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Special Issue "Packaging Films"

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A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Taek-Soo Kim (Website)

Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701, Korea
Interests: mechanics-related subjects of advanced packaging and thin films: adhesion; deformation; fracture; fatigue; reliability; and stress/strain induced multiphysics phenomena

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Packaging films are essential for maintaining the integrity of a variety of products, which range from foods to cutting-edge electronics, such as flexible OLED displays. In particular, the advent of flexible electronics requires further innovations in packaging films, including the development of the polymer flexible substrate. For example, in the case of flexible OLED displays, the rate of permeation for water must be lower than 10−6 g/m2/day; this is an extremely low penetration rate  (compared to other applications). Even the usage of graphene as the packaging film has to meet the ultimate requirements of permeability, flexibility, transparency, thickness, and stability. This Special Issue of Polymers will cover the whole line of recent research involved in advanced packaging film synthesis, integration, integrity tests, and more.

Prof. Dr. Taek-Soo Kim
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs).


Keywords

  • packaging films
  • polymer substrates
  • multilayer nanocomposite films
  • encapsulation
  • permeability
  • adhesion
  • flexible electronics

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Warpage Analysis of Electroplated Cu Films on Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Packaging Substrates
Polymers 2015, 7(6), 985-1004; doi:10.3390/polym7060985
Received: 9 March 2015 / Revised: 28 April 2015 / Accepted: 26 May 2015 / Published: 3 June 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (5045 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a warpage analysis method that predicts the warpage behavior of electroplated Cu films on glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) packaging substrates. The analysis method is performed using the following sequence: fabricate specimens for scanning 3D contours, transform 3D data into [...] Read more.
This paper presents a warpage analysis method that predicts the warpage behavior of electroplated Cu films on glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) packaging substrates. The analysis method is performed using the following sequence: fabricate specimens for scanning 3D contours, transform 3D data into curvatures, compute the built-in stress of the film using a stress-curvature analytic model, and verify it through comparisons of the finite element method (FEM) simulations with the measured data. The curvature is used to describe the deflection and warpage modes and orientations of the specimen. Two primary factors that affect the warpage behavior of the electroplated Cu film on FRP substrate specimens are investigated. The first factor is the built-in stress in a Cu film that explains the room temperature warpage of the specimen under no thermal process. The second factor is the misfit of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) between the Cu and FRP layer, which is a dominant factor during the temperature change. The calculated residual stress, and predicted curvatures using FEM simulation throughout the reflow process temperature range between 25 and 180 °C are proven to be accurate by the comparison of the FEM simulations and experiment measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Packaging Films)
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Open AccessArticle Application of Humidity-Controlled Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA-RH) to Moisture-Sensitive Edible Casein Films for Use in Food Packaging
Polymers 2015, 7(1), 91-114; doi:10.3390/polym7010091
Received: 11 November 2014 / Accepted: 29 December 2014 / Published: 6 January 2015
PDF Full-text (2094 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Protein-based and other hydrophilic thin films are promising materials for the manufacture of edible food packaging and other food and non-food applications. Calcium caseinate (CaCas) films are highly hygroscopic and physical characterization under broad environmental conditions is critical to application development and [...] Read more.
