E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "New Antimalarial Drugs"

Quicklinks

A special issue of Pharmaceuticals (ISSN 1424-8247).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2010)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Paul D. Roepe (Website)

Department of Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and Program in Tumor Biology, Lombardi Cancer Center, Georgetown University, 3900 Reservoir Rd. NW, Washington, DC 20057, USA
Editorial Advisor
Dr. Derek J. McPhee

Senior Director, Technology Strategy, Amyris, Inc., 5885 Hollis St, Suite 100, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA
Fax: +1 510 225 2645
Interests: organic synthesis; medicinal chemistry; biotechnology

Published Papers (6 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-6
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Bioequivalence of Two Intravenous Artesunate Products with Its Active Metabolite Following Single and Multiple Injections
Pharmaceuticals 2011, 4(1), 138-153; doi:10.3390/ph4010138
Received: 29 November 2010 / Revised: 22 December 2010 / Accepted: 5 January 2011 / Published: 7 January 2011
PDF Full-text (133 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In animal species and humans, artesunate (AS) undergoes extensive and complex biotransformation to an active metabolite, dihydroartemisinin (DHA). The bioequivalence of two intravenous AS pharmaceutical products with 5% NaHCO3 (China Formulation) or 0.3 M PBS (WRAIR Formulation) was determined in rats [...] Read more.
In animal species and humans, artesunate (AS) undergoes extensive and complex biotransformation to an active metabolite, dihydroartemisinin (DHA). The bioequivalence of two intravenous AS pharmaceutical products with 5% NaHCO3 (China Formulation) or 0.3 M PBS (WRAIR Formulation) was determined in rats in a two-formulation, two-period, and two-sequence crossover experimental design. Following single and multiple intravenous administrations, a series of blood samples was collected by using an automated blood sampler and drug concentrations were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The 90% CI of the difference between the two intravenous formulations was contained within 80–125% of the geometric mean of pharmacokinetic parameters for AS and DHA in all animals dosed. Hematological effects were studied on days 1 and 3 after the final dosing, and a rapidly reversible hematological toxicity (significant reductions in reticulocyte levels) was seen in the peripheral blood of the rats treated with each formulation. The results showed that bioequivalence with the parent compound and active metabolite was fulfilled in the 82.3–117.7% ranges of all parameters (AUC0–t, Cmax, concentration average and degree of fluctuation) in the two-period and two-sequence crossover studies following single and repeated intravenous injections. For the metabolite, the equivalence was satisfied in most pharmacokinetic parameters tested due to the variability in the hydrolysis rate of AS to DHA. The WRAIR formulation of AS was considered to be bioequivalent to the Chinese formulation at steady-state according to the total drug exposure, in terms of both parent drug and active metabolite, rapidly reversal in reticulocyte decline, and extension of single and multiple administrations. Therefore, the parent drug and active metabolites should play similar important roles in the determination of efficacy and safety of the drug. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Antimalarial Drugs)
Open AccessArticle Malaria-Infected Mice Are Cured by a Single Low Dose of a New Silylamide Trioxane Plus Mefloquine
Pharmaceuticals 2009, 2(3), 228-235; doi:10.3390/ph2030228
Received: 24 November 2009 / Revised: 8 December 2009 / Accepted: 18 December 2009 / Published: 21 December 2009
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (150 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Three thermally and hydrolytically stable silylamide trioxanes have been prepared from the natural trioxane artemisinin in only five simple chemical steps and in at least 56% overall yield. Two of these new chemical entities completely cured malariainfected mice at a single oral [...] Read more.
Three thermally and hydrolytically stable silylamide trioxanes have been prepared from the natural trioxane artemisinin in only five simple chemical steps and in at least 56% overall yield. Two of these new chemical entities completely cured malariainfected mice at a single oral dose of only 8 mg/kg combined with 24 mg/kg of mefloquine hydrochloride. The high efficacy of this ACT chemotherapy is considerably better than the efficacy using the popular trioxane drug artemether plus mefloquine hydrochloride. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Antimalarial Drugs)
Figures

