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Special Issue "Conductive Polymers 2017"

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Changsik Song

Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, Republic of Korea
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +82-31-299-4567
Fax: +82-31-290-7075
Interests: molecular design; synthesis; conductive polymers; electroconductive hydrogels; photocatalysis; dynamic bondings
Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Hyeonseok Yoon

(1) School of Polymer Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University
(2) Department of Polymer Engineering, Graduate School, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-ro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 61186, South Korea
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +82-62-530-1778
Fax: +82-62-530-1779
Interests: conducting polymers, nanocarbons, nanohybrids, nanocomposites, sensors, electrochemistry, energy devices

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Due to its previous success, we are delighted to reopen the Special Issue on “Conductive Polymers”. Previous author contributions showed how important the elaborated design and synthesis of functional conductive polymers are for various applications. We hope to continue to bring an inspiring perspective on developing novel (molecular) structures of conductive polymers.

Conductive polymers have been the subject of research interest for the last several decades since their interesting electronic properties are combined with their flexibility and light weight, and they have been utilized in sensors, actuators, and energy storage and conversion. Recent advances have been made on the control of three-dimensional structures, beyond the basic chemical structures, of conductive polymers in order to create novel functional materials. For example, hierarchically nanostructured conductive polymers have been developed and applied in sensors, supercapacitors, and battery electrodes. The control of higher level structures would also be important in developing conductive polymer-nanoparticle hybrid materials.

This Special Issue aims to report the recent progress of developing functional conductive polymers with novel structures, which can be applied in (but not limited to) sensors, actuators, supercapacitors, and batteries. Both original articles and reviews are welcome.

Dr. Changsik Song
Dr. Hyeonseok Yoon
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Conductive polymers
  • Nanostructure
  • Hierarchical structure
  • Polymer–nanoparticle hybrid
  • Sensors
  • Actuators
  • Energy storage

