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Special Issue "Probiotics and Nutrition"

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A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2010)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Bengt Jeppsson

Skåne University Hospital, Inga Marie Nilssons gata 47, (Entrance 42) 3rd floor, SE-205 02 Malmö, Sweden
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 46-706563760
Interests: gut inflammation; gut ecology; probiotics; nutrition and cancer
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Goran Molin

Department of Food Technology, Engineering and Nutrition, Lund University (LU), P.O. Box 123, S-221 00 Lund, Sweden
E-Mail
Interests: bacterial taxonomy, food spoilage, food associated pathogens, lactic acid fermentation of foods. bacterial flora of the gastro-intestinal tract, how different components of the resident bacteria affect the human health,probiotic effects on the well-being, how probiotics and the bacterialflora can interact with dietary phenolics to enhance physiological effects

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Review

Open AccessReview Pro- and Synbiotics to Prevent Sepsis in Major Surgery and Severe Emergencies
Nutrients 2012, 4(2), 91-111; doi:10.3390/nu4020091
Received: 5 December 2011 / Revised: 10 January 2012 / Accepted: 18 January 2012 / Published: 17 February 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (683 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Septic morbidity associated with advanced surgical and medical treatments is unacceptably high, and so is the incidence of complications occurring in connection with acute emergencies such as severe trauma and severe acute pancreatitis. Only considering the US, it will annually affect approximately (app)
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Septic morbidity associated with advanced surgical and medical treatments is unacceptably high, and so is the incidence of complications occurring in connection with acute emergencies such as severe trauma and severe acute pancreatitis. Only considering the US, it will annually affect approximately (app) 300 million (mill) of a population of almost one million inhabitants and cause the death of more than 200,000 patients, making sepsis the tenth most common cause of death in the US. Two major factors affect this, the lifestyle-associated increased weakness of the immune defense systems, but more than this the artificial environment associated with modern treatments such as mechanical ventilation, use of tubes, drains, intravascular lines, artificial nutrition and extensive use of synthetic chemical drugs, methods all known to reduce or eliminate the human microbiota and impair immune functions and increase systemic inflammation. Attempts to recondition the gut by the supply of microorganisms have sometimes shown remarkably good results, but too often failed. Many factors contribute to the lack of success: unsuitable choice of probiotic species, too low dose, but most importantly, this bio-ecological treatment has never been given the opportunity to be tried as an alternative treatment. Instead it has most often been applied as complementary to all the other treatments mentioned above, including antibiotic treatment. The supplemented lactic acid bacteria have most often been killed already before they have reached their targeted organs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics and Nutrition)
Open AccessReview Effect of Probiotic Bacteria on Microbial Host Defense, Growth, and Immune Function in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Infection
Nutrients 2011, 3(12), 1042-1070; doi:10.3390/nu3121042
Received: 28 September 2011 / Revised: 24 November 2011 / Accepted: 5 December 2011 / Published: 19 December 2011
Cited by 37 | PDF Full-text (888 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The hypothesis that probiotic administration protects the gut surface and could delay progression of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type1 (HIV-1) infection to the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was proposed in 1995. Over the last five years, new studies have clarified the significance of HIV-1
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The hypothesis that probiotic administration protects the gut surface and could delay progression of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type1 (HIV-1) infection to the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was proposed in 1995. Over the last five years, new studies have clarified the significance of HIV-1 infection of the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) for subsequent alterations in the microflora and breakdown of the gut mucosal barrier leading to pathogenesis and development of AIDS. Current studies show that loss of gut CD4+ Th17 cells, which differentiate in response to normal microflora, occurs early in HIV-1 disease. Microbial translocation and suppression of the T regulatory (Treg) cell response is associated with chronic immune activation and inflammation. Combinations of probiotic bacteria which upregulate Treg activation have shown promise in suppressing pro inflammatory immune response in models of autoimmunity including inflammatory bowel disease and provide a rationale for use of probiotics in HIV-1/AIDS. Disturbance of the microbiota early in HIV-1 infection leads to greater dominance of potential pathogens, reducing levels of bifidobacteria and lactobacillus species and increasing mucosal inflammation. The interaction of chronic or recurrent infections, and immune activation contributes to nutritional deficiencies that have lasting consequences especially in the HIV-1 infected child. While effective anti-retroviral therapy (ART) has enhanced survival, wasting is still an independent predictor of survival and a major presenting symptom. Congenital exposure to HIV-1 is a risk factor for growth delay in both infected and non-infected infants. Nutritional intervention after 6 months of age appears to be largely ineffective. A meta analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials of infant formulae supplemented with Bifidobacterium lactis showed that weight gain was significantly greater in infants who received B. lactis compared to formula alone. Pilot studies have shown that probiotic bacteria given as a supplement have improved growth and protected against loss of CD4+ T cells. The recognition that normal bacterial flora prime neonatal immune response and that abnormal flora have a profound impact on metabolism has generated insight into potential mechanisms of gut dysfunction in many settings including HIV-1 infection. As discussed here, current and emerging studies support the concept that probiotic bacteria can provide specific benefit in HIV-1 infection. Probiotic bacteria have proven active against bacterial vaginosis in HIV-1 positive women and have enhanced growth in infants with congenital HIV-1 infection. Probiotic bacteria may stabilize CD4+ T cell numbers in HIV-1 infected children and are likely to have protective effects against inflammation and chronic immune activation of the gastrointestinal immune system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics and Nutrition)
Open AccessReview Gut Microbiota and Inflammation
Nutrients 2011, 3(6), 637-682; doi:10.3390/nu3060637
Received: 15 April 2011 / Revised: 19 May 2011 / Accepted: 24 May 2011 / Published: 3 June 2011
Cited by 75 | PDF Full-text (739 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Systemic and local inflammation in relation to the resident microbiota of the human gastro-intestinal (GI) tract and administration of probiotics are the main themes of the present review. The dominating taxa of the human GI tract and their potential for aggravating or suppressing
