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Special Issue "Selected Papers from The 2nd International Conference on Advanced Science and Technology"

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A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 October 2010)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Ruay-Shiung Chang (Website)

Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Dong Hwa University, No. 1, Section 2, Dashieh Road, Shoufeng, Hualien, Taiwan
Fax: +886 3 8634010
Interests: wireless networks; sensor networks; internet; cloud computing
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Tai-hoon Kim (Website)

Department of Multimedia Engineering, Hannam Universtiy, 133 Ojeong-dong, Daedeok-gu, Daejeon 306-791, Korea
Interests: information technology; information security; IT applicaion in disaster management

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The 2nd International Conference on Advanced Science and Technology will be held on June 23 - 25, 2010, at Sheraton Grande Ocean Resort, in Miyazaki, Japan. AST 2010 will be the most comprehensive conference focused on the various aspects of advances in Science and Technology. Our Conference provides a chance for academic and industry professionals to discuss recent progress in the area of Advanced Science and Technology. The goal of this conference is to bring together the researchers from academia and industry as well as practitioners to share ideas, problems and solutions relating to the multifaceted aspects of the Advanced Science and Technology.

Prof. Dr. Ruay-Shiung Chang
Prof. Dr. Tai-hoon Kim
Guest Editors

Conference website: http://sersc.org/AST2010/

Published Papers (20 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Coverage Assessment and Target Tracking in 3D Domains
Sensors 2011, 11(10), 9904-9927; doi:10.3390/s111009904
Received: 20 August 2011 / Revised: 15 September 2011 / Accepted: 15 September 2011 / Published: 20 October 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (11181 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent advances in integrated electronic devices motivated the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) in many applications including domain surveillance and mobile target tracking, where a number of sensors are scattered within a sensitive region to detect the presence of intruders and [...] Read more.
Recent advances in integrated electronic devices motivated the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) in many applications including domain surveillance and mobile target tracking, where a number of sensors are scattered within a sensitive region to detect the presence of intruders and forward related events to some analysis center(s). Obviously, sensor deployment should guarantee an optimal event detection rate and should reduce coverage holes. Most of the coverage control approaches proposed in the literature deal with two-dimensional zones and do not develop strategies to handle coverage in three-dimensional domains, which is becoming a requirement for many applications including water monitoring, indoor surveillance, and projectile tracking. This paper proposes efficient techniques to detect coverage holes in a 3D domain using a finite set of sensors, repair the holes, and track hostile targets. To this end, we use the concepts of Voronoi tessellation, Vietoris complex, and retract by deformation. We show in particular that, through a set of iterative transformations of the Vietoris complex corresponding to the deployed sensors, the number of coverage holes can be computed with a low complexity. Mobility strategies are also proposed to repair holes by moving appropriately sensors towards the uncovered zones. The tracking objective is to set a non-uniform WSN coverage within the monitored domain to allow detecting the target(s) by the set of sensors. We show, in particular, how the proposed algorithms adapt to cope with obstacles. Simulation experiments are carried out to analyze the efficiency of the proposed models. To our knowledge, repairing and tracking is addressed for the first time in 3D spaces with different sensor coverage schemes. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Lightweight Data Integrity Scheme for Sensor Networks
Sensors 2011, 11(4), 4118-4136; doi:10.3390/s110404118
Received: 10 March 2011 / Accepted: 6 April 2011 / Published: 7 April 2011
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (345 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Limited energy is the most critical constraint that limits the capabilities of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Most sensors operate on batteries with limited power. Battery recharging or replacement may be impossible. Security mechanisms that are based on public key cryptographic algorithms such [...] Read more.
