Special Issue "Plant Vacuole"

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A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Diane Bassham

Department of Genetics, Development and Cell Biology; Iowa State University; Ames, Iowa 50011, USA
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +1-515-294-5256
Interests: autophagy; vesicle trafficking, SNAREs; vacuolar targeting

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The plant vacuole is an essential organelle for plant growth and development and is typically the largest compartment within a mature plant cell. It is a highly dynamic organelle with multiple functions, including maintenance of turgor, storage of ions, metabolites and proteins, and degradation of macromolecules. Vacuoles within different cell types and at different developmental stages often have distinct functions, for example in protein storage during seed development and protein degradation during seed germination. This Special Issue will highlight recent findings on vacuole structure, function and biogenesis, including but not limited to vacuole formation; vesicle trafficking to the tonoplast and vacuole lumen of newly synthesized proteins and of macromolecules for degradation; transport of ions and metabolites across the tonoplast; and functions in specialized processes such as guard cell movement, gravitropism and stress tolerance. Contributions on any aspect of vacuole biology are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Diane Bassham
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Plants is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 300 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.

Keywords

  • vacuole biogenesis
  • ion transport
  • protein storage
  • vesicle trafficking
  • autophagy
  • tonoplast
  • turgor

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessCommunication Plasmolysis: Loss of Turgor and Beyond
Plants 2014, 3(4), 583-593; doi:10.3390/plants3040583
Received: 10 September 2014 / Revised: 15 October 2014 / Accepted: 14 November 2014 / Published: 26 November 2014
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Abstract
Plasmolysis is a typical response of plant cells exposed to hyperosmotic stress. The loss of turgor causes the violent detachment of the living protoplast from the cell wall. The plasmolytic process is mainly driven by the vacuole. Plasmolysis is reversible (deplasmolysis) and characteristic
[...] Read more.
Plasmolysis is a typical response of plant cells exposed to hyperosmotic stress. The loss of turgor causes the violent detachment of the living protoplast from the cell wall. The plasmolytic process is mainly driven by the vacuole. Plasmolysis is reversible (deplasmolysis) and characteristic to living plant cells. Obviously, dramatic structural changes are required to fulfill a plasmolytic cycle. In the present paper, the fate of cortical microtubules and actin microfilaments is documented throughout a plasmolytic cycle in living cells of green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged Arabidopsis lines. While the microtubules became wavy and highly bundled during plasmolysis, cortical filamentous actin remained in close vicinity to the plasma membrane lining the sites of concave plasmolysis and adjusting readily to the diminished size of the protoplast. During deplasmolysis, cortical microtubule re-organization progressed slowly and required up to 24 h to complete the restoration of the original pre-plasmolytic pattern. Actin microfilaments, again, recovered faster and organelle movement remained intact throughout the whole process. In summary, the hydrostatic skeleton resulting from the osmotic state of the plant vacuole “overrules” the stabilization by cortical cytoskeletal elements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Vacuole)
Open AccessArticle Live Cell Imaging During Germination Reveals Dynamic Tubular Structures Derived from Protein Storage Vacuoles of Barley Aleurone Cells
Plants 2014, 3(3), 442-457; doi:10.3390/plants3030442
Received: 18 July 2014 / Revised: 20 August 2014 / Accepted: 21 August 2014 / Published: 5 September 2014
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Abstract
The germination of cereal seeds is a rapid developmental process in which the endomembrane system undergoes a series of dynamic morphological changes to mobilize storage compounds. The changing ultrastructure of protein storage vacuoles (PSVs) in the cells of the aleurone layer has been
[...] Read more.
The germination of cereal seeds is a rapid developmental process in which the endomembrane system undergoes a series of dynamic morphological changes to mobilize storage compounds. The changing ultrastructure of protein storage vacuoles (PSVs) in the cells of the aleurone layer has been investigated in the past, but generally this involved inferences drawn from static pictures representing different developmental stages. We used live cell imaging in transgenic barley plants expressing a TIP3-GFP fusion protein as a fluorescent PSV marker to follow in real time the spatially and temporally regulated remodeling and reshaping of PSVs during germination. During late-stage germination, we observed thin, tubular structures extending from PSVs in an actin-dependent manner. No extensions were detected following the disruption of actin microfilaments, while microtubules did not appear to be involved in the process. The previously-undetected tubular PSV structures were characterized by complex movements, fusion events and a dynamic morphology. Their function during germination remains unknown, but might be related to the transport of solutes and metabolites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Vacuole)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Vacuolar Na+/H+ NHX-Type Antiporters Are Required for Cellular K+ Homeostasis, Microtubule Organization and Directional Root Growth
Plants 2014, 3(3), 409-426; doi:10.3390/plants3030409
Received: 8 July 2014 / Revised: 7 August 2014 / Accepted: 18 August 2014 / Published: 29 August 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (20059 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Na+/H+ antiporters (NHXs) are integral membrane transporters that catalyze the electroneutral exchange of K+ or Na+ for H+ and are implicated in cell expansion, development, pH and ion homeostasis and salt tolerance. Arabidopsis contains four vacuolar NHX
[...] Read more.