Protein-based and other hydrophilic thin films are promising materials for the manufacture of edible food packaging and other food and non-food applications. Calcium caseinate (CaCas) films are highly hygroscopic and physical characterization under broad environmental conditions is critical to application development and film optimization. A new technology, humidity-controlled dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA-RH) was explored to characterize CaCas/glycerol films (3:1 ratio) during isohume temperature (T) ramps and steps, and isothermal RH ramps and steps, to determine their mechanical and moisture-sorption properties during extensive T and RH variations. When RH and/or T increased, CaCas/Gly films became strongly plasticized and underwent several primary and secondary humidity-dependent transition temperatures (or transition humidities); the CaCas/Gly network hypothetically rearranged itself to adapt to the increased water-content and heat-induced molecular mobility. Between 5–40 °C and 20%–61% RH, moisture-sorption was rapid and proportional to humidity between transition points and accelerated greatly during transitions. CaCas/Gly films seemed unsuitable for storage or utilization in warm/humid conditions as they lost their mechanical integrity around Tm ~ 40 °C at 50% RH and Tm decreased greatly with increased RH. However, below Tm, both moisture- and heat-induced structural changes in the films were fully reversible and casein films may withstand a variety of moderate abuse conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Packaging Films)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Thickness and Oxygen Transmission Rate before and after Thermoforming Mono- and Multi-layer Sheets into Trays with Variable Depth
Polymers 2014, 6(12), 3019-3043; doi:10.3390/polym6123019
Received: 22 September 2014 / Revised: 6 December 2014 / Accepted: 12 December 2014 / Published: 22 December 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (10548 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
During thermoforming, plastic sheets are heated and subsequently deformed through the application of mechanical stretching and/or pressure. This process directly impacts sheet properties such as material thickness in walls, corners, and bottom, crystallinity in the constituent layers, and particularly the oxygen gas [...] Read more.
During thermoforming, plastic sheets are heated and subsequently deformed through the application of mechanical stretching and/or pressure. This process directly impacts sheet properties such as material thickness in walls, corners, and bottom, crystallinity in the constituent layers, and particularly the oxygen gas permeability. The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of thermoforming on thickness and oxygen transmission rate (OTR) of selected packaging materials (polypropylene (PP); PP/ethylene-vinyl alcohol co-polymer/PP (PP/EVOH/PP); polystyrene/EVOH/polyethylene (PS/EVOH/PE); amorphous polyethylene terephtalate/PE (APET/PE); APET/PE/EVOH/PE; polyamide/PE (PA/PE); and (PE/)PA/EVOH/PA/PE). These materials were extruded in two different thicknesses and thermoformed into trays with the same top dimensions and variable depths of 25, 50, and/or 75 mm and a 50 mm tray with a variable radius of the corners. The distribution of the material thickness in the trays was visualized, showing the locations that were most affected by the deep drawn process. The OTR results indicate that the calculated OTR, based on a homogeneous material distribution, can be used as a rough approximation of the measured OTR. However, detailed analysis of crystallization and unequal thinning, which is also related to the tray design, remains necessary to explain the deviation of the measured OTR as compared to the predicted one. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Packaging Films)
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Open AccessArticle Barrier Properties of Polylactic Acid in Cellulose Based Packages Using Montmorillonite as Filler
Polymers 2014, 6(9), 2386-2403; doi:10.3390/polym6092386
Received: 7 July 2014 / Revised: 20 August 2014 / Accepted: 2 September 2014 / Published: 19 September 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1448 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polylactic acid (PLA) and montmorillonite (CB) as filler were studied as coatings for cellulose based packages. Amorphous (AM) and semi crystalline (SC) PLA were used at different concentrations according to a 2 × 6 × 3 full factorial experimental design. CB loading [...] Read more.
Polylactic acid (PLA) and montmorillonite (CB) as filler were studied as coatings for cellulose based packages. Amorphous (AM) and semi crystalline (SC) PLA were used at different concentrations according to a 2 × 6 × 3 full factorial experimental design. CB loading was three concentrations and coating was performed by casting. Contact angle (CA), water vapor (WVP) and grease permeabilities were measured for each resultant package and were compared to commercial materials (Glassine Paper, Grease Proof Papers 1 and 2 produced commercially). Significant differences were found and the main factors were the type and concentration of PLA. The best values were: for grease penetration, +1800 s; WVP from 161.36 to 237.8 g·µm·kPa−1·m−2·d−1 and CA from 69° to 73° for PLA–AM 0.5% and CB variable. These parameters are comparable to commercial packages used in the food industry. DSC revealed three different thermal events for PLA–SC and just Tg for PLA–AM. Crystallinity was also verified, obtaining a ΔHcrys of 3.7 J·g−1 for PLA–SC and 14 J·g−1 for PLA–SC–BC, evidencing clay interaction as a crystal nucleating agent. Differences found were explained on terms of the properties measured, where structural and chemical arrays of the coatings play a fundamental role for the barrier properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Packaging Films)
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