Limited energy is the most critical constraint that limits the capabilities of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Most sensors operate on batteries with limited power. Battery recharging or replacement may be impossible. Security mechanisms that are based on public key cryptographic algorithms such as RSA and digital signatures are prohibitively expensive in terms of energy consumption and storage requirements, and thus unsuitable for WSN applications. This paper proposes a new fragile watermarking technique to detect unauthorized alterations in WSN data streams. We propose the FWC-D scheme, which uses group delimiters to keep the sender and receivers synchronized and help them to avoid ambiguity in the event of data insertion or deletion. The watermark, which is computed using a hash function, is stored in the previous group in a linked-list fashion to ensure data freshness and mitigate replay attacks, FWC-D generates a serial number SN that is attached to each group to help the receiver determines how many group insertions or deletions occurred. Detailed security analysis that compares the proposed FWC-D scheme with SGW, one of the latest integrity schemes for WSNs, shows that FWC-D is more robust than SGW. Simulation results further show that the proposed scheme is much faster than SGW. Full article
Open AccessArticle Design and Development of a Run-Time Monitor for Multi-Core Architectures in Cloud Computing
Sensors 2011, 11(4), 3595-3610; doi:10.3390/s110403595
Received: 31 January 2011 / Revised: 10 March 2011 / Accepted: 12 March 2011 / Published: 25 March 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1653 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cloud computing is a new information technology trend that moves computing and data away from desktops and portable PCs into large data centers. The basic principle of cloud computing is to deliver applications as services over the Internet as well as infrastructure. [...] Read more.
Cloud computing is a new information technology trend that moves computing and data away from desktops and portable PCs into large data centers. The basic principle of cloud computing is to deliver applications as services over the Internet as well as infrastructure. A cloud is a type of parallel and distributed system consisting of a collection of inter-connected and virtualized computers that are dynamically provisioned and presented as one or more unified computing resources. The large-scale distributed applications on a cloud require adaptive service-based software, which has the capability of monitoring system status changes, analyzing the monitored information, and adapting its service configuration while considering tradeoffs among multiple QoS features simultaneously. In this paper, we design and develop a Run-Time Monitor (RTM) which is a system software to monitor the application behavior at run-time, analyze the collected information, and optimize cloud computing resources for multi-core architectures. RTM monitors application software through library instrumentation as well as underlying hardware through a performance counter optimizing its computing configuration based on the analyzed data. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Target Coverage Scheduling Scheme Based on Genetic Algorithms in Directional Sensor Networks
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 1888-1906; doi:10.3390/s110201888
Received: 7 December 2010 / Revised: 21 January 2011 / Accepted: 28 January 2011 / Published: 1 February 2011
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (607 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As a promising tool for monitoring the physical world, directional sensor networks (DSNs) consisting of a large number of directional sensors are attracting increasing attention. As directional sensors in DSNs have limited battery power and restricted angles of sensing range, maximizing the [...] Read more.
As a promising tool for monitoring the physical world, directional sensor networks (DSNs) consisting of a large number of directional sensors are attracting increasing attention. As directional sensors in DSNs have limited battery power and restricted angles of sensing range, maximizing the network lifetime while monitoring all the targets in a given area remains a challenge. A major technique to conserve the energy of directional sensors is to use a node wake-up scheduling protocol by which some sensors remain active to provide sensing services, while the others are inactive to conserve their energy. In this paper, we first address a Maximum Set Covers for DSNs (MSCD) problem, which is known to be NP-complete, and present a greedy algorithm-based target coverage scheduling scheme that can solve this problem by heuristics. This scheme is used as a baseline for comparison. We then propose a target coverage scheduling scheme based on a genetic algorithm that can find the optimal cover sets to extend the network lifetime while monitoring all targets by the evolutionary global search technique. To verify and evaluate these schemes, we conducted simulations and showed that the schemes can contribute to extending the network lifetime. Simulation results indicated that the genetic algorithm-based scheduling scheme had better performance than the greedy algorithm-based scheme in terms of maximizing network lifetime. Full article
Open AccessArticle IJA: An Efficient Algorithm for Query Processing in Sensor Networks
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 1682-1692; doi:10.3390/s110201682
Received: 29 November 2010 / Revised: 10 January 2011 / Accepted: 12 January 2011 / Published: 28 January 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (364 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
One of main features in sensor networks is the function that processes real time state information after gathering needed data from many domains. The component technologies consisting of each node called a sensor node that are including physical sensors, processors, actuators and [...] Read more.
