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Special Issue "Aptamer-Based Sensors"

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A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 October 2011)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Dipankar Sen (Website)

Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada V5A 1S6
Interests: DNA; RNA; ribozymes; deoxyribozymes; in vitro selection; catalysis; charge transfer; biosensors; photochemistry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Antibodies have been the traditional sensing platform underlying sensor design for the detection of biomedically and environmentally important “analytes”. However, in recent years, “aptamers”—DNA and RNA molecules with antibody-like properties of high-affinity and -specificity binding to analytes of interest—have started to assert themselves in the latest generations of sensors. In a number of ways, aptamers make excellent substitutes for antibodies: they are chemically stable, easily and inexpensively synthesized, and do not elicit a significant immune response if used in vivo. However, the isolation of a high-quality aptamer against a designated analyte does not in itself guarantee its usefulness as a biosensor; there is also the necessity for an effective transduction mechanism, such that analyte binding generates a quantifiable output (often optical or electronic) signal. This special issue of Sensors focuses on the variety of elegant approaches that have recently been taken to generate aptamer-based sensors—a new paradigm in analyte detection.

Prof. Dr. Dipankar Sen
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • biosensor
  • aptamer
  • analyte
  • SELEX
  • transduction
  • fluorescence
  • absorbance
  • electronics

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle A Conjugated Aptamer-Gold Nanoparticle Fluorescent Probe for Highly Sensitive Detection of rHuEPO-α
Sensors 2011, 11(11), 10490-10501; doi:10.3390/s111110490
Received: 24 August 2011 / Revised: 11 October 2011 / Accepted: 1 November 2011 / Published: 3 November 2011
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (709 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present here a novel conjugated aptamer-gold nanoparticle (Apt-AuNPs) fluorescent probe and its application for specific detection of recombinant human erythropoietin-α (rHuEPO-α). In this nanobiosensor, 12 nm AuNPs function as both a nano-scaffold and a nano-quencher (fluorescent energy acceptor), on the surface [...] Read more.
We present here a novel conjugated aptamer-gold nanoparticle (Apt-AuNPs) fluorescent probe and its application for specific detection of recombinant human erythropoietin-α (rHuEPO-α). In this nanobiosensor, 12 nm AuNPs function as both a nano-scaffold and a nano-quencher (fluorescent energy acceptor), on the surface of which the complementary sequences are linked (as cODN-AuNPs) and pre-hybridized with carboxymethylfluorescein (FAM)-labeled anti-rHuEPO-α aptamers. Upon target protein binding, the aptamers can be released from the AuNP surface and the fluorescence signal is restored. Key variables such as the length of linker, the hybridization site and length have been designed and optimized. Full performance evaluation including sensitivity, linear range and interference substances are also described. This nanobiosensor provides a promising approach for a simple and direct quantification of rHuEPO-α concentrations as low as 0.92 nM within a few hours. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aptamer-Based Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Human Thrombin Detection Through a Sandwich Aptamer Microarray: Interaction Analysis in Solution and in Solid Phase
Sensors 2011, 11(10), 9426-9441; doi:10.3390/s111009426
Received: 29 July 2011 / Revised: 27 September 2011 / Accepted: 28 September 2011 / Published: 3 October 2011
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (469 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have developed an aptamer-based microarray for human thrombin detection exploiting two non-overlapping DNA thrombin aptamers recognizing different exosites of the target protein. The 15-mer aptamer (TBA1) binds the fibrinogen-binding site, whereas the 29-mer aptamer (TBA2) binds the heparin binding domain. Extensive [...] Read more.
We have developed an aptamer-based microarray for human thrombin detection exploiting two non-overlapping DNA thrombin aptamers recognizing different exosites of the target protein. The 15-mer aptamer (TBA1) binds the fibrinogen-binding site, whereas the 29-mer aptamer (TBA2) binds the heparin binding domain. Extensive analysis on the complex formation between human thrombin and modified aptamers was performed by Electrophoresis Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA), in order to verify in solution whether the chemical modifications introduced would affect aptamers/protein recognition. The validated system was then applied to the aptamer microarray, using the solid phase system devised by the solution studies. Finally, the best procedure for Sandwich Aptamer Microarray (SAM) and the specificity of the sandwich formation for the developed aptasensor for human thrombin were optimized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aptamer-Based Sensors)
Figures

