Special Issue "Rural and Regional Pharmacy Education and Leadership"

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A special issue of Pharmacy (ISSN 2226-4787).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Maree Donna Simpson (Website)

Charles Sturt University, Locked Bag 883, Orange 2800, Australia
Interests: pharmacy practice; CAM (complementary and alternative medicines); pharmacy education; workplace learning (professional); self care and self limiting disease states

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In many nations, the health experience of members of the population are significantly different by location, with those in rural and remote areas experiencing poorer health outcomes (Anderson et al., 2006; Hartley, 2004; Phillips & McLeroy, 2004; Pong, DesMeules, & Lagacé, 2009; Probst, Moore, Glover, & Samuels, 2004; Smith, Humphreys, & Wilson, 2008). Further, there is often a paucity of health professionals, with many in rural and remote areas being early career practitioners, and frequently, the only practitioner of their professional in that town or region (Dolea, Stormont, & Braichet, 2010; Goodyear-Smith & Janes, 2008). Traditionally, universities which offer education for health professions such as pharmacy have been situated in larger urban towns and intending students had to relocate to those towns for their education. Increasingly, pharmacy schools are starting outside major metropolitan areas and offer an option for students to complete their education in non-metropolitan sites.

Another side to the education of pharmacists in newer schools which are geographically remote from the major metropolis, is the inclusion in many cases of distributed leadership in the course to address the perceived need for graduates to be able to represent their profession and serve and advocate for their patients in the multidisciplinary healthcare team, in relative geographic isolation. This special issue offers the opportunity to explore rural pharmacy education, its practices and innovation, and further the extent of education for professional leadership in the program.

References:

Anderson, I., Crengle, S., Leialoha Kamaka, M., Chen, T.-H., Palafox, N., & Jackson-Pulver, L. (2006). Indigenous health in Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific. The Lancet, 367(9524), 1775-1785.
Dolea, C., Stormont, L., & Braichet, J.-M. (2010). Evaluated strategies to increase attraction and retention of health workers in remote and rural areas. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 88(5), 379-385.
Goodyear-Smith, F., & Janes, R. (2008). New Zealand rural primary health care workforce in 2005: more than just a doctor shortage. Australian Journal of Rural Health, 16(1), 40-46.
Hartley, D. (2004). Rural health disparities, population health, and rural culture. American Journal of Public Health, 94(10), 1675–1678.
Phillips, C. D., & McLeroy, K. R. (2004). Health in rural America: remembering the importance of place. American Journal of Public Health, 94(10), 1661.
Pong, R. W., DesMeules, M., & Lagacé, C. (2009). Rural-urban disparities in health: How does Canada fare and how does Canada compare with Australia? Australian Journal of Rural Health, 17(1), 58-64.
Probst, J. C., Moore, C. G., Glover, S. H., & Samuels, M. E. (2004). Person and place: the compounding effects of race/ethnicity and rurality on health. American Journal of Public Health, 94(10), 1695-1703.
Smith, K. B., Humphreys, J. S., & Wilson, M. G. A. (2008). Addressing the health disadvantage of rural populations: how does epidemiological evidence inform rural health policies and research? Journal of Rural Health, 16(2), 56-66.

Dr. Maree Donna Simpson
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pharmacy is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. For the first couple of issues the Article Processing Charge (APC) will be waived for well-prepared manuscripts. English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.


Keywords

  • rural pharmacy
  • pharmacy education
  • pharmacy leadership

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Development of a Survey to Assess the Acceptability of an Innovative Contraception Practice among Rural Pharmacists
Pharmacy 2014, 2(1), 124-136; doi:10.3390/pharmacy2010124
Received: 13 January 2014 / Revised: 4 March 2014 / Accepted: 5 March 2014 / Published: 12 March 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (189 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Improved access to effective contraceptive methods is needed in Canada, particularly in rural areas, where unintended pregnancy rates are high and specific sexual health services may be further away. A rural pharmacist may be the most accessible health care professional. Pharmacy practice [...] Read more.
Improved access to effective contraceptive methods is needed in Canada, particularly in rural areas, where unintended pregnancy rates are high and specific sexual health services may be further away. A rural pharmacist may be the most accessible health care professional. Pharmacy practice increasingly incorporates cognitive services. In Canada many provinces allow pharmacists to independently prescribe for some indications, but not for hormonal contraception. To assess the acceptability for the implementation of this innovative practice in Canada, we developed and piloted a survey instrument. We chose questions to address the components for adoption and change described in Rogers’ “diffusion of innovations” theory. The proposed instrument was iteratively reviewed by 12 experts, then focus group tested among eight pharmacists or students to improve the instrument for face validity, readability, consistency and relevancy to community pharmacists in the Canadian context. We then pilot tested the survey among urban and rural pharmacies. 4% of urban and 35% of rural pharmacies returned pilot surveys. Internal consistency on repeated re-phrased questions was high (Cronbach’s Alpha = 0.901). We present our process for the development of a survey instrument to assess the acceptability and feasibility among Canadian community pharmacists for the innovative practice of the independent prescribing of hormonal contraception. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rural and Regional Pharmacy Education and Leadership)
Open AccessArticle Group Project—Learning Research and Generic Skills for Life beyond University
Pharmacy 2014, 2(1), 65-73; doi:10.3390/pharmacy2010065
Received: 20 December 2013 / Revised: 4 February 2014 / Accepted: 8 February 2014 / Published: 13 February 2014
PDF Full-text (167 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although research is usually not a goal of Pharmacy students, learning about the research processes is important, as graduates’ development and confidence in professional counseling will depend on critically interpreting the literature about new therapies. In addition to research skills, many universities [...] Read more.
Although research is usually not a goal of Pharmacy students, learning about the research processes is important, as graduates’ development and confidence in professional counseling will depend on critically interpreting the literature about new therapies. In addition to research skills, many universities are now placing more emphasis on assessable graduate attributes. In an increasingly competitive job market, writing, critical thinking, speaking, leadership and teamwork skills are all essential, as they prepare students for the workforce, especially in regional and remote locations. However their teaching and assessment can be a challenge to embed in content rich subjects. “Group Project” is an elective subject in the final semester of the Bachelor of Pharmacy degree at La Trobe University in Bendigo, Australia. Key features include: self-selection of the project and participating group members, supervision of small student groups, interview-style presentations, weekly reflections on progress and group processes, as well as peer evaluation of group members. Three case studies are discussed to illustrate students’ introduction to research within the support of the group and with guidance from their supervisor. In our experience, supervisor engagement played a large role in students rating the subject highly and their subsequent enthusiasm for research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rural and Regional Pharmacy Education and Leadership)

