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Special Issue "Stimuli-Responsive Polymers and Colloids"

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A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2015)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Michael K.C. Tam

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +1 519 888 4347
Interests: stimuli-responsive polymers; self assembly; polymer-surfactant interactions; drug delivery; renewable nanomaterials
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Richard Hoogenboom

Supramolecular Chemistry group, Department of Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S4, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium
Website | E-Mail
Interests: polymer chemistry; controlled polymerization; living cationic ring-opening polymerization; responsive polymers; hydrophilic polymers; poly(2-oxazoline)s; supramolecular materials; self-assembly

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Interest in the field of stimuli-responsive systems has intensified over the last ten years due to the considerable potential of such systems in many applications. Many different external stimuli, such as pH, temperature, light, salt, co-solvent, electric fields, etc. have been explored. With the development of many controlled polymerization techniques, it is now possible to prepare a wide range of amphiphilic polymers and colloidal systems that possess many types of stimuli-responsive characteristics. Many of these systems possess interesting self-assembling and swelling characteristics when subjected to external stimuli.

This special issue of Polymers entitled “Stimuli-Responsive Polymers and Colloids” will cover a range of recent research activities such as synthesis, physical properties, and applications. It will bring together an interesting collection of recent findings from experts, and will be a useful source of information for researchers working in this field. Your contribution to the special issue will be greatly appreciated.