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Expanding the Antimalarial Drug Arsenal—Now, But How?
Pharmaceuticals 2011, 4(5), 681-712; doi:10.3390/ph4050681
Received: 16 January 2011 / Revised: 9 April 2011 / Accepted: 19 April 2011 / Published: 26 April 2011
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (246 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The number of available and effective antimalarial drugs is quickly dwindling. This is mainly because a number of drug resistance-associated mutations in malaria parasite genes, such as crt, mdr1, dhfr/dhps, and others, have led to widespread resistance [...] Read more.
The number of available and effective antimalarial drugs is quickly dwindling. This is mainly because a number of drug resistance-associated mutations in malaria parasite genes, such as crt, mdr1, dhfr/dhps, and others, have led to widespread resistance to all known classes of antimalarial compounds. Unfortunately, malaria parasites have started to exhibit some level of resistance in Southeast Asia even to the most recently introduced class of drugs, artemisinins. While there is much need, the antimalarial drug development pipeline remains woefully thin, with little chemical diversity, and there is currently no alternative to the precious artemisinins. It is difficult to predict where the next generation of antimalarial drugs will come from; however, there are six major approaches: (i) re-optimizing the use of existing antimalarials by either replacement/rotation or combination approach; (ii) repurposing drugs that are currently used to treat other infections or diseases; (iii) chemically modifying existing antimalarial compounds; (iv) exploring natural sources; (v) large-scale screening of diverse chemical libraries; and (vi) through parasite genome-based (“targeted”) discoveries. When any newly discovered effective antimalarial treatment is used by the populus, we must maintain constant vigilance for both parasite-specific and human-related factors that are likely to hamper its success. This article is neither comprehensive nor conclusive. Our purpose is to provide an overview of antimalarial drug resistance, associated parasite genetic factors (1. Introduction; 2. Emergence of artemisinin resistance in P. falciparum), and the antimalarial drug development pipeline (3. Overview of the global pipeline of antimalarial drugs), and highlight some examples of the aforementioned approaches to future antimalarial treatment. These approaches can be categorized into “short term” (4. Feasible options for now) and “long term” (5. Next generation of antimalarial treatment—Approaches and candidates). However, these two categories are interrelated, and the approaches in both should be implemented in parallel with focus on developing a successful, long-lasting antimalarial chemotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Antimalarial Drugs)
Open AccessReview Blocking Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Transmission with Drugs: The Gametocytocidal and Sporontocidal Properties of Current and Prospective Antimalarials
Pharmaceuticals 2011, 4(1), 44-68; doi:10.3390/ph4010044
Received: 30 November 2010 / Revised: 14 December 2010 / Accepted: 21 December 2010 / Published: 23 December 2010
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (177 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Drugs that kill or inhibit the sexual stages of Plasmodium could potentially amplify or synergize the impact of other interventions by blocking transmission to mosquitoes. Primaquine and other 8-aminoquinolines have long offered such potential, but safety and other concerns have limited their [...] Read more.
Drugs that kill or inhibit the sexual stages of Plasmodium could potentially amplify or synergize the impact of other interventions by blocking transmission to mosquitoes. Primaquine and other 8-aminoquinolines have long offered such potential, but safety and other concerns have limited their use. Although transmission-blocking properties are not often a priority of drug discovery efforts, a number of interesting gametocytocidal and/or sporontocidal drug candidates have emerged in recent years. Some still bear significant technical and safety concerns, while others have passed clinical trials and are on the verge of entering the antimalarial armamentarium. Recent advances in our knowledge of gametocyte differentiation, gametogenesis and sporogony have also led to the identification of a large array of potential new targets for drugs that might interfere with malaria transmission. This review examines the properties of existing and prospective drugs, mechanisms of action, counter-indications and their potential role in regional malaria elimination efforts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Antimalarial Drugs)
Open AccessReview Artemisinin-Naphthoquine Combination (ARCO®): An Overview of the Progress
Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3(12), 3581-3593; doi:10.3390/ph3123581
Received: 15 November 2010 / Revised: 8 December 2010 / Accepted: 9 December 2010 / Published: 14 December 2010
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the rapidly spreading resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to available non-artemisinin antimalarial drugs, new and novel pharmaceuticals are needed. ARCO® is a new generation ACT, one of several artemisinin-based combinations developed in China to counter antimalarial drug resistance. ARCO® is [...] Read more.
With the rapidly spreading resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to available non-artemisinin antimalarial drugs, new and novel pharmaceuticals are needed. ARCO® is a new generation ACT, one of several artemisinin-based combinations developed in China to counter antimalarial drug resistance. ARCO® is a derivative of two independently developed antimalarials, artemisinin and naphthoquine phosphate, which were combined to form the artemisinin-naphthoquine combination. Both artemisinin and naphthoquine drugs have proven to be efficacious, safe and well tolerated as monotherapies. The artemisinin-naphthoquine combination offers a novel advantage over existing ACTs: it can be administered as a single oral dose (or a 1-day treatment). Several therapeutic studies conducted recently indicate that a single oral dose administration of artemisinin-naphthoquine combination is equally effective and safe as the 3-day treatment with artemether-lumefantrine combination and other existing ACTs. This would make ARCO® the next generation ACT for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Antimalarial Drugs)
Open AccessReview Artesunate: The Best Drug in the Treatment of Severe and Complicated Malaria
Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3(7), 2322-2332; doi:10.3390/ph3072322
Received: 28 June 2010 / Revised: 14 July 2010 / Accepted: 20 July 2010 / Published: 21 July 2010
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (69 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review summarizes progress in treating severe and complicated malaria, which are global problems, claiming at least one million lives annually, and have been accompanied by advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of severe malaria complications. New drugs such as intravenous [...] Read more.
This review summarizes progress in treating severe and complicated malaria, which are global problems, claiming at least one million lives annually, and have been accompanied by advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of severe malaria complications. New drugs such as intravenous artesunate (AS) and intramuscular artemether (AM) are improving outcomes and decreasing malaria deaths. Trials comparing AM to the traditional parenteral drug, quinine, have not demonstrated however convincing evidence of a mortality advantage for AM. The South East Asian Quinine Artesunate Malaria Trials (SEAQUAMAT), a multicenter, randomized, open-label study comparing AS with quinine showed that parenteral AS was shown to be associated with a 35% reduction in the risk of mortality compare to quinine, and is now the recommended treatment by the WHO for severe and complicated malaria in low-transmission areas and in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, with almost all the benefit reported in those with high parasite counts. Artesunate is a semisynthetic derivative of artemisinin whose water solubility facilitates absorption and provides an advantage over other artemisinins because it can be formulated as oral, rectal, intramuscular, and intravenous preparations. Artesunate is rapidly hydrolyzed to dihydroartemisinin, which is the most active schizonticidal metabolite. Injectable AS results in a more rapid systemic availability of AS compared with intramuscular AM. This pharmacokinetic advantage may provide a clinical advantage in the treatments of severe and complicated malaria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Antimalarial Drugs)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Pharmaceuticals Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
pharmaceuticals@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Pharmaceuticals
Back to Top