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Special Issue "Vitamin A Update"

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A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2010)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Maija H. Zile (Website)

Professor Emeritus, 208 G.M.Trout Bldg, Department of Food Science & Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
Interests: function and metabolism of vitamin A / retinoic acid at cellular and molecular levels; function during embryonic development, particularly cardiovascular development; vitamin A and enviornmental pollutants

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Review

Open AccessReview Vitamin A in Reproduction and Development
Nutrients 2011, 3(4), 385-428; doi:10.3390/nu3040385
Received: 24 November 2010 / Revised: 28 February 2011 / Accepted: 22 March 2011 / Published: 29 March 2011
Cited by 77 | PDF Full-text (819 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The requirement for vitamin A in reproduction was first recognized in the early 1900’s, and its importance in the eyes of developing embryos was realized shortly after. A greater understanding of the large number of developmental processes that require vitamin A emerged first [...] Read more.
The requirement for vitamin A in reproduction was first recognized in the early 1900’s, and its importance in the eyes of developing embryos was realized shortly after. A greater understanding of the large number of developmental processes that require vitamin A emerged first from nutritional deficiency studies in rat embryos, and later from genetic studies in mice. It is now generally believed that all-trans retinoic acid (RA) is the form of vitamin A that supports both male and female reproduction as well as embryonic development. This conclusion is based on the ability to reverse most reproductive and developmental blocks found in vitamin A deficiency induced either by nutritional or genetic means with RA, and the ability to recapitulate the majority of embryonic defects in retinoic acid receptor compound null mutants. The activity of the catabolic CYP26 enzymes in determining what tissues have access to RA has emerged as a key regulatory mechanism, and helps to explain why exogenous RA can rescue many vitamin A deficiency defects. In severely vitamin A-deficient (VAD) female rats, reproduction fails prior to implantation, whereas in VAD pregnant rats given small amounts of carotene or supported on limiting quantities of RA early in organogenesis, embryos form but show a collection of defects called the vitamin A deficiency syndrome or late vitamin A deficiency. Vitamin A is also essential for the maintenance of the male genital tract and spermatogenesis. Recent studies show that vitamin A participates in a signaling mechanism to initiate meiosis in the female gonad during embryogenesis, and in the male gonad postnatally. Both nutritional and genetic approaches are being used to elucidate the vitamin A-dependent pathways upon which these processes depend. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin A Update)
Open AccessReview Vitamin A Metabolism: An Update
Nutrients 2011, 3(1), 63-103; doi:10.3390/nu3010063
Received: 26 November 2010 / Revised: 24 December 2010 / Accepted: 11 January 2011 / Published: 12 January 2011
Cited by 128 | PDF Full-text (477 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Retinoids are required for maintaining many essential physiological processes in the body, including normal growth and development, normal vision, a healthy immune system, normal reproduction, and healthy skin and barrier functions. In excess of 500 genes are thought to be regulated by retinoic [...] Read more.
Retinoids are required for maintaining many essential physiological processes in the body, including normal growth and development, normal vision, a healthy immune system, normal reproduction, and healthy skin and barrier functions. In excess of 500 genes are thought to be regulated by retinoic acid. 11-cis-retinal serves as the visual chromophore in vision. The body must acquire retinoid from the diet in order to maintain these essential physiological processes. Retinoid metabolism is complex and involves many different retinoid forms, including retinyl esters, retinol, retinal, retinoic acid and oxidized and conjugated metabolites of both retinol and retinoic acid. In addition, retinoid metabolism involves many carrier proteins and enzymes that are specific to retinoid metabolism, as well as other proteins which may be involved in mediating also triglyceride and/or cholesterol metabolism. This review will focus on recent advances for understanding retinoid metabolism that have taken place in the last ten to fifteen years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin A Update)
Open AccessReview Vitamin A Metabolism and Adipose Tissue Biology
Nutrients 2011, 3(1), 27-39; doi:10.3390/nu3010027
Received: 20 November 2010 / Revised: 14 December 2010 / Accepted: 5 January 2011 / Published: 6 January 2011
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (178 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, the importance of vitamin A in adipose tissue biology, obesity and type II diabetes has become apparent. This review focuses on recent developments within the area of vitamin A and adipose tissue biology. Adipose tissue has an active vitamin [...] Read more.
In recent years, the importance of vitamin A in adipose tissue biology, obesity and type II diabetes has become apparent. This review focuses on recent developments within the area of vitamin A and adipose tissue biology. Adipose tissue has an active vitamin A metabolism as it not only stores vitamin A but retinol is also converted to its active metabolite retinoic acid. Several mouse models point to a relationship between vitamin A metabolism and the development of adiposity. Similarly, in vitro studies provide new molecular mechanisms for the function of different forms of vitamin A and retinol- or retinoic acid-binding proteins in adipose tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin A Update)

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