E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Selected Papers from the 1st International Conference of the Chinese Society of Micro/Nano Technology"

Quicklinks

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 March 2009)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Xiaohao Wang (Website)

Associate Professor, Department of Precision Instruments and Mechanology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China

Special Issue Information

Summary

The 1st International Conference of the Chinese Society of Micro/Nano Technology

The 1st International Conference of the Chinese Society of Micro/Nano Technology was held in Beijing, China on November 19-21, 2008. The conference brought together top researchers from around the world to exchange research results and address open issues in all aspects of micro/nano technology. This special issue collects best papers from more than 300 contributions.

Keywords

  • Micro/Nano Technology

Published Papers (22 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-22
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Preparation of a Nanosized As2O3/Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 Complex and Its Anti-Tumor Effect on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells
Sensors 2009, 9(9), 7058-7068; doi:10.3390/s90907058
Received: 25 June 2009 / Revised: 17 August 2009 / Accepted: 3 September 2009 / Published: 4 September 2009
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (494 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Manganese-zinc-ferrite nanoparticles (Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4, MZF-NPs) prepared by an improved co-precipitation method and were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Then thermodynamic testing of various doses of MZF-NPs [...] Read more.
Manganese-zinc-ferrite nanoparticles (Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4, MZF-NPs) prepared by an improved co-precipitation method and were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Then thermodynamic testing of various doses of MZF-NPs was performed in vitro. The cytotoxicity of the Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles in vitro was tested by the MTT assay. A nanosized As2O3/Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 complex was made by an impregnation process. The complex’s shape, component, envelop rate and release rate of As2O3 were measured by SEM, EDS and atom fluorescence spectrometry, respectively. The therapeutic effect of nanosized As2O3/Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 complex combined with magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) on human hepatocelluar cells were evaluated in vitro by an MTT assay and flow cytometry. The results indicated that Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 and nanosized As2O3/Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 complex were both prepared successfully. The Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles had powerful absorption capabilities in a high-frequency alternating electromagnetic field, and had strong magnetic responsiveness. Moreover, Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 didn’t show cytotoxicity in vitro. The therapeutic result reveals that the nanosized As2O3/Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 complex can significantly inhibit the growth of hepatoma carcinoma cells. Full article
Open AccessArticle Design and Analyses of a MEMS Based Resonant Magnetometer
Sensors 2009, 9(9), 6951-6966; doi:10.3390/s90906951
Received: 2 July 2009 / Revised: 18 July 2009 / Accepted: 27 July 2009 / Published: 2 September 2009
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (910 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel design of a MEMS torsional resonant magnetometer based on Lorentz force is presented and fabricated. The magnetometer consists of a silicon resonator, torsional beam, excitation coil, capacitance plates and glass substrate. Working in a resonant condition, the sensor’s vibration amplitude [...] Read more.
A novel design of a MEMS torsional resonant magnetometer based on Lorentz force is presented and fabricated. The magnetometer consists of a silicon resonator, torsional beam, excitation coil, capacitance plates and glass substrate. Working in a resonant condition, the sensor’s vibration amplitude is converted into the sensing capacitance change, which reflects the outside magnetic flux-density. Based on the simulation, the key structure parameters are optimized and the air damping effect is estimated. The test results of the prototype are in accordance with the simulation results of the designed model. The resolution of the magnetometer can reach 30 nT. The test results indicate its sensitivity of more than 400 mV/μT when operating in a 10 Pa vacuum environment. Full article
Open AccessArticle Research of DOA Estimation Based on Single MEMS Vector Hydrophone
Sensors 2009, 9(9), 6823-6834; doi:10.3390/s90906823
Received: 5 February 2009 / Revised: 29 June 2009 / Accepted: 24 August 2009 / Published: 31 August 2009
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (694 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The MEMS vector hydrophone is a novel acoustic sensor with a “four-beamcilia” structure. Based on the MEMS vector hydrophone with this structure, the paper studies the method of estimated direction of arrival (DOA). According to various research papers, many algorithms can be [...] Read more.