Na+/H+ antiporters (NHXs) are integral membrane transporters that catalyze the electroneutral exchange of K+ or Na+ for H+ and are implicated in cell expansion, development, pH and ion homeostasis and salt tolerance. Arabidopsis contains four vacuolar NHX isoforms (NHX1–NHX4), but only the functional roles for NHX1 and NHX2 have been assessed thus far. Colocalization studies indicated that NHX3 and NHX4 colocalize to the tonoplast. To investigate the role of all vacuolar NHX isoforms, a quadruple knockout nhx1nhx2nhx3nhx4, lacking all vacuolar NHXs, was generated. Seedlings of nhx1nhx2nhx3nhx4 displayed significantly reduced growth, with markedly shorter hypocotyls. Under high K+, but not Na+, pronounced root skewing occurred in nhx1nhx2nhx3nhx4, suggesting that the organization of the cytoskeleton might be perturbed. Whole mount immunolabeling of cortical microtubules indicated that high K+ caused significant microtubule reorganization in nhx1nhx2nhx3nhx4 root cells of the elongation zone. Using microtubule stabilizing (Taxol) and destabilizing (propyzamide) drugs, we found that the effect of K+ on nhx1nhx2nhx3nhx4 root growth was antagonistic to that of Taxol, whereas elevated K+ exacerbated the endogenous effect of propyzamide on root skewing. Collectively, our results suggest that altered K+ homeostasis leads to an increase in the dynamics of cortical microtubule reorganization in nhx1nhx2nhx3nhx4 root epidermal cells of the elongation zone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Vacuole)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Molecular Composition of Plant Vacuoles: Important but Less Understood Regulations and Roles of Tonoplast Lipids
Plants 2015, 4(2), 320-333; doi:10.3390/plants4020320
Received: 24 March 2015 / Revised: 21 May 2015 / Accepted: 3 June 2015 / Published: 11 June 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (405 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The vacuole is an essential organelle for plant growth and development. It is the location for the storage of nutrients; such as sugars and proteins; and other metabolic products. Understanding the mechanisms of vacuolar trafficking and molecule transport across the vacuolar membrane is
[...] Read more.
The vacuole is an essential organelle for plant growth and development. It is the location for the storage of nutrients; such as sugars and proteins; and other metabolic products. Understanding the mechanisms of vacuolar trafficking and molecule transport across the vacuolar membrane is of great importance in understanding basic plant development and cell biology and for crop quality improvement. Proteins play important roles in vacuolar trafficking; such proteins include Rab GTPase signaling proteins; cargo recognition receptors; and SNAREs (Soluble NSF Attachment Protein Receptors) that are involved in membrane fusion. Some vacuole membrane proteins also serve as the transporters or channels for transport across the tonoplast. Less understood but critical are the roles of lipids in vacuolar trafficking. In this review, we will first summarize molecular composition of plant vacuoles and we will then discuss our latest understanding on the role of lipids in plant vacuolar trafficking and a surprising connection to ribosome function through the study of ribosomal mutants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Vacuole)
Open AccessReview Senescence-Associated Vacuoles, a Specific Lytic Compartment for Degradation of Chloroplast Proteins?
Plants 2014, 3(4), 498-512; doi:10.3390/plants3040498
Received: 19 July 2014 / Revised: 14 September 2014 / Accepted: 15 September 2014 / Published: 11 November 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1065 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Degradation of chloroplasts and chloroplast components is a distinctive feature of leaf senescence. In spite of its importance in the nutrient economy of plants, knowledge about the mechanism(s) involved in the breakdown of chloroplast proteins is incomplete. A novel class of vacuoles, “senescence-associated
[...] Read more.
Degradation of chloroplasts and chloroplast components is a distinctive feature of leaf senescence. In spite of its importance in the nutrient economy of plants, knowledge about the mechanism(s) involved in the breakdown of chloroplast proteins is incomplete. A novel class of vacuoles, “senescence-associated vacuoles” (SAVs), characterized by intense proteolytic activity appear during senescence in chloroplast-containing cells of leaves. Since SAVs contain some chloroplast proteins, they are candidate organelles to participate in chloroplast breakdown. In this review we discuss the characteristics of SAVs, and their possible involvement in the degradation of Rubisco, the most abundant chloroplast protein. Finally, SAVs are compared with other extra-plastidial protein degradation pathways operating in senescing leaves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Vacuole)
Open AccessReview Vacuolar Sorting Receptor-Mediated Trafficking of Soluble Vacuolar Proteins in Plant Cells
Plants 2014, 3(3), 392-408; doi:10.3390/plants3030392
Received: 13 June 2014 / Revised: 18 August 2014 / Accepted: 18 August 2014 / Published: 25 August 2014
PDF Full-text (564 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vacuoles are one of the most prominent organelles in plant cells, and they play various important roles, such as degradation of waste materials, storage of ions and metabolites, and maintaining turgor. During the past two decades, numerous advances have been made in understanding
[...] Read more.
Vacuoles are one of the most prominent organelles in plant cells, and they play various important roles, such as degradation of waste materials, storage of ions and metabolites, and maintaining turgor. During the past two decades, numerous advances have been made in understanding how proteins are specifically delivered to the vacuole. One of the most crucial steps in this process is specific sorting of soluble vacuolar proteins. Vacuolar sorting receptors (VSRs), which are type I membrane proteins, are involved in the sorting and packaging of soluble vacuolar proteins into transport vesicles with the help of various accessory proteins. To date, large amounts of data have led to the development of two different models describing VSR-mediated vacuolar trafficking that are radically different in multiple ways, particularly regarding the location of cargo binding to, and release from, the VSR and the types of carriers utilized. In this review, we summarize current literature aimed at elucidating VSR-mediated vacuolar trafficking and compare the two models with respect to the sorting signals of vacuolar proteins, as well as the molecular machinery involved in VSR-mediated vacuolar trafficking and its action mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Vacuole)

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