E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Body Sensor Networks for Healthcare and Pervasive Applications"

Quicklinks

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Sensor Networks".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (14 July 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Christos Verikoukis

Senior Researcher Telecommunications Technological Centre of Catalonia Av. Carl Friedrich Gauss 7 08860 Castelldefels Spain
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +34639024750
Fax: +34936452901
Interests: ARQ schemes; MAC protocols; RRM algorithms; cross-layer techniques and cooperative communications in wireless communications systems such as WLAN, WiMax and Wireless Sensor Networks

Special Issue Information

We are currently witnessing a growing interest in the area of wireless body area networking (WBAN) accompanied by the strong demand of the medical and healthcare society as well as by the advances in low-power micro- and nano-electronics and wireless networking. Consumers and doctors envisage an era where mobile health monitoring systems will work seamlessly and in concert to eliminate the lag time between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis. To this end WBAN can assert a key contribution, but as it shows particular characteristics when compared to traditional wireless sensor and ad hoc networks, it can introduce several new research challenges.

The aim of this special issue is to collect the recent advances on BANs for healthcare and pervasive applications. We are inviting the submission of original and unpublished work addressing several areas of wireless BAN. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, the following issues:

•    Antenna design for in- and on-body networks
•    Channel modeling radio propagation issues for BAN
•    Electromagnetic Radiation and Human tissues
•    Interference management and mitigation
•    Coexistence of BAN with other wireless technologies
•    Protocols and algorithms for the PHY, MAC and Network Layer
•    End-to-end QoS provision for BAN
•    Energy efficient and low-power consumption protocols
•    Power management for BAN
•    Machine-to-machine for BAN
•    Integration of BAN with heterogeneous networks
•    Lightweight security, authentication and cryptography solutions for BAN
•    Modeling and simulation in BAN
•    Context Awareness in BAN
•    Energy Harvesting for BAN
•    Real life experimental platforms, prototypes and pilot studies
•    Personal devices for monitoring and trending for disease detection, progression, remission, and fitness
•    Recent standardization activities for BAN
•    Regulatory issues