The MEMS vector hydrophone is a novel acoustic sensor with a “four-beamcilia” structure. Based on the MEMS vector hydrophone with this structure, the paper studies the method of estimated direction of arrival (DOA). According to various research papers, many algorithms can be applied to vector hydrophones. The beam-forming approach and bar graph approach are described in detail. Laboratory tests by means of the a standing-wave tube are performed to validate the theoretical results. Both the theoretical analysis and the results of tests prove that the proposed MEMS vector hydrophone possesses the desired directional function. Full article
Open AccessArticle MEMS Biomimetic Acoustic Pressure Gradient Sensitive Structure for Sound Source Localization
Sensors 2009, 9(7), 5637-5648; doi:10.3390/s90705637
Received: 14 May 2009 / Revised: 17 June 2009 / Accepted: 6 July 2009 / Published: 15 July 2009
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (444 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea shows an astonishing localization ability with its tiny hearing organ. A novel MEMS biomimetic acoustic pressure gradient sensitive structure was designed and fabricated by mimicking the mechanically coupled tympana of the fly. Firstly, the analytic representation formulas [...] Read more.
The parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea shows an astonishing localization ability with its tiny hearing organ. A novel MEMS biomimetic acoustic pressure gradient sensitive structure was designed and fabricated by mimicking the mechanically coupled tympana of the fly. Firstly, the analytic representation formulas of the resultant force and resultant moment of the incoming plane wave acting on the structure were derived. After that, structure modal analysis was performed and the results show that the structure has out-of-phase and in-phase vibration modes, and the corresponding eigenfrequency is decided by the stiffness of vertical torsional beam and horizontal beam respectively. Acoustic-structural coupled analysis was performed and the results show that phase difference and amplitude difference between the responses of the two square diaphragms of the sensitive structure are effectively enlarged through mechanical coupling beam. The phase difference and amplitude difference increase with increasing incident angle and can be used to distinguish the direction of sound arrival. At last, the fabrication process and results of the device is also presented. Full article
Open AccessArticle Development of a Prototype Miniature Silicon Microgyroscope
Sensors 2009, 9(6), 4586-4605; doi:10.3390/s90604586
Received: 22 April 2009 / Revised: 25 May 2009 / Accepted: 4 June 2009 / Published: 11 June 2009
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1334 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A miniature vacuum-packaged silicon microgyroscope (SMG) with symmetrical and decoupled structure was designed to prevent unintended coupling between drive and sense modes. To ensure high resonant stability and strong disturbance resisting capacity, a self-oscillating closed-loop circuit including an automatic gain control (AGC) [...] Read more.
A miniature vacuum-packaged silicon microgyroscope (SMG) with symmetrical and decoupled structure was designed to prevent unintended coupling between drive and sense modes. To ensure high resonant stability and strong disturbance resisting capacity, a self-oscillating closed-loop circuit including an automatic gain control (AGC) loop based on electrostatic force feedback is adopted in drive mode, while, dual-channel decomposition and reconstruction closed loops are applied in sense mode. Moreover, the temperature effect on its zero bias was characterized experimentally and a practical compensation method is given. The testing results demonstrate that the useful signal and quadrature signal will not interact with each other because their phases are decoupled. Under a scale factor condition of 9.6 mV/o/s, in full measurement range of ± 300 deg/s, the zero bias stability reaches 15o/h with worse-case nonlinearity of 400 ppm, and the temperature variation trend of the SMG bias is thus largely eliminated, so that the maximum bias value is reduced to one tenth of the original after compensation from -40 oC to 80 oC. Full article
Open AccessArticle A High Isolation Series-Shunt RF MEMS Switch
Sensors 2009, 9(6), 4455-4464; doi:10.3390/s90604455
Received: 13 May 2009 / Revised: 20 May 2009 / Accepted: 22 May 2009 / Published: 5 June 2009
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (430 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a wide band compact high isolation microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) switch implemented on a coplanar waveguide (CPW) with three ohmic switch cells, which is based on the series-shunt switch design. The ohmic switch shows a low intrinsic loss of 0.1 [...] Read more.