Prof. Dr. Michael K.C. Tam
Prof. Dr. Richard Hoogenboom
Guest Editors

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Additive Effects on Phase Transition and Interactions in Poly(vinyl methyl ether) Solutions
Polymers 2015, 7(12), 2572-2583; doi:10.3390/polym7121533
Received: 27 August 2015 / Revised: 28 October 2015 / Accepted: 30 November 2015 / Published: 4 December 2015
PDF Full-text (2019 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A comparative study of thermal response of poly(vinyl methyl ether) in the presence of different hydrophilic and hydrophobic additives was performed by Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and optical microscopy. The effect of polymer concentration
[...] Read more.
A comparative study of thermal response of poly(vinyl methyl ether) in the presence of different hydrophilic and hydrophobic additives was performed by Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and optical microscopy. The effect of polymer concentration and additive content on the appearance and extent of the phase transition was determined. A detailed study of interaction mechanism in solutions with two hydrophobic additives showed differences in the way in which polymer globules are formed. For solutions containing t-butyl methyl ketone and t-butanol, measurements of 1H spin-spin relaxations showed the presence of water and additive molecules bound in PVME globular structures. These originally-bound molecules are then slowly released from the globular-like structures. Incorporation of molecules into the globules disrupts the cooperativity of the transition and affects the size of globular structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stimuli-Responsive Polymers and Colloids)
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Open AccessArticle Bioreducible Micelles Self-Assembled from Poly(ethylene glycol)-Cholesteryl Conjugate As a Drug Delivery Platform
Polymers 2015, 7(11), 2245-2258; doi:10.3390/polym7111511
Received: 22 September 2015 / Revised: 27 October 2015 / Accepted: 30 October 2015 / Published: 6 November 2015
PDF Full-text (4363 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The ability of polymeric micelles to self-assemble into nanosized particles has created interest in their application as potential anticancer drug delivery systems. A poly(ethylene glycol)-cholesteryl conjugate (Chol-ss-PEG-ss-Chol) connected by cleavable disulfide linkages was synthesized and used as a nanocarrier for in vitro release
[...] Read more.
The ability of polymeric micelles to self-assemble into nanosized particles has created interest in their application as potential anticancer drug delivery systems. A poly(ethylene glycol)-cholesteryl conjugate (Chol-ss-PEG-ss-Chol) connected by cleavable disulfide linkages was synthesized and used as a nanocarrier for in vitro release of doxorubicin (DOX). Owing to its amphiphilic structure, Chol-ss-PEG-ss-Chol was able to self-assemble into micelles with an average diameter 18.6 nm in aqueous solution. The micelles formed large aggregates due to the shedding of the PEG shell through cleavage of disulfide bonds in a reductive environment. The in vitro release studies revealed that Chol-ss-PEG-ss-Chol micelles released 80% and approximately 9% of the encapsulated DOX within 6 h under reductive and non-reductive conditions, respectively. The glutathione (GSH)-mediated intracellular drug delivery was investigated in a KB cell line. The cytotoxicity of DOX-loaded micelles indicated a higher cellular anti-proliferative effect against GSH-pretreated than untreated KB cells. Furthermore, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) measurement demonstrated that Chol-ss-PEG-ss-Chol micelles exhibited faster drug release in GSH-pretreated KB cells than untreated KB cells. These results suggest the potential usefulness of disulfide-based polymeric micelles as controlled drug delivery carriers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stimuli-Responsive Polymers and Colloids)
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Open AccessArticle Preparation and Characterization of Mn/N Co-Doped TiO2 Loaded on Wood-Based Activated Carbon Fiber and Its Visible Light Photodegradation
Polymers 2015, 7(9), 1660-1673; doi:10.3390/polym7091476
Received: 18 June 2015 / Revised: 25 August 2015 / Accepted: 27 August 2015 / Published: 7 September 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5844 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Using MnSO4·H2O as manganese source and urea as nitrogen source, Mn/N co-doped TiO2 loaded on wood-based activated carbon fiber (Mn/Ti-N-WACF) was prepared by sol–gel method. Mn/Ti-N-WACF with different Mn doping contents was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray
[...] Read more.
Using MnSO4·H2O as manganese source and urea as nitrogen source, Mn/N co-doped TiO2 loaded on wood-based activated carbon fiber (Mn/Ti-N-WACF) was prepared by sol–gel method. Mn/Ti-N-WACF with different Mn doping contents was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies (XPS), and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. Results showed that the loading rate of TiO2 in Mn/Ti-N-WACF was improved by Mn/N co-doping. After calcination at 450 °C, the degree of crystallinity of TiO2 was reduced due to Mn/N co-doption in the resulting Mn/Ti-N-WACF samples, but the TiO2 crystal phase was not changed. XPS spectra revealed that some Ti4+ ions from the TiO2 lattice of Mn/Ti-N-WACF system were substituted by doped Mn. Moreover, new bonds formed within N–Ti–N and Ti–N–O because of the doped N that substituted some oxygen atoms in the TiO2 lattice. Notably, the degradation rate of methylene blue for Mn/Ti-N-WACF was improved because of the co-doped Mn/N under visible-light irradiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stimuli-Responsive Polymers and Colloids)
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication of Thermo-Responsive Molecular Layers from Self-Assembling Elastin-Like Oligopeptides Containing Cell-Binding Domain for Tissue Engineering
Polymers 2015, 7(1), 134-146; doi:10.3390/polym7010134
Received: 6 October 2014 / Revised: 7 January 2015 / Accepted: 12 January 2015 / Published: 19 January 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3057 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Novel thermo-responsive elastin-like oligopeptides containing cell-binding epitope (Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser sequence); arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-serine (RGDS)-elastin-like peptides (ELP) and RGDS-deg-ELP; were newly prepared as building blocks of self-assembled molecular layer for artificial extra cellular matrix. A detailed analysis of the conformation of the oligo(ELP)s in
[...] Read more.
Novel thermo-responsive elastin-like oligopeptides containing cell-binding epitope (Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser sequence); arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-serine (RGDS)-elastin-like peptides (ELP) and RGDS-deg-ELP; were newly prepared as building blocks of self-assembled molecular layer for artificial extra cellular matrix. A detailed analysis of the conformation of the oligo(ELP)s in water and their self-assembling behavior onto hydrophobic surfaces were performed by using circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy and water contact angle measurements. The experimental results revealed that both oligo(ELP)s self-assembled onto hydrophobic surfaces and formed molecular layers based on their thermo-responsive conformational change from hydrous random coil to dehydrated β-turn structure. Effective cell adhesion and spreading behaviors were observed on these self-assembled oligo(ELP) layers. In addition, attached cells were found to be recovered successfully as a cell-sheet by temperature-induced disassembly of oligo(ELP) layer. This achievement provides an important insight to construct novel oligopeptide-based nano-surfaces for the design of smart artificial extra-cellular matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stimuli-Responsive Polymers and Colloids)
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Open AccessCommunication Release of Insulin from Calcium Carbonate Microspheres with and without Layer-by-Layer Thin Coatings