Dr. Christos Verikoukis
Guest Editor

Published Papers (17 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-17
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Dynamic Propagation Channel Characterization and Modeling for Human Body Communication
Sensors 2012, 12(12), 17569-17587; doi:10.3390/s121217569
Received: 15 November 2012 / Revised: 12 December 2012 / Accepted: 13 December 2012 / Published: 18 December 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (781 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents the first characterization and modeling of dynamic propagation channels for human body communication (HBC). In-situ experiments were performed using customized transceivers in an anechoic chamber. Three HBC propagation channels, i.e., from right leg to left leg, from right hand
[...] Read more.
This paper presents the first characterization and modeling of dynamic propagation channels for human body communication (HBC). In-situ experiments were performed using customized transceivers in an anechoic chamber. Three HBC propagation channels, i.e., from right leg to left leg, from right hand to left hand and from right hand to left leg, were investigated under thirty-three motion scenarios. Snapshots of data (2,800,000) were acquired from five volunteers. Various path gains caused by different locations and movements were quantified and the statistical distributions were estimated. In general, for a given reference threshold è = −10 dB, the maximum average level crossing rate of the HBC was approximately 1.99 Hz, the maximum average fade time was 59.4 ms, and the percentage of bad channel duration time was less than 4.16%. The HBC exhibited a fade depth of −4 dB at 90% complementary cumulative probability. The statistical parameters were observed to be centered for each propagation channel. Subsequently a Fritchman model was implemented to estimate the burst characteristics of the on-body fading. It was concluded that the HBC is motion-insensitive, which is sufficient for reliable communication link during motions, and therefore it has great potential for body sensor/area networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Sensor Networks for Healthcare and Pervasive Applications)
Open AccessArticle Signal Transmission in a Human Body Medium-Based Body Sensor Network Using a Mach-Zehnder Electro-Optical Sensor
Sensors 2012, 12(12), 16557-16570; doi:10.3390/s121216557
Received: 17 October 2012 / Revised: 22 November 2012 / Accepted: 23 November 2012 / Published: 30 November 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1578 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The signal transmission technology based on the human body medium offers significant advantages in Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) used for healthcare and the other related fields. In previous works we have proposed a novel signal transmission method based on the human body medium
[...] Read more.
The signal transmission technology based on the human body medium offers significant advantages in Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) used for healthcare and the other related fields. In previous works we have proposed a novel signal transmission method based on the human body medium using a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical (EO) sensor. In this paper, we present a signal transmission system based on the proposed method, which consists of a transmitter, a Mach-Zehnder EO sensor and a corresponding receiving circuit. Meanwhile, in order to verify the frequency response properties and determine the suitable parameters of the developed system, in-vivo measurements have been implemented under conditions of different carrier frequencies, baseband frequencies and signal transmission paths. Results indicate that the proposed system will help to achieve reliable and high speed signal transmission of BSN based on the human body medium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Sensor Networks for Healthcare and Pervasive Applications)
Open AccessArticle Study of Channel Characteristics for Galvanic-Type Intra-Body Communication Based on a Transfer Function from a Quasi-Static Field Model
Sensors 2012, 12(12), 16433-16450; doi:10.3390/s121216433
Received: 22 October 2012 / Revised: 22 November 2012 / Accepted: 23 November 2012 / Published: 27 November 2012
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (997 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Intra-Body Communication (IBC), which modulates ionic currents over the human body as the communication medium, offers a low power and reliable signal transmission method for information exchange across the body. This paper first briefly reviews the quasi-static electromagnetic (EM) field modeling for a
[...] Read more.
Intra-Body Communication (IBC), which modulates ionic currents over the human body as the communication medium, offers a low power and reliable signal transmission method for information exchange across the body. This paper first briefly reviews the quasi-static electromagnetic (EM) field modeling for a galvanic-type IBC human limb operating below 1 MHz and obtains the corresponding transfer function with correction factor using minimum mean square error (MMSE) technique. Then, the IBC channel characteristics are studied through the comparison between theoretical calculations via this transfer function and experimental measurements in both frequency domain and time domain. High pass characteristics are obtained in the channel gain analysis versus different transmission distances. In addition, harmonic distortions are analyzed in both baseband and passband transmissions for square input waves. The experimental results are consistent with the calculation results from the transfer function with correction factor. Furthermore, we also explore both theoretical and simulation results for the bit-error-rate (BER) performance of several common modulation schemes in the IBC system with a carrier frequency of 500 kHz. It is found that the theoretical results are in good agreement with the simulation results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Sensor Networks for Healthcare and Pervasive Applications)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Increases of Quadriceps Inter-Muscular Cross-Correlation and Coherence during Exhausting Stepping Exercise
Sensors 2012, 12(12), 16353-16367; doi:10.3390/s121216353
Received: 20 September 2012 / Revised: 9 November 2012 / Accepted: 13 November 2012 / Published: 26 November 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (546 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine the change of the intermuscular cross-correlation and coherence of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VM) and vastus lateralis (VL) during exhausting stepping exercise. Eleven healthy adults repeated the stepping exercise up to their individual
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to examine the change of the intermuscular cross-correlation and coherence of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VM) and vastus lateralis (VL) during exhausting stepping exercise. Eleven healthy adults repeated the stepping exercise up to their individual endurance limits (RPE score reached 20), and the cross-correlation and coherence were assessed by surface electromyography (EMG) recordings. The coefficient and time lag of cross-correlation and the coherence areas in the alpha (8–12 Hz), beta (15–30 Hz), gamma (30–60 Hz) and high-gamma (60–150 Hz) bands among the three muscle pairs (RF-VM, RF-VL and VM-VL) were calculated. As muscle fatigue, RF-VM and VM-VL showed increases of coefficients and the shortening of time lags. RF-VM and RF-VL showed increases of beta-band coherence in the ascent and descent phases, respectively. The increased intermuscular cross-correlation and beta-band coherence may be a compensatory strategy for maintaining the coordination of knee synergistic muscles during fatigue due to the fatigue-related disturbance of the corticospinal transmission. Therefore, the intermuscular cross-correlation and beta-band coherence may be a potential index for assessing muscle fatigue and monitoring the central control of motor function during dynamic fatiguing exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Sensor Networks for Healthcare and Pervasive Applications)
Open AccessArticle McMAC: Towards a MAC Protocol with Multi-Constrained QoS Provisioning for Diverse Traffic in Wireless Body Area Networks
Sensors 2012, 12(11), 15599-15627; doi:10.3390/s121115599
Received: 3 October 2012 / Revised: 17 October 2012 / Accepted: 2 November 2012 / Published: 12 November 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (677 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The emergence of heterogeneous applications with diverse requirements forresource-constrained Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) poses significant challengesfor provisioning Quality of Service (QoS) with multi-constraints (delay and reliability) while preserving energy efficiency. To address such challenges, this paper proposes McMAC,a MAC protocol with multi-constrained
[...] Read more.
The emergence of heterogeneous applications with diverse requirements forresource-constrained Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) poses significant challengesfor provisioning Quality of Service (QoS) with multi-constraints (delay and reliability) while preserving energy efficiency. To address such challenges, this paper proposes McMAC,a MAC protocol with multi-constrained QoS provisioning for diverse traffic classes in WBANs. McMAC classifies traffic based on their multi-constrained QoS demands andintroduces a novel superframe structure based on the "transmit-whenever-appropriate" principle, which allows diverse periods for diverse traffic classes according to their respective QoS requirements. Furthermore, a novel emergency packet handling mechanism is proposedto ensure packet delivery with the least possible delay and the highest reliability. McMAC is also modeled analytically, and extensive simulations were performed to evaluate itsperformance. The results reveal that McMAC achieves the desired delay and reliability guarantee according to the requirements of a particular traffic class while achieving energy efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Sensor Networks for Healthcare and Pervasive Applications)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Exploration and Implementation of a Pre-Impact Fall Recognition Method Based on an Inertial Body Sensor Network
Sensors 2012, 12(11), 15338-15355; doi:10.3390/s121115338
Received: 20 August 2012 / Revised: 16 October 2012 / Accepted: 17 October 2012 / Published: 8 November 2012
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1124 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The unintentional injuries due to falls in elderly people give rise to a multitude of health and economic problems due to the growing aging population. The use of early pre-impact fall alarm and self-protective control could greatly reduce fall injuries. This paper aimed
[...] Read more.
The unintentional injuries due to falls in elderly people give rise to a multitude of health and economic problems due to the growing aging population. The use of early pre-impact fall alarm and self-protective control could greatly reduce fall injuries. This paper aimed to explore and implement a pre-impact fall recognition/alarm method for free-direction fall activities based on understanding of the pre-impact lead time of falls and the angle of body postural stability using an inertial body sensor network. Eight healthy Asian adult subjects were arranged to perform three kinds of daily living activities and three kinds of fall activities. Nine MTx sensor modules were used to measure the body segmental kinematic characteristics of each subject for pre-impact fall recognition/alarm. Our analysis of the kinematic features of human body segments showed that the chest was the optimal sensor placement for an early pre-impact recognition/alarm (i.e., prediction/alarm of a fall event before it happens) and post-fall detection (i.e., detection of a fall event after it already happened). Furthermore, by comparative analysis of threshold levels for acceleration and angular rate, two acceleration thresholds were determined for early pre-impact alarm (7 m/s/s) and post-fall detection (20 m/s/s) under experimental conditions. The critical angles of postural stability of torso segment in three kinds of fall activities (forward, sideway and backward fall) were determined as 23.9 ± 3.3, 49.9 ± 4.1 and 9.9 ± 2.5 degrees, respectively, and the relative average pre-impact lead times were 329 ± 21, 265 ± 35 and 257 ± 36 ms. The results implied that among the three fall activities the sideway fall was associated with the largest postural stability angle and the forward fall was associated with the longest time to adjust body angle to avoid the fall; the backward fall was the most difficult to avoid among the three kinds of fall events due to the toughest combination of shortest lead time and smallest angle of postural stability which made it difficult for the self-protective control mechanism to adjust the body in time to avoid falling down. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Sensor Networks for Healthcare and Pervasive Applications)
Open AccessArticle Variable Scheduling to Mitigate Channel Losses in Energy-Efficient Body Area Networks
Sensors 2012, 12(11), 14692-14710; doi:10.3390/s121114692
Received: 11 July 2012 / Revised: 16 October 2012 / Accepted: 19 October 2012 / Published: 2 November 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (157 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We consider a typical body area network (BAN) setting in which sensor nodes send data to a common hub regularly on a TDMA basis, as defined by the emerging IEEE 802.15.6 BAN standard. To reduce transmission losses caused by the highly dynamic nature
[...] Read more.
We consider a typical body area network (BAN) setting in which sensor nodes send data to a common hub regularly on a TDMA basis, as defined by the emerging IEEE 802.15.6 BAN standard. To reduce transmission losses caused by the highly dynamic nature of the wireless channel around the human body, we explore variable TDMA scheduling techniques that allow the order of transmissions within each TDMA round to be decided on the fly, rather than being fixed in advance. Using a simple Markov model of the wireless links, we devise a number of scheduling algorithms that can be performed by the hub, which aim to maximize the expected number of successful transmissions in a TDMA round, and thereby significantly reduce transmission losses as compared with a static TDMA schedule. Importantly, these algorithms do not require a priori knowledge of the statistical properties of the wireless channels, and the reliability improvement is achieved entirely via shuffling the order of transmissions among devices, and does not involve any additional energy consumption (e.g., retransmissions). We evaluate these algorithms directly on an experimental set of traces obtained from devices strapped to human subjects performing regular daily activities, and confirm that the benefits of the proposed variable scheduling algorithms extend to this practical setup as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Sensor Networks for Healthcare and Pervasive Applications)
Open AccessArticle Two Proximal Skin Electrodes — A Respiration Rate Body Sensor
Sensors 2012, 12(10), 13813-13828; doi:10.3390/s121013813
Received: 20 August 2012 / Revised: 27 September 2012 / Accepted: 29 September 2012 / Published: 15 October 2012
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (916 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We propose a new body sensor for extracting the respiration rate based on the amplitude changes in the body surface potential differences between two proximal body electrodes. The sensor could be designed as a plaster-like reusable unit that can be easily fixed onto
[...] Read more.
We propose a new body sensor for extracting the respiration rate based on the amplitude changes in the body surface potential differences between two proximal body electrodes. The sensor could be designed as a plaster-like reusable unit that can be easily fixed onto the surface of the body. It could be equipped either with a sufficiently large memory for storing the measured data or with a low-power radio system that can transmit the measured data to a gateway for further processing. We explore the influence of the sensor’s position on the quality of the extracted results using multi-channel ECG measurements and considering all the pairs of two neighboring electrodes as potential respiration-rate sensors. The analysis of the clinical measurements, which also include reference thermistor-based respiration signals, shows that the proposed approach is a viable option for monitoring the respiration frequency and for a rough classification of breathing types. The obtained results were evaluated on a wireless prototype of a respiration body sensor. We indicate the best positions for the respiration body sensor and prove that a single sensor for body surface potential difference on proximal skin electrodes can be used for combined measurements of respiratory and cardiac activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Sensor Networks for Healthcare and Pervasive Applications)
Figures