One of main features in sensor networks is the function that processes real time state information after gathering needed data from many domains. The component technologies consisting of each node called a sensor node that are including physical sensors, processors, actuators and power have advanced significantly over the last decade. Thanks to the advanced technology, over time sensor networks have been adopted in an all-round industry sensing physical phenomenon. However, sensor nodes in sensor networks are considerably constrained because with their energy and memory resources they have a very limited ability to process any information compared to conventional computer systems. Thus query processing over the nodes should be constrained because of their limitations. Due to the problems, the join operations in sensor networks are typically processed in a distributed manner over a set of nodes and have been studied. By way of example while simple queries, such as select and aggregate queries, in sensor networks have been addressed in the literature, the processing of join queries in sensor networks remains to be investigated. Therefore, in this paper, we propose and describe an Incremental Join Algorithm (IJA) in Sensor Networks to reduce the overhead caused by moving a join pair to the final join node or to minimize the communication cost that is the main consumer of the battery when processing the distributed queries in sensor networks environments. At the same time, the simulation result shows that the proposed IJA algorithm significantly reduces the number of bytes to be moved to join nodes compared to the popular synopsis join algorithm. Full article
Open AccessArticle Secure Chaotic Map Based Block Cryptosystem with Application to Camera Sensor Networks
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 1607-1619; doi:10.3390/s110201607
Received: 10 December 2010 / Revised: 10 January 2011 / Accepted: 15 January 2011 / Published: 27 January 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (465 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently, Wang et al. presented an efficient logistic map based block encryption system. The encryption system employs feedback ciphertext to achieve plaintext dependence of sub-keys. Unfortunately, we discovered that their scheme is unable to withstand key stream attack. To improve its security, [...] Read more.
Recently, Wang et al. presented an efficient logistic map based block encryption system. The encryption system employs feedback ciphertext to achieve plaintext dependence of sub-keys. Unfortunately, we discovered that their scheme is unable to withstand key stream attack. To improve its security, this paper proposes a novel chaotic map based block cryptosystem. At the same time, a secure architecture for camera sensor network is constructed. The network comprises a set of inexpensive camera sensors to capture the images, a sink node equipped with sufficient computation and storage capabilities and a data processing server. The transmission security between the sink node and the server is gained by utilizing the improved cipher. Both theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that the improved algorithm can overcome the flaws and maintain all the merits of the original cryptosystem. In addition, computational costs and efficiency of the proposed scheme are encouraging for the practical implementation in the real environment as well as camera sensor network. Full article
Open AccessArticle Path Renewal Method in Filtering Based Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2011, 11(2), 1396-1404; doi:10.3390/s110201396
Received: 25 November 2010 / Revised: 4 January 2011 / Accepted: 21 January 2011 / Published: 26 January 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (265 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In applications of wireless sensor networks, there are many security issues. Attackers can create false reports and transmit the reports to the networks. These false reports can lead not only false alarms, but also the depletion of limited energy resources. In order [...] Read more.
In applications of wireless sensor networks, there are many security issues. Attackers can create false reports and transmit the reports to the networks. These false reports can lead not only false alarms, but also the depletion of limited energy resources. In order to filter out such false reports during the forwarding process, Ye et al. proposed the statistical en-route filtering (SEF). Several research efforts to enhance the efficiency of SEF have been made. Especially, the path selection method proposed by Sun et al. can improve the detection power of SEF by considering the information on the filtering keys of and distances of upstream paths. However, such selection mechanism could lead to favored paths in heavy traffic, which would result in unbalanced energy consumption. In this paper, we propose a path renewal method to provide load balancing for sensor networks in terms of energy consumption. In our method, a node renews its upstream path to save energy resources if the remaining energy of and the communication traffic of the node exceed some threshold values. We show the effectiveness of the proposed method in terms of balanced energy consumption and filtering power by providing simulation results. Full article
Open AccessArticle RFID Label Tag Design for Metallic Surface Environments
Sensors 2011, 11(1), 938-948; doi:10.3390/s110100938
Received: 3 November 2010 / Revised: 9 December 2010 / Accepted: 6 January 2011 / Published: 17 January 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (551 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes a metal mount RFID tag that works reliably on metallic surfaces. The method proposes the use of commercial label type RFID tags with 2.5 mm thick Styrofoam103.7 with a relative permittivity of 1.03 attached on the back of the [...] Read more.