This paper presents a wide band compact high isolation microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) switch implemented on a coplanar waveguide (CPW) with three ohmic switch cells, which is based on the series-shunt switch design. The ohmic switch shows a low intrinsic loss of 0.1 dB and an isolation of 24.8 dB at 6 GHz. The measured average pull-in voltage is 28 V and switching time is 47 µs. In order to shorten design period of the high isolation switch, a structure-based small-signal model for the 3-port ohmic MEMS switch is developed and parameters are extracted from the measured results. Then a high isolation switch has been developed where each 3-port ohmic MEMS switch is closely located. The agreement of the measured and modeled radio frequency (RF) performance demonstrates the validity of the electrical equivalent model. Measurements of the series-shunt switch indicate an outstanding isolation of more than 40 dB and a low insertion loss of 0.35 dB from DC to 12 GHz with total chip size of 1 mm × 1.2 mm. Full article
Open AccessArticle Design and Fabrication of a MEMS Flow Sensor and Its Application in Precise Liquid Dispensing
Sensors 2009, 9(6), 4138-4150; doi:10.3390/s90604138
Received: 17 April 2009 / Revised: 4 May 2009 / Accepted: 13 May 2009 / Published: 2 June 2009
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (344 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A high speed MEMS flow sensor to enhance the reliability and accuracy of a liquid dispensing system is proposed. Benefitting from the sensor information feedback, the system can self-adjust the open time of the solenoid valve to accurately dispense desired volumes of [...] Read more.
A high speed MEMS flow sensor to enhance the reliability and accuracy of a liquid dispensing system is proposed. Benefitting from the sensor information feedback, the system can self-adjust the open time of the solenoid valve to accurately dispense desired volumes of reagent without any pre-calibration. First, an integrated high-speed liquid flow sensor based on the measurement of the pressure difference across a flow channel is presented. Dimensions of the micro-flow channel and two pressure sensors have been appropriately designed to meet the static and dynamic requirements of the liquid dispensing system. Experiments results show that the full scale (FS) flow measurement ranges up to 80 μL/s, with a nonlinearity better than 0.51% FS. Secondly, a novel closed-loop control strategy is proposed to calculate the valve open time in each dispensing cycle, which makes the system immune to liquid viscosity, pressure fluctuation, and other sources of error. Finally, dispensing results show that the system can achieve better dispensing performance, and the coefficient of variance (CV) for liquid dispensing is below 3% at 1 μL and below 4% at 100 nL. Full article
Open AccessArticle Synthesis of the System Modeling and Signal Detecting Circuit of a Novel Vacuum Microelectronic Accelerometer
Sensors 2009, 9(6), 4104-4118; doi:10.3390/s90604104
Received: 5 May 2009 / Revised: 15 May 2009 / Accepted: 22 May 2009 / Published: 27 May 2009
PDF Full-text (809 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel high-precision vacuum microelectronic accelerometer has been successfully fabricated and tested in our laboratory. This accelerometer has unique advantages of high sensitivity, fast response, and anti-radiation stability. It is a prototype intended for navigation applications and is required to feature micro-g [...] Read more.
A novel high-precision vacuum microelectronic accelerometer has been successfully fabricated and tested in our laboratory. This accelerometer has unique advantages of high sensitivity, fast response, and anti-radiation stability. It is a prototype intended for navigation applications and is required to feature micro-g resolution. This paper briefly describes the structure and working principle of our vacuum microelectronic accelerometer, and the mathematical model is also established. The performances of the accelerometer system are discussed after Matlab modeling. The results show that, the dynamic response of the accelerometer system is significantly improved by choosing appropriate parameters of signal detecting circuit, and the signal detecting circuit is designed. In order to attain good linearity and performance, the closed-loop control mode is adopted. Weak current detection technology is studied, and integral T-style feedback network is used in I/V conversion, which will eliminate high-frequency noise at the front of the circuit. According to the modeling parameters, the low-pass filter is designed. This circuit is simple, reliable, and has high precision. Experiments are done and the results show that the vacuum microelectronic accelerometer exhibits good linearity over -1 g to +1 g, an output sensitivity of 543 mV/g, and a nonlinearity of 0.94 %. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Butyl Methacrylate Monolithic Column Prepared In-Situ on a Microfluidic Chip and its Applications
Sensors 2009, 9(5), 3437-3446; doi:10.3390/s90503437
Received: 6 February 2009 / Revised: 3 March 2009 / Accepted: 21 April 2009 / Published: 8 May 2009
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (465 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A butyl methacrylate (BMA) monolithic column was polymerized in-situ with UV irradiation in an ultraviolet transparent PDMS micro-channel on a homemade micro-fluidic chip. Under the optimized conditions and using a typical polymerization mixture consisting of 75% porogenic solvents and 25% monomers, [...] Read more.