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Systemic and local inflammation in relation to the resident microbiota of the human gastro-intestinal (GI) tract and administration of probiotics are the main themes of the present review. The dominating taxa of the human GI tract and their potential for aggravating or suppressing inflammation are described. The review focuses on human trials with probiotics and does not include in vitro studies and animal experimental models. The applications of probiotics considered are systemic immune-modulation, the metabolic syndrome, liver injury, inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer and radiation-induced enteritis. When the major genomic differences between different types of probiotics are taken into account, it is to be expected that the human body can respond differently to the different species and strains of probiotics. This fact is often neglected in discussions of the outcome of clinical trials with probiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics and Nutrition)
Open AccessReview Use of Probiotics as Prophylaxis for Postoperative Infections
Nutrients 2011, 3(5), 604-612; doi:10.3390/nu3050604
Received: 29 March 2011 / Revised: 26 April 2011 / Accepted: 28 April 2011 / Published: 12 May 2011
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (155 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Postoperative bacterial infections are common despite prophylactic administration of antibiotics. The wide-spread use of antibiotics in patients has contributed to the emergence of multiresistant bacteria. A restricted use of antibiotics must be followed in most clinical situations. In surgical patients there are several
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Postoperative bacterial infections are common despite prophylactic administration of antibiotics. The wide-spread use of antibiotics in patients has contributed to the emergence of multiresistant bacteria. A restricted use of antibiotics must be followed in most clinical situations. In surgical patients there are several reasons for an altered microbial flora in the gut in combination with an altered barrier function leading to an enhanced inflammatory response to surgery. Several experimental and clinical studies have shown that probiotics (mainly lactobacilli) may reduce the number of potentially pathogenia bacteria (PPM) and restore a deranged barrier function. It is therefore of interest to test if these abilities of probiotics can be utilized in preoperative prophylaxis. These factors may be corrected by perioperative administration of probiotics in addition to antibiotics. Fourteen randomized clinical trials have been presented in which the effect of such regimens has been tested. It seems that in patients undergoing liver transplantation or elective surgery in the upper gastrointestinal tract prophylactic administration of different probiotic strains in combination with different fibers results in a three-fold reduction in postoperative infections. In parallel there seems to be a reduction in postoperative inflammation, although that has not been studied in a systematic way. The use of similar concepts in colorectal surgery has not been successful in reducing postoperative infections. Reasons for this difference are not obvious. It may be that higher doses of probiotics with longer duration are needed to influence microbiota in the lower gastrointestinal tract or that immune function in colorectal patients may not be as important as in transplantation or surgery in the upper gastrointestinal tract. The favorable results for the use of prophylactic probiotics in some settings warrant further controlled studies to elucidate potential mechanisms, impact on gut microbiota and influence on clinical management. The use of probiotics must be better delineated in relation to type of bacteria, dose and length of administration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics and Nutrition)
Open AccessReview Probiotics in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and Associated Conditions
Nutrients 2011, 3(2), 245-264; doi:10.3390/nu3020245
Received: 1 January 2011 / Revised: 17 January 2011 / Accepted: 15 February 2011 / Published: 17 February 2011
Cited by 33 | PDF Full-text (297 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A complex set of interactions between the human genes encoding innate protective functions and immune defenses and the environment of the intestinal mucosa with its microbiota is currently considered key to the pathogenesis of the chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Probiotics offer a
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A complex set of interactions between the human genes encoding innate protective functions and immune defenses and the environment of the intestinal mucosa with its microbiota is currently considered key to the pathogenesis of the chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Probiotics offer a method to potentially alter the intestinal microbiome exogenously or may provide an option to deliver microbial metabolic products to alter the chronicity of intestinal mucosal inflammation characterizing IBD. At present, there is little evidence for the benefit of currently used probiotic microbes in Crohn’s disease or associated conditions affecting extra-intestinal organs. However, clinical practice guidelines are now including a probiotic as an option for recurrent and relapsing antibiotic sensitive pouchitis and the use of probiotics in mild ulcerative colitis is provocative and suggests potential for benefit in select patients but concerns remain about proof from trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics and Nutrition)
Open AccessReview Effect of Lactobacilli on Paracellular Permeability in the Gut
Nutrients 2011, 3(1), 104-117; doi:10.3390/nu3010104
Received: 2 December 2010 / Revised: 28 December 2010 / Accepted: 11 January 2011 / Published: 12 January 2011
Cited by 36 | PDF Full-text (289 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Paracellular permeability is determined by the complex structures of junctions that are located between the epithelial cells. Already in 1996, it was shown that the human probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum 299v and the rat-originating strain Lactobacillus reuteri R2LC could reduce this permeability in a
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Paracellular permeability is determined by the complex structures of junctions that are located between the epithelial cells. Already in 1996, it was shown that the human probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum 299v and the rat-originating strain Lactobacillus reuteri R2LC could reduce this permeability in a methotrexate-induced colitis model in the rat. Subsequently, many animal models and cell culture systems have shown indications that lactobacilli are able to counteract increased paracellular permeability evoked by cytokines, chemicals, infections, or stress. There have been few human studies focusing on the effect of lactobacilli on intestinal paracellular permeability but recently it has been shown that they could influence the tight junctions. More precisely, short-term administration of L. plantarum WCSF1 to healthy volunteers increased the relocation of occludin and ZO-1 into the tight junction area between duodenal epithelial cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics and Nutrition)

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