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Special Issue "Sports Nutrition"

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A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2010)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jonathan Buckley

Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity (ARENA), Sansom Institute for Health Research, University of South Australia, GPO Box 2471, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia 5001
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +618 8302 2178
Interests: Effects of diet and physical activity on cardiometabolic health, physical function and human performance in populations ranging from patients with chronic disease to elite athletes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The increasing commercialization of sport at the elite level has led to greater investment in methods to optimize athletic performance and recovery. It has long been recognized that the nutritional status of an athlete can influence their physiological function and in recent times there has been increasing interest in the potential for nutrition to enhance athletic performance and recovery. Nutritional interventions can be used to increase the availability of fuel for muscular contraction during exercise, provide more rapid replenishment of fuel stores following exercise, improve hydration and/or rehydration, alter protein turnover, improve circulatory function and alter other physiological functions which may benefit sporting performance. This special issue of Nutrients reports on the latest science related to nutritional strategies to optimize athletic performance and recovery in both elite and recreational athletes.

Dr. Jonathan Buckley
Guest Editor

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Dietary Acid-Base Balance in Adolescent Sprint Athletes: A Follow-up Study
Nutrients 2011, 3(2), 200-211; doi:10.3390/nu3020200
Received: 21 December 2010 / Revised: 13 January 2011 / Accepted: 8 February 2011 / Published: 9 February 2011
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Abstract
Sprinters are advised to include additional protein sources in their diet. Basal metabolism and vigorous physical activities generate hydrogen ions that need to be buffered. The present follow-up study estimates the dietary potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAP)
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Sprinters are advised to include additional protein sources in their diet. Basal metabolism and vigorous physical activities generate hydrogen ions that need to be buffered. The present follow-up study estimates the dietary potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAP) in adolescent sprint athletes. Seven-day food diaries and anthropometrics of 60 adolescent sprint athletes (mean age at start 14.7 ± 1.9 years) were collected every six months over a three year period. Comparisons were made between athletes with a negative (PRAL(−)) versus positive PRAL (PRAL(+)). For the entire sample, mean PRAL values of up to 6 mEq/day were slightly positive despite a relatively high protein intake of around 1.5 g/kg. The NEAP ranging between 42 and 46 mEq/day remained stable during the study period. Athletes with a PRAL(−) (−8 to −10 mEq/day) consumed significantly more fruit and fruit juice than athletes with a PRAL(+) (+9 to 14 mEq/day). Athletes with a PRAL(+) did not consume more meat, fish and poultry than athletes with a PRAL(−). Grains and dairy products were only discriminative between the two groups on one measurement occasion. Lowering the PRAL can be obtained by increasing the consumption of potatoes, fruits, vegetables and vegetable soup. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Antioxidant Supplementation on Fatigue during Exercise: Potential Role for NAD+(H)
Nutrients 2010, 2(3), 319-329; doi:10.3390/nu2030319
Received: 19 January 2010 / Revised: 9 February 2010 / Accepted: 5 March 2010 / Published: 10 March 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (216 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This study compared serum pyridine levels (NAD+ /NADH) in trained (n = 6) and untrained (n = 7) subjects after continuous progressive exercise at 50%, 70% then 95% of physical work capacity until fatigue (TTF) after consuming a placebo or antioxidant (AO)
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This study compared serum pyridine levels (NAD+ /NADH) in trained (n = 6) and untrained (n = 7) subjects after continuous progressive exercise at 50%, 70% then 95% of physical work capacity until fatigue (TTF) after consuming a placebo or antioxidant (AO) cocktail (Lactaway©). An increase of 17% in TTF was observed in AO as compared to placebo (p = 0.032). This was accompanied by a significant increase in serum NAD+ levels (p = 0.037) in the AO supplemented group post exercise. The increases in NAD+ and improved endurance reflect lower oxidative stress-induced suppression of aerobic respiration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Bovine Colostrum Supplementation During Running Training Increases Intestinal Permeability
Nutrients 2009, 1(2), 224-234; doi:10.3390/nu1020224
Received: 16 November 2009 / Accepted: 30 November 2009 / Published: 2 December 2009
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (105 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Endurance exercise training can increase intestinal permeability which may contribute to the development of gastrointestinal symptoms in some athletes. Bovine colostrum (BC) supplementation reduces intestinal permeability induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This study aimed to determine whether BC could also reduce intestinal permeability
[...] Read more.
Endurance exercise training can increase intestinal permeability which may contribute to the development of gastrointestinal symptoms in some athletes. Bovine colostrum (BC) supplementation reduces intestinal permeability induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This study aimed to determine whether BC could also reduce intestinal permeability induced by endurance exercise. Thirty healthy adult males (25.0 ± 4.7 yr; mean ± SD) completed eight weeks of running three times per week for 45 minutes at their lactate threshold while consuming 60 g/day of BC, whey protein (WP) or control (CON). Intestinal permeability was assessed at baseline and after eight weeks by measuring the ratio of urinary lactulose (L) and rhamnose (R) excretion. After eight weeks the L/R ratio increased significantly more in volunteers consuming BC (251 ± 140%) compared with WP (21 ± 35%, P < 0.05) and CON (−7 ± 13%, P < 0.02). The increase in intestinal permeability with BC may have been due to BC inducing greater leakiness of tight junctions between enterocytes or by increasing macromolecular transport as it does in neonatal gut. Further research should investigate the potential for BC to increase intestinal macromolecular transport in adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Nutrition)