A butyl methacrylate (BMA) monolithic column was polymerized in-situ with UV irradiation in an ultraviolet transparent PDMS micro-channel on a homemade micro-fluidic chip. Under the optimized conditions and using a typical polymerization mixture consisting of 75% porogenic solvents and 25% monomers, the BMA monolithic column was obtained as expected. The BET surface area ratio of the BMA monolithic column was 366 m2·g-1. The corresponding SEM images showed that the monolithic column material polymerized in a glass channel was composed of uniform pores and spherical particles with diameters ranging from 3 to 5 μm. The promethazine–luminal–potassium ferricyanide chemiluminescence system was selected for testing the capability of the column. A flow injection analytical technique–chemiluminescence (FIA–CL) system on the microfluidic chip with a BMA monolithic column pretreatment unit was established to determine promethazine. Trace promethazine was enriched by the BMA monolithic column, with more than a 10-fold average enrichment ratio. The proposed method has a linear response concentration range of 1.0×10-8 - 1.0×10-6g·mL-1 and the detection limit was 1.6×10-9g·mL-1. Full article
Open AccessArticle Mechanical-Thermal Noise in Drive-Mode of a Silicon Micro-Gyroscope
Sensors 2009, 9(5), 3357-3375; doi:10.3390/s90503357
Received: 7 April 2009 / Accepted: 6 May 2009 / Published: 7 May 2009
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (517 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new closed-loop drive scheme which decouples the phase and the gain of the closed-loop driving system was designed in a Silicon Micro-Gyroscope (SMG). We deduce the system model of closed-loop driving and use stochastic averaging to obtain an approximate “slow” system [...] Read more.
A new closed-loop drive scheme which decouples the phase and the gain of the closed-loop driving system was designed in a Silicon Micro-Gyroscope (SMG). We deduce the system model of closed-loop driving and use stochastic averaging to obtain an approximate “slow” system that clarifies the effect of thermal noise. The effects of mechanical-thermal noise on the driving performance of the SMG, including the noise spectral density of the driving amplitude and frequency, are derived. By calculating and comparing the noise amplitude due to thermal noise both in the opened-loop driving and in the closed-loop driving, we find that the closed-loop driving does not reduce the RMS noise amplitude. We observe that the RMS noise frequency can be reduced by increasing the quality factor and the drive amplitude in the closed-loop driving system. The experiment and simulation validate the feasibility of closed-loop driving and confirm the validity of the averaged equation and its stablility criterion. The experiment and simulation results indicate the electrical noise of closed-loop driving circuitry is bigger than the mechanical-thermal noise and as the driving mass decreases, the mechanical-thermal noise may get bigger than the electrical noise of the closed-loop driving circuitry. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effects of Anode Flow Field Design on CO2 Bubble Behavior in μDMFC
Sensors 2009, 9(5), 3314-3324; doi:10.3390/s90503314
Received: 15 April 2009 / Revised: 24 April 2009 / Accepted: 27 April 2009 / Published: 6 May 2009
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (556 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Clogging of anode flow channels by CO2 bubbles is a vital problem for further performance improvements of the micro direct methanol fuel cell (μDMFC). In this paper, a new type anode structure usingthe concept of the non-equipotent serpentine flow field ( [...] Read more.
Clogging of anode flow channels by CO2 bubbles is a vital problem for further performance improvements of the micro direct methanol fuel cell (μDMFC). In this paper, a new type anode structure usingthe concept of the non-equipotent serpentine flow field (NESFF) to solve this problem was designed, fabricated and tested. Experiments comparing the μDMFC with and without this type of anode flow field were implemented using a home-made test loop. Results show that the mean-value, amplitude and frequency of the inlet-to-outlet pressure drops in the NESFF is far lower than that in the traditional flow fields at high μDMFC output current. Furthermore, the sequential images of the CO2 bubbles as well as the μDMFC performance with different anode flow field pattern were also investigated, and the conclusions are in accordance with those derived from the pressure drop experiments. Results of this study indicate that the non-equipotent design of the µDMFC anode flow field can effectively mitigate the CO2 clogging in the flow channels, and hence lead to a significant promotion of the μDMFC performance. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Near-Infrared Spectrometer Based on Novel Grating Light Modulators
Sensors 2009, 9(4), 3109-3121; doi:10.3390/s90403109
Received: 24 February 2009 / Revised: 9 April 2009 / Accepted: 20 April 2009 / Published: 24 April 2009
PDF Full-text (1209 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A near-infrared spectrometer based on novel MOEMS grating light modulators is proposed. The spectrum detection method that combines a grating light modulator array with a single near-infrared detector has been applied. Firstly, optics theory has been used to analyze the essential principles [...] Read more.