This paper describes a metal mount RFID tag that works reliably on metallic surfaces. The method proposes the use of commercial label type RFID tags with 2.5 mm thick Styrofoam103.7 with a relative permittivity of 1.03 attached on the back of the tag. In order to verify the performance of the proposed method, we performed experiments on an electric transformer supply chain system. The experimental results showed that the proposed tags can communicate with readers from a distance of 2 m. The recognition rates are comparable to those of commercial metallic mountable tags. Full article
Open AccessArticle Self-Configuration and Self-Optimization Process in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks
Sensors 2011, 11(1), 425-454; doi:10.3390/s110100425
Received: 13 November 2010 / Revised: 20 December 2010 / Accepted: 22 December 2010 / Published: 31 December 2010
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5690 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Self-organization in Wireless Mesh Networks (WMN) is an emergent research area, which is becoming important due to the increasing number of nodes in a network. Consequently, the manual configuration of nodes is either impossible or highly costly. So it is desirable for [...] Read more.
Self-organization in Wireless Mesh Networks (WMN) is an emergent research area, which is becoming important due to the increasing number of nodes in a network. Consequently, the manual configuration of nodes is either impossible or highly costly. So it is desirable for the nodes to be able to configure themselves. In this paper, we propose an alternative architecture for self-organization of WMN based on Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (OLSR) and the ad hoc on demand distance vector (AODV) routing protocols as well as using the technology of software agents. We argue that the proposed self-optimization and self-configuration modules increase the throughput of network, reduces delay transmission and network load, decreases the traffic of HELLO messages according to network’s scalability. By simulation analysis, we conclude that the self-optimization and self-configuration mechanisms can significantly improve the performance of OLSR and AODV protocols in comparison to the baseline protocols analyzed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Wireless Sensor Network-Based Ubiquitous Paprika Growth Management System
Sensors 2010, 10(12), 11566-11589; doi:10.3390/s101211566
Received: 20 November 2010 / Revised: 9 December 2010 / Accepted: 14 December 2010 / Published: 16 December 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1311 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technology can facilitate advances in productivity, safety and human quality of life through its applications in various industries. In particular, the application of WSN technology to the agricultural area, which is labor-intensive compared to other industries, and in [...] Read more.
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technology can facilitate advances in productivity, safety and human quality of life through its applications in various industries. In particular, the application of WSN technology to the agricultural area, which is labor-intensive compared to other industries, and in addition is typically lacking in IT technology applications, adds value and can increase the agricultural productivity. This study attempts to establish a ubiquitous agricultural environment and improve the productivity of farms that grow paprika by suggesting a ‘Ubiquitous Paprika Greenhouse Management System’ using WSN technology. The proposed system can collect and monitor information related to the growth environment of crops outside and inside paprika greenhouses by installing WSN sensors and monitoring images captured by CCTV cameras. In addition, the system provides a paprika greenhouse environment control facility for manual and automatic control from a distance, improves the convenience and productivity of users, and facilitates an optimized environment to grow paprika based on the growth environment data acquired by operating the system. Full article
Open AccessArticle Performance Analysis of Receive Diversity in Wireless Sensor Networks over GBSBE Models
Sensors 2010, 10(12), 11021-11037; doi:10.3390/s101211021
Received: 14 October 2010 / Revised: 22 November 2010 / Accepted: 25 November 2010 / Published: 3 December 2010
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (451 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wireless sensor networks have attracted a lot of attention recently. In this paper, we develop a channel model based on the elliptical model for multipath components involving randomly placed scatterers in the scattering region with sensors deployed on a field. We verify [...] Read more.