Review

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Open AccessReview Alcohol, Athletic Performance and Recovery
Nutrients 2010, 2(8), 781-789; doi:10.3390/nu2080781
Received: 7 June 2010 / Revised: 13 July 2010 / Accepted: 14 July 2010 / Published: 27 July 2010
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (187 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Alcohol consumption within elite sport has been continually reported both anecdotally within the media and quantitatively in the literature. The detrimental effects of alcohol on human physiology have been well documented, adversely influencing neural function, metabolism, cardiovascular physiology, thermoregulation and skeletal muscle myopathy.
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Alcohol consumption within elite sport has been continually reported both anecdotally within the media and quantitatively in the literature. The detrimental effects of alcohol on human physiology have been well documented, adversely influencing neural function, metabolism, cardiovascular physiology, thermoregulation and skeletal muscle myopathy. Remarkably, the downstream effects of alcohol consumption on exercise performance and recovery, has received less attention and as such is not well understood. The focus of this review is to identify the acute effects of alcohol on exercise performance and give a brief insight into explanatory factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Nutrition)
Open AccessReview Effects of Beta-Alanine on Muscle Carnosine and Exercise Performance: A Review of the Current Literature
Nutrients 2010, 2(1), 75-98; doi:10.3390/nu2010075
Received: 16 November 2009 / Accepted: 6 January 2010 / Published: 25 January 2010
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (295 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Muscle carnosine has been reported to serve as a physiological buffer, possess antioxidant properties, influence enzyme regulation, and affect sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium regulation.Beta-alanine (β-ALA) is a non-essential amino acid. β-ALA supplementation (e.g., 2–6 grams/day) has been shown to increase carnosine concentrations in skeletal
[...] Read more.
Muscle carnosine has been reported to serve as a physiological buffer, possess antioxidant properties, influence enzyme regulation, and affect sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium regulation.Beta-alanine (β-ALA) is a non-essential amino acid. β-ALA supplementation (e.g., 2–6 grams/day) has been shown to increase carnosine concentrations in skeletal muscle by 20–80%.Several studies have reported that β-ALA supplementation can increase high-intensity intermittent exercise performance and/or training adaptations. Although the specific mechanism remains to be determined, the ergogenicity of β-ALA has been most commonly attributed to an increased muscle buffering capacity.More recently, researchers have investigated the effects of co-ingesting β-ALA with creatine monohydrate to determine whether there may be synergistic and/or additive benefits. This paper overviews the theoretical rationale and potential ergogenic value of β-ALA supplementation with or without creatine as well as provides future research recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Nutrition)

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