A near-infrared spectrometer based on novel MOEMS grating light modulators is proposed. The spectrum detection method that combines a grating light modulator array with a single near-infrared detector has been applied. Firstly, optics theory has been used to analyze the essential principles of the proposed spectroscopic sensor. Secondly, the grating light modulators have been designed and fabricated by micro-machining technology. Finally, the principles of this spectroscopic sensor have been validated and its key parameters have been tested by experiments. The result shows that the spectral resolution is better than 10 nm, the wavelength deviation is less than 1 nm, the deviation of the intensity of peak wavelength is no more than 0.5%, the driving voltage of grating light modulators array device is below 25 V and the response frequency of it is about 5 kHz. With low cost, satisfactory precision, portability and other advantages, the spectrometer should find potential applications in food safety and quality monitoring, pharmaceutical identification and agriculture product quality classification. Full article
Open AccessArticle Orientation Effects in Ballistic High-Strained P-type Si Nanowire FETs
Sensors 2009, 9(4), 2746-2759; doi:10.3390/s90402746
Received: 22 March 2009 / Revised: 15 April 2009 / Accepted: 16 April 2009 / Published: 17 April 2009
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (671 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to design and optimize high-sensitivity silicon nanowire-field-effect transistor (SiNW FET) pressure sensors, this paper investigates the effects of channel orientations and the uniaxial stress on the ballistic hole transport properties of a strongly quantized SiNW FET placed near the high [...] Read more.
In order to design and optimize high-sensitivity silicon nanowire-field-effect transistor (SiNW FET) pressure sensors, this paper investigates the effects of channel orientations and the uniaxial stress on the ballistic hole transport properties of a strongly quantized SiNW FET placed near the high stress regions of the pressure sensors. A discrete stress-dependent six-band k.p method is used for subband structure calculation, coupled to a two-dimensional Poisson solver for electrostatics. A semi-classical ballistic FET model is then used to evaluate the ballistic current-voltage characteristics of SiNW FETs with and without strain. Our results presented here indicate that [110] is the optimum orientation for the p-type SiNW FETs and sensors. For the ultra-scaled 2.2 nm square SiNW, due to the limit of strong quantum confinement, the effect of the uniaxial stress on the magnitude of ballistic drive current is too small to be considered, except for the [100] orientation. However, for larger 5 nm square SiNW transistors with various transport orientations, the uniaxial tensile stress obviously alters the ballistic performance, while the uniaxial compressive stress slightly changes the ballistic hole current. Furthermore, the competition of injection velocity and carrier density related to the effective hole masses is found to play a critical role in determining the performance of the nanotransistors. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Peristaltic Micro Pump Driven by a Rotating Motor with Magnetically Attracted Steel Balls
Sensors 2009, 9(4), 2611-2620; doi:10.3390/s90402611
Received: 19 February 2009 / Revised: 30 March 2009 / Accepted: 1 April 2009 / Published: 15 April 2009
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (237 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we present a membrane peristaltic micro pump driven by a rotating motor with magnetically attracted steel balls for lab-on-a-chip applications. The fabrication process is based on standard soft lithography technology and bonding of a PDMS layer with a PMMA [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present a membrane peristaltic micro pump driven by a rotating motor with magnetically attracted steel balls for lab-on-a-chip applications. The fabrication process is based on standard soft lithography technology and bonding of a PDMS layer with a PMMA substrate. A linear flow rate range ~490 μL/min was obtained by simply varying the rotation speed of a DC motor, and a maximum back pressure of 592 Pa was achieved at a rotation speed of 43 rpm. The flow rate of the pump can also be adjusted by using steel balls with different diameters or changing the number of balls. Nevertheless, the micro pump can also work in high speed mode. A high back pressure up to 10 kPa was achieved at 500 rpm using a high speed DC motor, and an utmost flow rate up to 5 mL/min was reached. Full article
Open AccessArticle Fabrication of Submicron Beams with Galvanic Etch Stop for Si in TMAH
Sensors 2009, 9(4), 2470-2477; doi:10.3390/s90402470
Received: 17 February 2009 / Revised: 15 March 2009 / Accepted: 2 April 2009 / Published: 9 April 2009
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (270 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel method has been developed to fabricate submicron beams with galvanic etch stop for Si in TMAH. The different Au:Si area ratios before and after the release of the beams are used to trigger the galvanic etch stop to fabricate submicron [...] Read more.
