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Special Issue "Calibration and Validation of Synthetic Aperture Radar"

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 April 2017

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Bruce Chapman

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 300-149, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +1-818-354-3603
Interests: SAR; SAR calibration; ecosystem SAR applications
Guest Editor
Dr. Paul Siqueira

Microwave Remote Sensing Laboratory, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01002, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +1-413-577-0623
Interests: airborne and Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR); SAR interferometry; microwave engineering; polarimetry; SAR calibration; ecosystem SAR applications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Interferometric SAR have been found to have many scientific applications, ranging from measuring biomass of forests to quantifying surface deformation. The accurate calibration of the image data and the validation of the geophysical products made from SAR and Interferometric SAR is an important task and challenge to the community. New missions with novel mission architectures and objectives will soon join SAR satellites currently in operation. Lessons learned from previous missions will be valuable in the calibration of these future missions.

The techniques and methodologies for the calibration of SAR data and the validation of SAR mission requirements are the subjects of this Special Issue. We would like to invite you to submit articles about your recent research with respect to the following topics:

  • Polarimetric calibration
  • Wide-swath calibration
  • Processor calibration
  • Calibration of interferometric SAR data
  • Tropospheric and ionospheric corrections
  • Calibration of P-band SAR
  • Calibration devices
  • Validation of geophysical products from SAR

Interested authors should check and follow specific Instructions to Authors, see https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/165068305/Remote_Sensing-Additional_Instructions.pdf.

Dr. Bruce Chapman
Dr. Paul Siqueira
Guest Editors

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Remote Sensing is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Burst Misalignment Evaluation for ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 ScanSAR-ScanSAR Interferometry
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(3), 216; doi:10.3390/rs9030216
Received: 21 December 2016 / Revised: 17 February 2017 / Accepted: 25 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
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Abstract
This paper reports the validation results of burst misalignment for ScanSAR-ScanSAR interferometry of the Phased Array-type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2) aboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2, “DAICHI-2”). After the internal software modification on 8 February 2015, ALOS-2 ScanSAR observation mode archives
[...] Read more.
This paper reports the validation results of burst misalignment for ScanSAR-ScanSAR interferometry of the Phased Array-type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2) aboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2, “DAICHI-2”). After the internal software modification on 8 February 2015, ALOS-2 ScanSAR observation mode archives have been available for use in interferometric analysis, as it was planned. However, it has not been reported whether its burst misalignment satisfies the mission requirements: 90% or higher burst overlap ratio. The validation results in this paper confirm that the expected observation misalignment satisfies the required range, including minimal seasonal and orbital dependencies. The results in this paper are obtained directly from the azimuth offset of the single look complex (SLC) data and are not derived from the orbit records. Nine identical orbits and frame numbers are chosen and evaluated to investigate the average burst misalignment and orbital dependency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calibration and Validation of Synthetic Aperture Radar)
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Open AccessArticle Integrated Time and Phase Synchronization Strategy for a Multichannel Spaceborne-Stationary Bistatic SAR System
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(8), 628; doi:10.3390/rs8080628
Received: 22 March 2016 / Revised: 17 July 2016 / Accepted: 22 July 2016 / Published: 29 July 2016
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Abstract
The spatial separation of the transmitter and receiver in Bistatic Synthetic Aperture Radar (BiSAR) makes it a promising and useful supplement to a classical Monostatic SAR system (MonoSAR). This paper proposes a novel integrated time and phase synchronization strategy for a multichannel spaceborne-stationary
[...] Read more.
The spatial separation of the transmitter and receiver in Bistatic Synthetic Aperture Radar (BiSAR) makes it a promising and useful supplement to a classical Monostatic SAR system (MonoSAR). This paper proposes a novel integrated time and phase synchronization strategy for a multichannel spaceborne-stationary BiSAR system. Firstly, the time synchronization strategy is proposed, which includes Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF) generation under noisy conditions, multichannel calibration and the alignment of the recorded data with the orbital data. Furthermore, the phase synchronization strategy, which fully considers the deteriorative factors in the BiSAR configuration, is well studied. The contribution of the phase synchronization strategy includes two aspects: it not only compensates the phase error, but also improves the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of the obtained signals. Specifically, all direct signals on different PRF time can be reconstructed with the shift and phase compensation operation using a reference signal. Besides, since the parameters of the reference signal can be estimated only once using the selected practical direct signal and a priori information, the processing complexity is well reduced. Final imaging results with and without compensation for real data are presented to validate the proposed synchronization strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calibration and Validation of Synthetic Aperture Radar)
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Open AccessArticle Classification and Monitoring of Reed Belts Using Dual-Polarimetric TerraSAR-X Time Series
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(7), 552; doi:10.3390/rs8070552
Received: 19 February 2016 / Revised: 20 May 2016 / Accepted: 22 June 2016 / Published: 29 June 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (13508 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Synthetic aperture radar polarimetry (PolSAR) and polarimetric decomposition techniques have proven to be useful tools for wetland mapping. In this study we classify reed belts and monitor their phenological changes at a natural lake in northeastern Germany using dual-co-polarized (HH, VV) TerraSAR-X time
[...] Read more.
Synthetic aperture radar polarimetry (PolSAR) and polarimetric decomposition techniques have proven to be useful tools for wetland mapping. In this study we classify reed belts and monitor their phenological changes at a natural lake in northeastern Germany using dual-co-polarized (HH, VV) TerraSAR-X time series. The time series comprises 19 images, acquired between August 2014 and May 2015, in ascending and descending orbit. We calculated different polarimetric indices using the HH and VV intensities, the dual-polarimetric coherency matrix including dominant and mean alpha scattering angles, and entropy and anisotropy (normalized eigenvalue difference) as well as combinations of entropy and anisotropy for the analysis of the scattering scenarios. The image classifications were performed with the random forest classifier and validated with high-resolution digital orthophotos. The time series analysis of the reed belts revealed significant seasonal changes for the double-bounce–sensitive parameters (intensity ratio HH/VV and intensity difference HH-VV, the co-polarimetric coherence phase and the dominant and mean alpha scattering angles) and in the dual-polarimetric coherence (amplitude), anisotropy, entropy, and anisotropy-entropy combinations; whereas in summer dense leaves cause volume scattering, in winter, after leaves have fallen, the reed stems cause predominately double-bounce scattering. Our study showed that the five most important parameters for the classification of reed are the intensity difference HH-VV, the mean alpha scattering angle, intensity ratio HH/VV, and the coherence (phase). Due to the better separation of reed and other vegetation (deciduous forest, coniferous forest, meadow), winter acquisitions are preferred for the mapping of reed. Multi-temporal stacks of winter images performed better than summer ones. The combination of ascending and descending images also improved the result as it reduces the influence of the sensor look direction. However, in this study, only an accuracy of ~50% correct classified reed areas was reached. Whereas the shorelines with reed areas (>10 m broad) could be detected correctly, the actual reed areas were significantly overestimated. The main source of error is probably the challenging data geocoding causing geolocation inaccuracies, which need to be solved in future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calibration and Validation of Synthetic Aperture Radar)
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