Open AccessArticle A Finite-Element Simulation of Galvanic Coupling Intra-Body Communication Based on the Whole Human Body
Sensors 2012, 12(10), 13567-13582; doi:10.3390/s121013567
Received: 9 August 2012 / Revised: 10 September 2012 / Accepted: 27 September 2012 / Published: 9 October 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1306 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Simulation based on the finite-element (FE) method plays an important role in the investigation of intra-body communication (IBC). In this paper, a finite-element model of the whole body model used for the IBC simulation is proposed and verified, while the FE simulation of
[...] Read more.
Simulation based on the finite-element (FE) method plays an important role in the investigation of intra-body communication (IBC). In this paper, a finite-element model of the whole body model used for the IBC simulation is proposed and verified, while the FE simulation of the galvanic coupling IBC with different signal transmission paths has been achieved. Firstly, a novel finite-element method for modeling the whole human body is proposed, and a FE model of the whole human body used for IBC simulation was developed. Secondly, the simulations of the galvanic coupling IBC with the different signal transmission paths were implemented. Finally, the feasibility of the proposed method was verified by using in vivo measurements within the frequency range of 10 kHz–5 MHz, whereby some important conclusions were deduced. Our results indicate that the proposed method will offer significant advantages in the investigation of the galvanic coupling intra-body communication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Sensor Networks for Healthcare and Pervasive Applications)
Figures