A novel method has been developed to fabricate submicron beams with galvanic etch stop for Si in TMAH. The different Au:Si area ratios before and after the release of the beams are used to trigger the galvanic etch stop to fabricate submicron single crystal Si beams in standard Si wafers. Before the beams are released from the substrate, the Au electrodes are connected to the substrate electrically. The Au:Si area ratios are much smaller than the threshold value. TMAH etches the Si wafers. After the beams are fully released, they are mechanically supported by the Au wires, which also serve as the galvanic etch stop cathodes. The Au:Si area ratios are much larger than the threshold value. The beams are protected by galvanic etch stop. The thicknesses of the beams are determined by shallow dry etching before TMAH etching. A 530 nm thick beam was fabricated in standard (111) wafers. Experiments showed that the beam thicknesses did not change with over etching, even if the SiO2 layers on the surface of the beams were stripped. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Thermal Actuation Based 3-DoF Non-Resonant Microgyroscope Using MetalMUMPs
Sensors 2009, 9(4), 2389-2414; doi:10.3390/s90402389
Received: 21 February 2009 / Revised: 18 March 2009 / Accepted: 30 March 2009 / Published: 1 April 2009
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1783 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High force, large displacement and low voltage consumption are a primary concern for microgyroscopes. The chevron-shaped thermal actuators are unique in terms of high force generation combined with the large displacements at a low operating voltage in comparison with traditional electrostatic actuators. [...] Read more.
High force, large displacement and low voltage consumption are a primary concern for microgyroscopes. The chevron-shaped thermal actuators are unique in terms of high force generation combined with the large displacements at a low operating voltage in comparison with traditional electrostatic actuators. A Nickel based 3-DoF micromachined gyroscope comprising 2-DoF drive mode and 1-DoF sense mode oscillator utilizing the chevron-shaped thermal actuators is presented here. Analytical derivations and finite element simulations are carried out to predict the performance of the proposed device using the thermo-physical properties of electroplated nickel. The device sensitivity is improved by utilizing the dynamical amplification of the oscillation in 2-DoF drive mode using an active-passive mass configuration. A comprehensive theoretical description, dynamics and mechanical design considerations of the proposed gyroscopes model are discussed in detail. Parametric optimization of gyroscope, its prototype modeling and fabrication using MetalMUMPs has also been investigated. Dynamic transient simulation results predicted that the sense mass of the proposed device achieved a drive displacement of 4.1µm when a sinusoidal voltage of 0.5V is applied at 1.77 kHz exhibiting a mechanical sensitivity of 1.7μm /o/s in vacuum. The wide bandwidth frequency response of the 2-DoF drive mode oscillator consists of two resonant peaks and a flat region of 2.11 kHz between the peaks defining the operational frequency region. The sense mode resonant frequency can lie anywhere within this region and therefore the amplitude of the response is insensitive to structural parameter variations, enhancing device robustness against such variations. The proposed device has a size of 2.2 x 2.6 mm2, almost one third in comparison with existing M-DoF vibratory gyroscope with an estimated power consumption of 0.26 Watts. These predicted results illustrate that the chevron-shaped thermal actuator has a large voltage-stroke ratio shifting the paradigm in MEMS gyroscope design from the traditional interdigitated comb drive electrostatic actuator. These actuators have low damping compared to electrostatic comb drive actuators which may result in high quality factor microgyroscopes operating at atmospheric pressure. Full article
Open AccessArticle Digital Mirror Device Application in Reduction of Wave-front Phase Errors
Sensors 2009, 9(4), 2345-2351; doi:10.3390/s90402345
Received: 21 January 2009 / Revised: 17 March 2009 / Accepted: 24 March 2009 / Published: 30 March 2009
PDF Full-text (274 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to correct the image distortion created by the mixing/shear layer, creative and effectual correction methods are necessary. First, a method combining adaptive optics (AO) correction with a digital micro-mirror device (DMD) is presented. Second, performance of an AO system using [...] Read more.