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle A New Insight in Determining the Percolation Threshold of Electrical Conductivity for Extrinsically Conducting Polymer Composites through Different Sigmoidal Models
Polymers 2017, 9(10), 527; doi:10.3390/polym9100527
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 15 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 19 October 2017
PDF Full-text (5519 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The electrical conductivity of extrinsically conducting polymer composite systems passes through a transition state known as percolation threshold. A discussion has been made on how different Sigmoidal models (S-models), such as Sigmoidal–Boltzmann (SB), Sigmoidal–Dose Response (SD), Sigmoidal–Hill (SH), Sigmoidal–Logistic (SL), and Sigmoidal–Logistic-1 (SL-1),
[...] Read more.
The electrical conductivity of extrinsically conducting polymer composite systems passes through a transition state known as percolation threshold. A discussion has been made on how different Sigmoidal models (S-models), such as Sigmoidal–Boltzmann (SB), Sigmoidal–Dose Response (SD), Sigmoidal–Hill (SH), Sigmoidal–Logistic (SL), and Sigmoidal–Logistic-1 (SL-1), can be applied to predict the percolation threshold of electrical conductivity for ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) and acrylonitrile butadiene copolymer (NBR) conducting composite systems filled with different carbon fillers. An interesting finding that comes from these observations is that the percolation threshold for electrical conductivity determined by SB and SD models are similar, whereas, the other models give different result when estimated for a particular composite system. This similarity and discrepancy in the results of percolation threshold have been discussed by considering the strength, weakness, and limitation of the models. The percolation threshold value for the composites has also been determined using the classical percolation theory and compared with the sigmoidal models. Moreover, to check the universal applicability, these Sigmoidal models have also been tested on results from some published literature. Finally, it is revealed that, except SL-1 model, the remaining models can successfully be used to determine the percolation threshold of electrical conductivity for extrinsically conductive polymer composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conductive Polymers 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Tunable Electrical Conductivity of Carbon-Black-Filled Ternary Polymer Blends by Constructing a Hierarchical Structure
Polymers 2017, 9(9), 404; doi:10.3390/polym9090404
Received: 11 August 2017 / Revised: 27 August 2017 / Accepted: 29 August 2017 / Published: 31 August 2017
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Abstract
A type of hierarchical structured composite composed of a minor thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) phase spreading at the interface of two major phases polyoxymethylene/polyamide copolymer (POM/COPA) and carbon black (CB) particles selectively localized at the TPU/COPA interface of the tri-continuous blends was fabricated by
[...] Read more.
A type of hierarchical structured composite composed of a minor thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) phase spreading at the interface of two major phases polyoxymethylene/polyamide copolymer (POM/COPA) and carbon black (CB) particles selectively localized at the TPU/COPA interface of the tri-continuous blends was fabricated by melt compounding. The hierarchical structure was designed according to predictions and verified by a combination of electron microscopy and solvent extraction technique. The hierarchical structured composites show the dramatically decreased percolation threshold, a reduction of 60% compared to those without TPU where CB is selectively distributed in the COPA phase. The effects of CB contents and TPU on the phase morphology of POM/COPA were investigated, showing the occurrence of the POM/COPA phase inversion from a sea-island to a co-continuous structure beyond the percolation threshold of CB in the presence of TPU. The mechanism for the formation of conductive network is construction of CB network at the TPU/COPA interface of tri-continuous POM/COPA/TPU blends and double percolation effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conductive Polymers 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Polymerizable Ionic Liquid Crystals Comprising Polyoxometalate Clusters toward Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Solid Electrolytes
Polymers 2017, 9(7), 290; doi:10.3390/polym9070290
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 14 July 2017 / Accepted: 17 July 2017 / Published: 20 July 2017
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Abstract
Solid electrolytes are crucial materials for lithium-ion or fuel-cell battery technology due to their structural stability and easiness for handling. Emergence of high conductivity in solid electrolytes requires precise control of the composition and structure. A promising strategy toward highly-conductive solid electrolytes is
[...] Read more.