Polymers 2014, 6(8), 2157-2165; doi:10.3390/polym6082157
Received: 25 June 2014 / Revised: 29 July 2014 / Accepted: 29 July 2014 / Published: 11 August 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2307 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The release of insulin from insulin-containing CaCO3 microspheres was investigated. The microspheres were prepared by mixing aqueous solutions of CaCl2 and Na2CO3 in the presence of insulin. The surface of the insulin-containing CaCO3 microspheres was coated with
[...] Read more.
The release of insulin from insulin-containing CaCO3 microspheres was investigated. The microspheres were prepared by mixing aqueous solutions of CaCl2 and Na2CO3 in the presence of insulin. The surface of the insulin-containing CaCO3 microspheres was coated with a layer-by-layer thin film consisting of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) and poly(styrene sulfonate) to regulate the release kinetics of insulin. The release rate of insulin from the coated CaCO3 microspheres was significantly suppressed compared with that of uncoated CaCO3 microspheres, and depended on the thickness of the films. Rhombohedral calcite crystals of CaCO3 formed from the microspheres during the release of insulin, suggesting that the CaCO3 microspheres dissolved and recrystallized during the release of insulin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stimuli-Responsive Polymers and Colloids)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Molecularly Imprinted Polymers with Stimuli-Responsive Affinity: Progress and Perspectives
Polymers 2015, 7(9), 1689-1715; doi:10.3390/polym7091478
Received: 5 August 2015 / Revised: 23 August 2015 / Accepted: 24 August 2015 / Published: 8 September 2015
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (2215 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Intelligent stimuli-responsive molecularly imprinted polymers (SR-MIPs) have attracted considerable research interest in recent years due to the potential applications in drug delivery, biotechnology and separation sciences. This review comprehensively summarizes various SR-MIPs, including the design and applications of thermo-responsive MIPs, pH-responsive MIPs, photo-responsive
[...] Read more.
Intelligent stimuli-responsive molecularly imprinted polymers (SR-MIPs) have attracted considerable research interest in recent years due to the potential applications in drug delivery, biotechnology and separation sciences. This review comprehensively summarizes various SR-MIPs, including the design and applications of thermo-responsive MIPs, pH-responsive MIPs, photo-responsive MIPs, biomolecule-responsive MIPs and ion-responsive MIPs. Besides the development of current SR-MIPs, the advantages as well as the disadvantages of current SR-MIPs were also displayed from different angles, especially preparation methods and application fields. We believe this review will be helpful to guide the design, development and application of SR-MIPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stimuli-Responsive Polymers and Colloids)
Open AccessReview Stimuli-Responsive Polymers and Colloids under Electric and Magnetic Fields
Polymers 2014, 6(11), 2803-2818; doi:10.3390/polym6112803
Received: 15 July 2014 / Revised: 20 October 2014 / Accepted: 30 October 2014 / Published: 5 November 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (2419 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electrorheological (ER) and magnetorheological (MR) suspensions undergo a reverse phase transition from a liquid-like to solid-like state in response to an external electric or magnetic field, respectively. This paper briefly reviews various types of electro- or magneto-responsive materials from either polymeric or inorganic
[...] Read more.
Electrorheological (ER) and magnetorheological (MR) suspensions undergo a reverse phase transition from a liquid-like to solid-like state in response to an external electric or magnetic field, respectively. This paper briefly reviews various types of electro- or magneto-responsive materials from either polymeric or inorganic and hybrid composite materials. The fabrication strategies for ER/MR candidates and their ER/MR characteristics (particularly for ER fluids) are also included. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stimuli-Responsive Polymers and Colloids)
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Open AccessReview Temperature-Responsive Polymer Modified Surface for Cell Sheet Engineering
Polymers 2012, 4(3), 1478-1498; doi:10.3390/polym4031478
Received: 23 April 2012 / Revised: 17 July 2012 / Accepted: 30 July 2012 / Published: 15 August 2012
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (1782 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the past two decades, as a novel approach for tissue engineering, cell sheet engineering has been proposed by our laboratory. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PIPAAm), which is a well-known temperature-responsive polymer, has been grafted on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) surfaces through an electron
[...] Read more.
In the past two decades, as a novel approach for tissue engineering, cell sheet engineering has been proposed by our laboratory. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PIPAAm), which is a well-known temperature-responsive polymer, has been grafted on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) surfaces through an electron beam irradiated polymerization. At 37 °C, where the PIPAAm modified surface is hydrophobic, cells can adhere, spread on the surface and grow to confluence. By decreasing temperature to 20 °C, since the surface turns to hydrophilic, cells can detach themselves from the surface spontaneously and form an intact cell sheet with extracellular matrix. For obtaining a temperature-induced cell attachment and detachment, it is necessary to immobilize an ultra thin PIPAAm layer on the TCPS surfaces. This review focuses on the characteristics of PIAPAm modified surfaces exhibiting these intelligent properties. In addition, PIPAAm modified surfaces giving a rapid cell-sheet recovery has been further developed on the basis of the characteristic of the PIPAAm surface. The designs of temperature-responsive polymer layer have provided an enormous potential to fabricate clinically applicable regenerative medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stimuli-Responsive Polymers and Colloids)
Open AccessReview Color-Tunable Etalons Assembled from Poly (N-Isopropylacrylamide) Based Microgels
Polymers 2012, 4(1), 134-149; doi:10.3390/polym4010134
Received: 18 November 2011 / Revised: 21 December 2011 / Accepted: 5 January 2012 / Published: 9 January 2012
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (821 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Photonic materials (PMs) that are capable of manipulating and controlling light in systems have immense potential for the computing and communications industries. These materials are formed by assembling components of differing refractive indices in a periodic array. Light then interacts with this assembly,
[...] Read more.
Photonic materials (PMs) that are capable of manipulating and controlling light in systems have immense potential for the computing and communications industries. These materials are formed by assembling components of differing refractive indices in a periodic array. Light then interacts with this assembly, which results in constructive and destructive interference, and hence color. While many three-dimensional PMs have been reported, and have the most potential for the applications mentioned above, one-dimensional PMs have a multitude of potential uses, e.g., light filtration. In this review, we focus on one-dimensional PMs; specifically poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) microgel based etalons. The etalons can be fabricated to exhibit a single bright color, and because the diameter of the microgels is dependent on temperature and pH, the mirror-mirror spacing can be dynamically tuned; therefore the etalon’s color is dynamically tunable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stimuli-Responsive Polymers and Colloids)
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