In order to correct the image distortion created by the mixing/shear layer, creative and effectual correction methods are necessary. First, a method combining adaptive optics (AO) correction with a digital micro-mirror device (DMD) is presented. Second, performance of an AO system using the Phase Diverse Speckle (PDS) principle is characterized in detail. Through combining the DMD method with PDS, a significant reduction in wavefront phase error is achieved in simulations and experiments. This kind of complex correction principle can be used to recovery the degraded images caused by unforeseen error sources. Full article
Open AccessArticle Electromechanical Characteristic Analysis of Passive Matrix Addressing for Grating Light Modulator
Sensors 2009, 9(3), 2162-2175; doi:10.3390/s90302162
Received: 23 January 2009 / Revised: 5 March 2009 / Accepted: 19 March 2009 / Published: 24 March 2009
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1206 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
AGrating Light Modulator (GLM) based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is applied in projection display. The operating principle of the GLM is introduced in this paper. The electromechanical characteristic of the passive matrix addressing GLM is studied. It was found that if the [...] Read more.
AGrating Light Modulator (GLM) based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is applied in projection display. The operating principle of the GLM is introduced in this paper. The electromechanical characteristic of the passive matrix addressing GLM is studied. It was found that if the spring constant is larger, both the response frequency and the driving voltage are larger. Theoretical analysis shows that the operating voltage and the pull-in voltage of the GLM are 8.16 and 8.74 V, respectively. When an all-selected pixel in a m×n array is actuated by a voltage V0, the voltages of the half-selected pixel in row and column are V0(m-1)/(m+n-1) and V0(n-1)/(m+n-1), respectively, and the voltage of the non-selected pixel is V0/(m+n-1). Finally, the experimental results indicate that the operating voltage and the pull-in voltage are 7.8 and 8.5V respectively, and the response frequency of the GLM is about 7 kHz. The crosstalk in a 16×16 GLM array is validated by the experiment. These studies provide a theoretical basis for improving the GLM driver. Full article
Open AccessCommunication Humidity Sensitivity of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Networks Deposited by Dielectrophoresis
Sensors 2009, 9(3), 1714-1721; doi:10.3390/s90301714
Received: 22 January 2009 / Revised: 10 March 2009 / Accepted: 10 March 2009 / Published: 11 March 2009
Cited by 47 | PDF Full-text (381 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an investigation on the humidity sensitivity of deposited multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) networks using ac dielectrophoresis (DEP) between interdigitated electrodes (IDEs). MWCNTs dispersed in ethanol were trapped and enriched between IDEs on a Si/SiO2 substrate under a positive [...] Read more.
This paper presents an investigation on the humidity sensitivity of deposited multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) networks using ac dielectrophoresis (DEP) between interdigitated electrodes (IDEs). MWCNTs dispersed in ethanol were trapped and enriched between IDEs on a Si/SiO2 substrate under a positive DEP force. After the DEP process, the ethanol was evaporated and the MWCNT network on a substrate with IDEs was put into a furnace for repeated thermal annealing. It was found that the resistance stability of the network was effectively improved through thermal annealing. The humidity sensitivity was obtained by measuring the resistance of the MWCNT network with different relative humidity at room temperature. The experimental results show the resistance increases linearly with increasing the relative humidity from 25% to 95% RH with a sensitivity of 0.5%/%RH. The MWCNT networks have a reversible humidity sensing capacity with response time and recovery time of about 3 s and 25 s, respectively. The resistance is dependent on temperature with a negative coefficient of about -0.33%/K in a temperature range from 293 K to 393 K. Full article
Open AccessArticle An Electromagnetically Excited Silicon Nitride Beam Resonant Accelerometer
Sensors 2009, 9(3), 1330-1338; doi:10.3390/s90301330
Received: 26 January 2009 / Revised: 16 February 2009 / Accepted: 23 February 2009 / Published: 26 February 2009
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (228 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A resonant microbeam accelerometer of a novel highly symmetric structure based on MEMS bulk-silicon technology is proposed and some numerical modeling results for this scheme are presented. The accelerometer consists of two proof masses, four supporting hinges, two anchors, and a vibrating [...] Read more.