Open AccessArticle A Guided Mode Resonance Aptasensor for Thrombin Detection
Sensors 2011, 11(9), 8953-8965; doi:10.3390/s110908953
Received: 21 July 2011 / Revised: 27 August 2011 / Accepted: 15 September 2011 / Published: 19 September 2011
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (791 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent developments in aptamers have led to their widespread use in analytical and diagnostic applications, particularly for biosensing. Previous studies have combined aptamers as ligands with various sensors for numerous applications. However, merging the aptamer developments with guided mode resonance (GMR) devices [...] Read more.
Recent developments in aptamers have led to their widespread use in analytical and diagnostic applications, particularly for biosensing. Previous studies have combined aptamers as ligands with various sensors for numerous applications. However, merging the aptamer developments with guided mode resonance (GMR) devices has not been attempted. This study reports an aptasensor based home built GMR device. The 29-mer thrombin aptamer was immobilized on the surface of a GMR device as a recognizing ligand for thrombin detection. The sensitivity reported in this first trial study is 0.04 nm/μM for thrombin detection in the concentration range from 0.25 to 1 μM and the limit of detection (LOD) is 0.19 μM. Furthermore, the binding affinity constant (Ka) measured is in the range of 106 M−1. The investigation has demonstrated that such a GMR aptasensor has the required sensitivity for the real time, label-free, in situ detection of thrombin and provides kinetic information related to the binding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aptamer-Based Sensors)

Review

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Open AccessReview Waveguide-Mode Sensors as Aptasensors
Sensors 2012, 12(2), 2136-2151; doi:10.3390/s120202136
Received: 11 January 2012 / Revised: 7 February 2012 / Accepted: 8 February 2012 / Published: 15 February 2012
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (960 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aptamers are artificial nucleic acid ligands that can be generated by in vitro selection through partition and amplification. Aptamers can be generated against a wide range of biomolecules through the formation of versatile stem-loop structures. Because aptamers are potential substitutes for antibodies [...] Read more.
Aptamers are artificial nucleic acid ligands that can be generated by in vitro selection through partition and amplification. Aptamers can be generated against a wide range of biomolecules through the formation of versatile stem-loop structures. Because aptamers are potential substitutes for antibodies and drugs, the development of an aptamer-based sensor (aptasensor) is mandatory for diagnosis. We previously reported that waveguide-mode sensors are useful in the analysis of a wide range of biomolecular interactions, including aptamers. The advantages of the waveguide-mode sensor that we developed include physical and chemical stability and that higher sensitivity can be achieved with ease by perforating the waveguide layer or using colored materials such as dyes or metal nanoparticles as labels. Herein, we provide an overview of the strategies and applications for aptamer-based analyses using waveguide-mode sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aptamer-Based Sensors)
Figures

Open AccessReview Applications of Aptasensors in Clinical Diagnostics
Sensors 2012, 12(2), 1181-1193; doi:10.3390/s120201181
Received: 19 December 2011 / Revised: 11 January 2012 / Accepted: 29 January 2012 / Published: 30 January 2012
Cited by 38 | PDF Full-text (366 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aptamers are artificial oligonucleotides (DNA or RNA) selected in vitro that bind a broad range of targets with high affinity and specificity; a sensitive yet simple method to utilize aptamers as recognition elements for the development of biosensors (aptasensors) is to transduce [...] Read more.
Aptamers are artificial oligonucleotides (DNA or RNA) selected in vitro that bind a broad range of targets with high affinity and specificity; a sensitive yet simple method to utilize aptamers as recognition elements for the development of biosensors (aptasensors) is to transduce the signal electrochemically. So far, aptasensors have been applied to clinical diagnostics and several technologies are in development. Aptasensors will extend the limits of current clinical diagnostics. Although the potential diagnostic applications are unlimited, the most current applications are foreseen in the areas of biomarker detection, cancer clinical testing, detection of infectious microorganisms and viruses. This review attempts to list examples of the research progresses of aptamers in biosensor platforms that have been published in recent years; in particular, we display cases of aptasensors that are already incorporated in clinical diagnostics or have potential applications in clinical diagnostics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aptamer-Based Sensors)

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