape nutraceuticals and improvement of their health qualities are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols and Human Health)
Open AccessReview Polyphenols: Benefits to the Cardiovascular System in Health and in Aging
Nutrients 2013, 5(10), 3779-3827; doi:10.3390/nu5103779
Received: 15 April 2013 / Revised: 25 July 2013 / Accepted: 4 August 2013 / Published: 26 September 2013
Cited by 81 | PDF Full-text (415 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of naturally occurring dietary polyphenols in promoting cardiovascular health and emphasized the significant role these compounds play in limiting the effects of cellular aging. Polyphenols such as resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and curcumin have been acknowledged for
[...] Read more.
Numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of naturally occurring dietary polyphenols in promoting cardiovascular health and emphasized the significant role these compounds play in limiting the effects of cellular aging. Polyphenols such as resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and curcumin have been acknowledged for having beneficial effects on cardiovascular health, while some have also been shown to be protective in aging. This review highlights the literature surrounding this topic on the prominently studied and documented polyphenols as pertaining to cardiovascular health and aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols and Human Health)
Open AccessReview Flavonoid Bioavailability and Attempts for Bioavailability Enhancement
Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3367-3387; doi:10.3390/nu5093367
Received: 10 June 2013 / Revised: 21 August 2013 / Accepted: 21 August 2013 / Published: 28 August 2013
Cited by 56 | PDF Full-text (301 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Flavonoids are a group of phytochemicals that have shown numerous health effects and have therefore been studied extensively. Of the six common food flavonoid classes, flavonols are distributed ubiquitously among different plant foods whereas appreciable amounts of isoflavones are found in leguminous plant-based
[...] Read more.
Flavonoids are a group of phytochemicals that have shown numerous health effects and have therefore been studied extensively. Of the six common food flavonoid classes, flavonols are distributed ubiquitously among different plant foods whereas appreciable amounts of isoflavones are found in leguminous plant-based foods. Flavonoids have shown promising health promoting effects in human cell culture, experimental animal and human clinical studies. They have shown antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, anti-inflammatory effects as well as ability to modulate cell signaling and gene expression related disease development. Low bioavailability of flavonoids has been a concern as it can limit or even hinder their health effects. Therefore, attempts to improve their bioavailability in order to improve the efficacy of flavonoids are being studied. Further investigations on bioavailability are warranted as it is a determining factor for flavonoid biological activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols and Human Health)
Open AccessReview Biological Activities and Bioavailability of Mangosteen Xanthones: A Critical Review of the Current Evidence
Nutrients 2013, 5(8), 3163-3183; doi:10.3390/nu5083163
Received: 23 May 2013 / Revised: 3 July 2013 / Accepted: 2 August 2013 / Published: 13 August 2013
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (327 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) is a tropical tree native to Southeast Asia that produces a fruit whose pericarp contains a family of tricyclic isoprenylated polyphenols referred to as xanthones. Numerous in vitro studies have shown that these xanthones possess anti-oxidant, anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic,
[...] Read more.
Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) is a tropical tree native to Southeast Asia that produces a fruit whose pericarp contains a family of tricyclic isoprenylated polyphenols referred to as xanthones. Numerous in vitro studies have shown that these xanthones possess anti-oxidant, anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activities. Aggressive marketing of such health promoting benefits has resulted in mangosteen’s classification as a “superfruit”. This has led to sales of mangosteen containing beverages in USA alone exceeding $200 million in 2008 despite very limited animal and human studies. This review will (a) critically address recent reports of in vivo studies on the bioavailability and metabolism of mangosteen xanthones, (b) update the in vitro and in vivo data on anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities of mangosteen xanthones, and (c) suggest needed areas of inquiry regarding the absorption, metabolism and efficacy of mangosteen xanthones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols and Human Health)
Figures

Open AccessReview Chemopreventive Potential of Flavonoids in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Human Studies
Nutrients 2013, 5(7), 2564-2576; doi:10.3390/nu5072564
Received: 17 April 2013 / Revised: 5 June 2013 / Accepted: 19 June 2013 / Published: 8 July 2013
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (359 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Evidence available from nutritional epidemiology has indicated an inverse association between regular consumption of fruits and vegetables and the risk of developing certain types of cancer. In turn, preclinical studies have attributed the health-promoting effects of plant foods to some groups of phytochemicals,
[...] Read more.
Evidence available from nutritional epidemiology has indicated an inverse association between regular consumption of fruits and vegetables and the risk of developing certain types of cancer. In turn, preclinical studies have attributed the health-promoting effects of plant foods to some groups of phytochemicals, by virtue of their many biological activities. In this survey, we briefly examine the chemopreventive potential of flavonoids and flavonoid-rich foods in human oral carcinogenesis. Despite the paucity of data from clinical trials and epidemiological studies, in comparison to in vitro/in vivo investigations, a high level of evidence has been reported for epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and anthocyanins. These flavonoids, abundant in green tea and black raspberries, respectively, represent promising chemopreventive agents in human oral cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols and Human Health)
Open AccessReview Protection of Dietary Polyphenols against Oral Cancer
Nutrients 2013, 5(6), 2173-2191; doi:10.3390/nu5062173
Received: 1 March 2013 / Revised: 24 April 2013 / Accepted: 28 May 2013 / Published: 14 June 2013
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (417 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Oral cancer represents a health burden worldwide with approximate 275,000 new cases diagnosed annually. Its poor prognosis is due to local tumor invasion and frequent lymph node metastasis. Better understanding and development of novel treatments and chemo-preventive approaches for the preventive and therapeutic
[...] Read more.
Oral cancer represents a health burden worldwide with approximate 275,000 new cases diagnosed annually. Its poor prognosis is due to local tumor invasion and frequent lymph node metastasis. Better understanding and development of novel treatments and chemo-preventive approaches for the preventive and therapeutic intervention of this type of cancer are necessary. Recent development of dietary polyphenols as cancer preventives and therapeutic agents is of great interest due to their antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic activities. Polyphenols may inhibit carcinogenesis in the stage of initiation, promotion, or progression. In particular, dietary polyphenols decrease incidence of carcinomas and exert protection against oral cancer by induction of cell death and inhibition of tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. In this review, we discuss current progress of dietary polyphenols against oral cancers in vitro, in vivo, and at population levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols and Human Health)
Open AccessReview Targeting Cell Signaling and Apoptotic Pathways by Luteolin: Cardioprotective Role in Rat Cardiomyocytes Following Ischemia/Reperfusion
Nutrients 2012, 4(12), 2008-2019; doi:10.3390/nu4122008
Received: 31 October 2012 / Revised: 28 November 2012 / Accepted: 5 December 2012 / Published: 12 December 2012
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (433 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Myocardial ischemia often results in damaged heart structure and function, which can be restored through ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in most cases. However, I/R can exacerbate myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). Luteolin, a widely distributed flavonoid, a member of a group of naturally occurring polyphenolic
[...] Read more.
Myocardial ischemia often results in damaged heart structure and function, which can be restored through ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in most cases. However, I/R can exacerbate myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). Luteolin, a widely distributed flavonoid, a member of a group of naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds found in many fruits, vegetables and medicinal herbs, has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic activities. In recent years, luteolin has been shown to play an important role in the cardioprotection of IRI. However, its role and mechanism in cardioprotection against IRI has not been clearly elucidated with respect to the apoptosis pathway. The purpose of this paper is to review luteolin’s anti-apoptotic role and mechanism following I/R in rats, and indicate luteolin as a potential candidate for preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols and Human Health)

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