Solid electrolytes are crucial materials for lithium-ion or fuel-cell battery technology due to their structural stability and easiness for handling. Emergence of high conductivity in solid electrolytes requires precise control of the composition and structure. A promising strategy toward highly-conductive solid electrolytes is employing a thermally-stable inorganic component and a structurally-flexible organic moiety to construct inorganic-organic hybrid materials. Ionic liquids as the organic component will be advantageous for the emergence of high conductivity, and polyoxometalate, such as heteropolyacids, are well-known as inorganic proton conductors. Here, newly-designed ionic liquid imidazolium cations, having a polymerizable methacryl group (denoted as MAImC1), were successfully hybridized with heteropolyanions of [PW12O40]3− (PW12) to form inorganic-organic hybrid monomers of MAImC1-PW12. The synthetic procedure of MAImC1-PW12 was a simple ion-exchange reaction, being generally applicable to several polyoxometalates, in principle. MAImC1-PW12 was obtained as single crystals, and its molecular and crystal structures were clearly revealed. Additionally, the hybrid monomer of MAImC1-PW12 was polymerized by a radical polymerization using AIBN as an initiator. Some of the resulting inorganic-organic hybrid polymers exhibited conductivity of 10−4 S·cm−1 order under humidified conditions at 313 K. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conductive Polymers 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Electrochemical Polymerization of Hydroquinone on Graphite Felt as a Pseudocapacitive Material for Application in a Microbial Fuel Cell
Polymers 2017, 9(6), 220; doi:10.3390/polym9060220
Received: 18 April 2017 / Revised: 23 May 2017 / Accepted: 8 June 2017 / Published: 15 June 2017
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Abstract
Here we reported the use of electropolymerization to achieve the transformation of aqueous hydroquinone to solid-phase polyhydroquinone (PHQ) with pseudocapacitive characteristics, and the application of this redox-active product to shuttle electron transfer in the anode system of a microbial fuel cell (MFC). The
[...] Read more.
Here we reported the use of electropolymerization to achieve the transformation of aqueous hydroquinone to solid-phase polyhydroquinone (PHQ) with pseudocapacitive characteristics, and the application of this redox-active product to shuttle electron transfer in the anode system of a microbial fuel cell (MFC). The microscopic and spectroscopic results showed that the treatment of the graphite felt (GF) substrate with acids was effective in improving the amounts of surface-bound oxygen-containing groups, enabling better adhesion of PHQ onto the GF surfaces. The electrochemical measurements indicated that the resulting PHQ–AGF (acid treated GF) possessed high pseudocapacitance due to the fast and reversible redox cycling between hydroquinone and benzoquinone. The MFC equipped with the PHQ–AGF anode achieved a maximum power density of 633.6 mW m−2, which was much higher than 368.2, 228.8, and 119.7 mW m−2 corresponding to the MFC with the reference PHQ–GF, AGF, and GF anodes, respectively. The increase in the power performance was attributed to the incorporation of the redox-active PHQ abundant in C–OH and C=O groups that were beneficial to the increased extracellular electron transfer and enhanced bacterial adhesion on the anode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conductive Polymers 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Four Novel Electrochromic Materials Employing Nitrotriphenylamine Unit as the Acceptor and Different Thiophene Derivatives as the Donor
Polymers 2017, 9(5), 173; doi:10.3390/polym9050173
Received: 23 April 2017 / Revised: 9 May 2017 / Accepted: 10 May 2017 / Published: 13 May 2017
PDF Full-text (14409 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this study, four novel donor–acceptor systems, 4-(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxin -5-yl)-N-(4-(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxin-5-yl)phenyl)-N-(4-nitrophenyl)aniline (NETPA), 4- (4-methoxythiophen-2-yl)-N-(4-(4-methoxythiophen-2-yl)phenyl)-N-(4-nitrophenyl)aniline (NMOTPA), 4-(4-methylthiophen-2-yl)-N-(4-(4-methylthiophen-2-yl)phenyl)-N-(4-nitrophenyl) aniline (NMTPA) and 4-nitro-N,N-bis(4-(thiophen-2-yl)phenyl)aniline (NTTPA), were successfully synthesized by Stille coupling reaction and electropolymerized to obtain highly stable conducting polymers, PNETPA, PNMOTPA, PNMTPA and PNTTPA, respectively. The polymers were
[...] Read more.
In this study, four novel donor–acceptor systems, 4-(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxin -5-yl)-N-(4-(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxin-5-yl)phenyl)-N-(4-nitrophenyl)aniline (NETPA), 4- (4-methoxythiophen-2-yl)-N-(4-(4-methoxythiophen-2-yl)phenyl)-N-(4-nitrophenyl)aniline (NMOTPA), 4-(4-methylthiophen-2-yl)-N-(4-(4-methylthiophen-2-yl)phenyl)-N-(4-nitrophenyl) aniline (NMTPA) and 4-nitro-N,N-bis(4-(thiophen-2-yl)phenyl)aniline (NTTPA), were successfully synthesized by Stille coupling reaction and electropolymerized to obtain highly stable conducting polymers, PNETPA, PNMOTPA, PNMTPA and PNTTPA, respectively. The polymers were characterized using cyclic voltammetry (CV), step profiling and UV–Vis–NIR spectroscopy. The band gaps (Eg values) were 1.34, 1.59, 2.26, and 2.34 eV, for PNETPA, PNMOTPA, PNMTPA and PNTTPA, respectively. In addition, electrochromic switching showed that all polymers exhibit outstanding optical contrasts, high coloration efficiencies and fast switching speeds in the near-infrared region (NIR). These properties make the polymers suitable materials for electrochromic applications in NIR region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conductive Polymers 2017)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) Derivatives: Innovative Conductive Polymers for Bioelectronics
Polymers 2017, 9(8), 354; doi:10.3390/polym9080354
Received: 26 June 2017 / Revised: 7 August 2017 / Accepted: 8 August 2017 / Published: 11 August 2017
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Abstract
Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)s are the conducting polymers (CP) with the biggest prospects in the field of bioelectronics due to their combination of characteristics (conductivity, stability, transparency and biocompatibility). The gold standard material is the commercially available poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). However, in order to well connect
[...] Read more.
Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)s are the conducting polymers (CP) with the biggest prospects in the field of bioelectronics due to their combination of characteristics (conductivity, stability, transparency and biocompatibility). The gold standard material is the commercially available poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). However, in order to well connect the two fields of biology and electronics, PEDOT:PSS presents some limitations associated with its low (bio)functionality. In this review, we provide an insight into the synthesis and applications of innovative poly(ethylenedioxythiophene)-type materials for bioelectronics. First, we present a detailed analysis of the different synthetic routes to (bio)functional dioxythiophene monomer/polymer derivatives. Second, we focus on the preparation of PEDOT dispersions using different biopolymers and biomolecules as dopants and stabilizers. To finish, we review the applications of innovative PEDOT-type materials such as biocompatible conducting polymer layers, conducting hydrogels, biosensors, selective detachment of cells, scaffolds for tissue engineering, electrodes for electrophysiology, implantable electrodes, stimulation of neuronal cells or pan-bio electronics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conductive Polymers 2017)
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Open AccessReview Control of Molecular Ordering, Alignment, and Charge Transport in Solution-Processed Conjugated Polymer Thin Films
Polymers 2017, 9(6), 212; doi:10.3390/polym9060212
Received: 27 April 2017 / Revised: 6 June 2017 / Accepted: 6 June 2017 / Published: 8 June 2017
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Abstract
Morphology of conjugated polymers is a critical factor that significantly affects intrinsic charge transport characteristics and in turn performance of polymer-based devices. Morphological defects including misaligned crystalline grains and grain boundaries significantly impede efficient charge hopping between transport sites, resulting in degradation of
[...] Read more.
Morphology of conjugated polymers is a critical factor that significantly affects intrinsic charge transport characteristics and in turn performance of polymer-based devices. Morphological defects including misaligned crystalline grains and grain boundaries significantly impede efficient charge hopping between transport sites, resulting in degradation of device performance. Therefore, one important challenge is to control morphology of active polymer thin-films for achieving high performance flexible electronic devices. In the past decade, significant progress has been achieved in morphology control of conjugated polymer thin-films using solution-based processing techniques. This review focuses on recent advances in processing strategies that can tune the morphologies and thus impact charge transport properties of conjugated polymer thin films. Of the available processing strategies, polymer solution treatments and film deposition techniques will be mainly highlighted. The correlation between processing conditions, active layer morphologies, and device performance will be also be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conductive Polymers 2017)
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Open AccessReview Electrical and Electrochemical Properties of Conducting Polymers
Polymers 2017, 9(4), 150; doi:10.3390/polym9040150
Received: 15 March 2017 / Revised: 19 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 23 April 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (7428 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Conducting polymers (CPs) have received much attention in both fundamental and practical studies because they have electrical and electrochemical properties similar to those of both traditional semiconductors and metals. CPs possess excellent characteristics such as mild synthesis and processing conditions, chemical and structural
[...] Read more.
Conducting polymers (CPs) have received much attention in both fundamental and practical studies because they have electrical and electrochemical properties similar to those of both traditional semiconductors and metals. CPs possess excellent characteristics such as mild synthesis and processing conditions, chemical and structural diversity, tunable conductivity, and structural flexibility. Advances in nanotechnology have allowed the fabrication of versatile CP nanomaterials with improved performance for various applications including electronics, optoelectronics, sensors, and energy devices. The aim of this review is to explore the conductivity mechanisms and electrical and electrochemical properties of CPs and to discuss the factors that significantly affect these properties. The size and morphology of the materials are also discussed as key parameters that affect their major properties. Finally, the latest trends in research on electrochemical capacitors and sensors are introduced through an in-depth discussion of the most remarkable studies reported since 2003. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conductive Polymers 2017)
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