Other

Jump to: Research

Open AccessComment The Catch-22 of Pharmacy Practice in Pakistan’s Pharmacy Education
Pharmacy 2014, 2(3), 202-204; doi:10.3390/pharmacy2030202
Received: 30 March 2014 / Revised: 15 June 2014 / Accepted: 24 June 2014 / Published: 4 July 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (147 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
New developments in the pharmacy education structure in Pakistan led to the formation of a separate department grouping high specialized services/subjects. However, inadequate planning has exposed a vacuity, as the educational authorities failed to develop a workforce before creating the specialized department. [...] Read more.
New developments in the pharmacy education structure in Pakistan led to the formation of a separate department grouping high specialized services/subjects. However, inadequate planning has exposed a vacuity, as the educational authorities failed to develop a workforce before creating the specialized department. As a result, this vacuum is on the verge of being impinged by pharmacy professionals specialized in entirely different domains which would be detrimental to the future prospects of the development of pharmacy practice in Pakistan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rural and Regional Pharmacy Education and Leadership)
Open AccessDiscussion Complementing a Rural Pharmacy Course with CAM: Reflections from a Decade of Experience
Pharmacy 2014, 2(1), 88-97; doi:10.3390/pharmacy2010088
Received: 27 December 2013 / Revised: 18 February 2014 / Accepted: 19 February 2014 / Published: 4 March 2014
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Abstract
Substantial complementary medicines (CAM) use is reported worldwide. Australian consumers use CAM for health maintenance, minor self-limiting disease states, and also for chronic conditions. The increasing use of CAM has required pharmacists to become increasingly more knowledgeable about CAM and the ethics [...] Read more.
Substantial complementary medicines (CAM) use is reported worldwide. Australian consumers use CAM for health maintenance, minor self-limiting disease states, and also for chronic conditions. The increasing use of CAM has required pharmacists to become increasingly more knowledgeable about CAM and the ethics of CAM recommendation. When the first Australian non-metropolitan pharmacy program was started at Charles Sturt University, in 1997, it was decided to incorporate two innovative courses to assist rurally educated students to engage with health consumers who expect pharmacists to be able to assist them with CAM. This discussion traces and reflects on the development, implementation and current situation of the Complementary Medicines for Pharmacy course. Over time, this course has evolved from a final year elective with a focus on familiarization to a mandated course with a phytomedicine focus to an integrated topic in final year with a focus on evidence, quality of evidence and professional decision-making demonstrated in a reflective professional portfolio. Of potentially greater importance, however, has been the introduction of complementary medicines as a topic in every year of the course with the goal of facilitating effective professional engagement with health consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rural and Regional Pharmacy Education and Leadership)
Open AccessConcept Paper Giving “Best Advice”: Proposing a Framework of Community Pharmacist Professional Judgement Formation
Pharmacy 2014, 2(1), 74-85; doi:10.3390/pharmacy2010074
Received: 31 December 2013 / Revised: 1 February 2014 / Accepted: 12 February 2014 / Published: 19 February 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (266 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Community pharmacy is often portrayed as a marriage of professional and business roles in a commercial domain, thereby creating a need for, and value in, pursuing the development of professional competencies for use in the community pharmacy business. In context, professional judgement [...] Read more.
Community pharmacy is often portrayed as a marriage of professional and business roles in a commercial domain, thereby creating a need for, and value in, pursuing the development of professional competencies for use in the community pharmacy business. In context, professional judgement is the application of knowledge, skills and attitudes (competencies) which, when applied to situations where there is no one or obvious right or wrong way to proceed, gives a patient a better likelihood of a favourable outcome than if a lay-person had made the decision. The challenge for community pharmacists is that professional judgement formation is influenced by professional, commercial and personal criteria with inherent interconnected challenges. In community pharmacy practice in the Republic of Ireland (ROI), this challenge is compounded by the fact that advice is normally provided in an environment where the pharmacist provides professional advice “for free” and then may offer to sell the patient a product or service based on that advice, an activity which amounts to a commercial transaction. While there is currently no evidence to confirm whether or not these professional judgement influences are resolved successfully, their very existence poses a risk that their resolution “in the wrong way could compromise patient outcomes or professional standing following the delivery of pharmacy services. It is therefore apparent that a community pharmacist requires skills in identifying and analysing professional/commercial/personal influences in order to appreciate the criteria which may affect both parties’ (patient and pharmacist) decision making. By contemplating the interaction between the pharmacist’s professional competencies and the individual influences on that pharmacist, we can consider the enhancement of professional competencies that underpin the “best” advice being offered to the patient, regardless of whether that advice is offered in the course of dispensing prescriptions or delivering vaccination or other services, culminating in a framework of professional judgement formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rural and Regional Pharmacy Education and Leadership)

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