Wireless sensor networks have attracted a lot of attention recently. In this paper, we develop a channel model based on the elliptical model for multipath components involving randomly placed scatterers in the scattering region with sensors deployed on a field. We verify that in a sensor network, the use of receive diversity techniques improves the performance of the system. Extensive performance analysis of the system is carried out for both single and multiple antennas with the applied receive diversity techniques. Performance analyses based on variations in receiver height, maximum multipath delay and transmit power have been performed considering different numbers of antenna elements present in the receiver array, Our results show that increasing the number of antenna elements for a wireless sensor network does indeed improve the BER rates that can be obtained. Full article
Open AccessArticle Study of the Ubiquitous Hog Farm System Using Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring and Facilities Control
Sensors 2010, 10(12), 10752-10777; doi:10.3390/s101210752
Received: 2 November 2010 / Revised: 16 November 2010 / Accepted: 26 November 2010 / Published: 2 December 2010
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (1193 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many hog farmers are now suffering from high pig mortality rates due to various wasting diseases and increased breeding costs, etc. It is therefore necessary for hog farms to implement systematic and scientific pig production technology to increase productivity and produce high [...] Read more.
Many hog farmers are now suffering from high pig mortality rates due to various wasting diseases and increased breeding costs, etc. It is therefore necessary for hog farms to implement systematic and scientific pig production technology to increase productivity and produce high quality pork in order to solve these problems. In this study, we describe such a technology by suggesting a ubiquitous hog farm system which applies WSN (Wireless Sensor Network) technology to the pig industry. We suggest that a WSN and CCTV (Closed-circuit television) should be installed on hog farms to collect environmental and image information which shall then help producers not only in monitoring the hog farm via the Web from outside the farm, but also facilitate the control of hog farm facilities in remote locations. In addition, facilities can be automatically controlled based on breeding environment parameters which are already set up and a SMS notice service to notify of deviations shall provide users with convenience. Hog farmers may increase production and improve pork quality through this ubiquitous hog farm system and prepare a database with information collected from environmental factors and the hog farm control devices, which is expected to provide information needed to design and implement suitable control strategies for hog farm operation. Full article
Open AccessArticle Dynamic Load Balancing Data Centric Storage for Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2010, 10(11), 10328-10338; doi:10.3390/s101110328
Received: 12 October 2010 / Revised: 3 November 2010 / Accepted: 10 October 2010 / Published: 17 November 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (237 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a new data centric storage that is dynamically adapted to the work load changes is proposed. The proposed data centric storage distributes the load of hot spot areas to neighboring sensor nodes by using a multilevel grid technique. The [...] Read more.
In this paper, a new data centric storage that is dynamically adapted to the work load changes is proposed. The proposed data centric storage distributes the load of hot spot areas to neighboring sensor nodes by using a multilevel grid technique. The proposed method is also able to use existing routing protocols such as GPSR (Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing) with small changes. Through simulation, the proposed method enhances the lifetime of sensor networks over one of the state-of-the-art data centric storages. We implement the proposed method based on an operating system for sensor networks, and evaluate the performance through running based on a simulation tool. Full article
Open AccessArticle Sensor Based Framework for Secure Multimedia Communication in VANET
Sensors 2010, 10(11), 10146-10154; doi:10.3390/s101110146
Received: 29 September 2010 / Revised: 9 November 2010 / Accepted: 10 November 2010 / Published: 11 November 2010
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (221 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Secure multimedia communication enhances the safety of passengers by providing visual pictures of accidents and danger situations. In this paper we proposed a framework for secure multimedia communication in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs). Our proposed framework is mainly divided into four components: [...] Read more.