A resonant microbeam accelerometer of a novel highly symmetric structure based on MEMS bulk-silicon technology is proposed and some numerical modeling results for this scheme are presented. The accelerometer consists of two proof masses, four supporting hinges, two anchors, and a vibrating triple beam, which is clamped at both ends to the two proof masses. LPCVD silicon rich nitride is chosen as the resonant triple beam material, and parameter optimization of the triple-beam structure has been performed. The triple beam is excited and sensed electromagnetically by film electrodes located on the upper surface of the beam. Both simulation and experimental results show that the novel structure increases the scale factor of the resonant accelerometer, and ameliorates other performance issues such as cross axis sensitivity of insensitive input acceleration, etc. Full article
Open AccessArticle Piezoresistive Sensitivity, Linearity and Resistance Time Drift of Polysilicon Nanofilms with Different Deposition Temperatures
Sensors 2009, 9(2), 1141-1166; doi:10.3390/s90201141
Received: 23 January 2009 / Revised: 12 February 2009 / Accepted: 18 February 2009 / Published: 23 February 2009
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (4476 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Our previous research work indicated that highly boron doped polysilicon nanofilms (≤100 nm in thickness) have higher gauge factor (the maximum is ~34 for 80 nm-thick films) and better temperature stability than common polysilicon films (≥ 200nm in thickness) at the same [...] Read more.
Our previous research work indicated that highly boron doped polysilicon nanofilms (≤100 nm in thickness) have higher gauge factor (the maximum is ~34 for 80 nm-thick films) and better temperature stability than common polysilicon films (≥ 200nm in thickness) at the same doping levels. Therefore, in order to further analyze the influence of deposition temperature on the film structure and piezoresistance performance, the piezoresistive sensitivity, piezoresistive linearity (PRL) and resistance time drift (RTD) of 80 nm-thick highly boron doped polysilicon nanofilms (PSNFs) with different deposition temperatures were studied here. The tunneling piezoresistive model was established to explain the relationship between the measured gauge factors (GFs) and deposition temperature. It was seen that the piezoresistance coefficient (PRC) of composite grain boundaries is higher than that of grains and the magnitude of GF is dependent on the resistivity of grain boundary (GB) barriers and the weight of the resistivity of composite GBs in the film resistivity. In the investigations on PRL and RTD, the interstitial-vacancy (IV) model was established to model GBs as the accumulation of IV pairs. And the recrystallization of metastable IV pairs caused by material deformation or current excitation is considered as the prime reason for piezoresistive nonlinearity (PRNL) and RTD. Finally, the optimal deposition temperature for the improvement of film performance and reliability is about 620 °C and the high temperature annealing is not very effective in improving the piezoresistive performance of PSNFs deposited at lower temperatures. Full article

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Fabrication and Structural Design of Micro Pressure Sensors for Tire Pressure Measurement Systems (TPMS)
Sensors 2009, 9(3), 1382-1393; doi:10.3390/s90301382
Received: 21 January 2009 / Revised: 17 February 2009 / Accepted: 22 February 2009 / Published: 27 February 2009
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (392 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper we describe the design and testing of a micro piezoresistive pressure sensor for a Tire Pressure Measurement System (TPMS) which has the advantages of a minimized structure, high sensitivity, linearity and accuracy. Through analysis of the stress distribution of [...] Read more.
In this paper we describe the design and testing of a micro piezoresistive pressure sensor for a Tire Pressure Measurement System (TPMS) which has the advantages of a minimized structure, high sensitivity, linearity and accuracy. Through analysis of the stress distribution of the diaphragm using the ANSYS software, a model of the structure was established. The fabrication on a single silicon substrate utilizes the technologies of anisotropic chemical etching and packaging through glass anodic bonding. The performance of this type of piezoresistive sensor, including size, sensitivity, and long-term stability, were investigated. The results indicate that the accuracy is 0.5% FS, therefore this design meets the requirements for a TPMS, and not only has a smaller size and simplicity of preparation, but also has high sensitivity and accuracy. Full article

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Sensors Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
sensors@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Sensors
Back to Top