Secure multimedia communication enhances the safety of passengers by providing visual pictures of accidents and danger situations. In this paper we proposed a framework for secure multimedia communication in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs). Our proposed framework is mainly divided into four components: redundant information, priority assignment, malicious data verification and malicious node verification. The proposed scheme jhas been validated with the help of the NS-2 network simulator and the Evalvid tool. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Design of Wireless Sensor Networks for a Power Quality Monitoring System
Sensors 2010, 10(11), 9712-9725; doi:10.3390/s101109712
Received: 15 September 2010 / Revised: 14 October 2010 / Accepted: 20 October 2010 / Published: 1 November 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (555 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Power grids deal with the business of generation, transmission, and distribution of electric power. Recently, interest in power quality in electrical distribution systems has increased rapidly. In Korea, the communication network to deliver voltage, current, and temperature measurements gathered from pole transformers [...] Read more.
Power grids deal with the business of generation, transmission, and distribution of electric power. Recently, interest in power quality in electrical distribution systems has increased rapidly. In Korea, the communication network to deliver voltage, current, and temperature measurements gathered from pole transformers to remote monitoring centers employs cellular mobile technology. Due to high cost of the cellular mobile technology, power quality monitoring measurements are limited and data gathering intervals are large. This causes difficulties in providing the power quality monitoring service. To alleviate the problems, in this paper we present a communication infrastructure to provide low cost, reliable data delivery. The communication infrastructure consists of wired connections between substations and monitoring centers, and wireless connections between pole transformers and substations. For the wireless connection, we employ a wireless sensor network and design its corresponding data forwarding protocol to improve the quality of data delivery. For the design, we adopt a tree-based data forwarding protocol in order to customize the distribution pattern of the power quality information. We verify the performance of the proposed data forwarding protocol quantitatively using the NS-2 network simulator. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Feedback-Based Secure Path Approach for Wireless Sensor Network Data Collection
Sensors 2010, 10(10), 9529-9540; doi:10.3390/s101009529
Received: 16 August 2010 / Revised: 13 September 2010 / Accepted: 19 October 2010 / Published: 22 October 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (517 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The unattended nature of wireless sensor networks makes them very vulnerable to malicious attacks. Therefore, how to preserve secure data collection is an important issue to wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a novel approach of secure data collection for [...] Read more.
The unattended nature of wireless sensor networks makes them very vulnerable to malicious attacks. Therefore, how to preserve secure data collection is an important issue to wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a novel approach of secure data collection for wireless sensor networks. We explore secret sharing and multipath routing to achieve secure data collection in wireless sensor network with compromised nodes. We present a novel tracing-feedback mechanism, which makes full use of the routing functionality of wireless sensor networks, to improve the quality of data collection. The major advantage of the approach is that the secure paths are constructed as a by-product of data collection. The process of secure routing causes little overhead to the sensor nodes in the network. Compared with existing works, the algorithms of the proposed approach are easy to implement and execute in resource-constrained wireless sensor networks. According to the result of a simulation experiment, the performance of the approach is better than the recent approaches with a similar purpose. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Reliable Data Delivery Mechanism for Grid Power Quality Using Neural Networks in Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2010, 10(10), 9349-9358; doi:10.3390/s101009349
Received: 23 August 2010 / Revised: 24 September 2010 / Accepted: 30 September 2010 / Published: 18 October 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (433 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Power grids deal with the business of generation, transmission, and distribution of electric power. Current systems monitor basic electrical quantities such as voltage and current from major pole transformers using their temperature. We improve the current systems in order to gather and [...] Read more.
Power grids deal with the business of generation, transmission, and distribution of electric power. Current systems monitor basic electrical quantities such as voltage and current from major pole transformers using their temperature. We improve the current systems in order to gather and deliver the information of power qualities such as harmonics, voltage sags, and voltage swells. In the system, data delivery is not guaranteed for the case that a node is lost or the network is congested, because the system has in-line and multi-hop architecture. In this paper, we propose a reliable data delivery mechanism by modeling an optimal data delivery function by employing the neural network concept. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Bankruptcy Problem Approach to Load-shedding in Multiagent-based Microgrid Operation
Sensors 2010, 10(10), 8888-8898; doi:10.3390/s101008888
Received: 24 August 2010 / Revised: 19 September 2010 / Accepted: 26 September 2010 / Published: 28 September 2010
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (549 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A microgrid is composed of distributed power generation systems (DGs), distributed energy storage devices (DSs), and loads. To maintain a specific frequency in the islanded mode as an important requirement,  the control of DGs’ output and charge action of DSs are used [...] Read more.
A microgrid is composed of distributed power generation systems (DGs), distributed energy storage devices (DSs), and loads. To maintain a specific frequency in the islanded mode as an important requirement,  the control of DGs’ output and charge action of DSs are used in supply surplus conditions and load-shedding and discharge action of DSs are used in supply shortage conditions. Recently, multiagent systems for autonomous microgrid operation have been studied. Especially, load-shedding, which is intentional reduction of electricity use, is a critical problem in islanded microgrid operation based on the multiagent system. Therefore, effective schemes for load-shedding are required. Meanwhile, the bankruptcy problem deals with dividing short resources among multiple agents. In order to solve the bankruptcy problem, division rules, such as the constrained equal awards rule (CEA), the constrained equal losses rule (CEL), and the random arrival rule (RA), have been used. In this paper, we approach load-shedding as a bankruptcy problem. We compare load-shedding results by above-mentioned rules in islanded microgrid operation based on wireless sensor network (WSN) as the communication link for an agent’s interactions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Broadcast Authentication for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Nested Hashing and the Chinese Remainder Theorem
Sensors 2010, 10(9), 8683-8695; doi:10.3390/s100908683
Received: 23 July 2010 / Revised: 23 August 2010 / Accepted: 6 September 2010 / Published: 17 September 2010
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (173 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Secure broadcasting is an essential feature for critical operations in wireless sensor network (WSNs). However, due to the limited resources of sensor networks, verifying the authenticity for broadcasted messages is a very difficult issue. μTESLA is a broadcast authentication protocol, which uses [...] Read more.
Secure broadcasting is an essential feature for critical operations in wireless sensor network (WSNs). However, due to the limited resources of sensor networks, verifying the authenticity for broadcasted messages is a very difficult issue. μTESLA is a broadcast authentication protocol, which uses network-wide loose time synchronization with one-way hashed keys to provide the authenticity verification. However, it suffers from several flaws considering the delay tolerance, and the chain length restriction. In this paper, we propose a protocol which provides broadcast authentication for wireless sensor networks. This protocol uses a nested hash chain of two different hash functions and the Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT). The two different nested hash functions are employed for the seed updating and the key generation. Each sensor node is challenged independently with a common broadcasting message using the CRT. Our algorithm provides forward and non-restricted key generation, and in addition, no time synchronization is required. Furthermore, receivers can instantly authenticate packets in real time. Moreover, the comprehensive analysis shows that this scheme is efficient and practical, and can achieve better performance than the μTESLA system. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview A Comparative Study of Wireless Sensor Networks and Their Routing Protocols
Sensors 2010, 10(12), 10506-10523; doi:10.3390/s101210506
Received: 10 October 2010 / Revised: 10 November 2010 / Accepted: 15 November 2010 / Published: 24 November 2010
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (97 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent developments in the area of micro-sensor devices have accelerated advances in the sensor networks field leading to many new protocols specifically designed for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Wireless sensor networks with hundreds to thousands of sensor nodes can gather information from [...] Read more.
Recent developments in the area of micro-sensor devices have accelerated advances in the sensor networks field leading to many new protocols specifically designed for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Wireless sensor networks with hundreds to thousands of sensor nodes can gather information from an unattended location and transmit the gathered data to a particular user, depending on the application. These sensor nodes have some constraints due to their limited energy, storage capacity and computing power. Data are routed from one node to other using different routing protocols. There are a number of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. In this review article, we discuss the architecture of wireless sensor networks. Further, we categorize the routing protocols according to some key factors and summarize their mode of operation. Finally, we provide a comparative study on these various protocols. Full article

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