Open AccessArticle On Increasing Network Lifetime in Body Area Networks Using Global Routing with Energy Consumption Balancing
Sensors 2012, 12(10), 13088-13108; doi:10.3390/s121013088
Received: 2 July 2012 / Revised: 12 September 2012 / Accepted: 13 September 2012 / Published: 26 September 2012
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (1088 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Global routing protocols in wireless body area networks are considered. Global routing is augmented with a novel link cost function designed to balance energy consumption across the network. The result is a substantial increase in network lifetime at the expense of a marginal
[...] Read more.
Global routing protocols in wireless body area networks are considered. Global routing is augmented with a novel link cost function designed to balance energy consumption across the network. The result is a substantial increase in network lifetime at the expense of a marginal increase in energy per bit. Network maintenance requirements are reduced as well, since balancing energy consumption means all batteries need to be serviced at the same time and less frequently. The proposed routing protocol is evaluated using a hardware experimental setup comprising multiple nodes and an access point. The setup is used to assess network architectures, including an on-body access point and an off-body access point with varying number of antennas. Real-time experiments are conducted in indoor environments to assess performance gains. In addition, the setup is used to record channel attenuation data which are then processed in extensive computer simulations providing insight on the effect of protocol parameters on performance. Results demonstrate efficient balancing of energy consumption across all nodes, an average increase of up to 40% in network lifetime corresponding to a modest average increase of 0.4 dB in energy per bit, and a cutoff effect on required transmission power to achieve reliable connectivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Sensor Networks for Healthcare and Pervasive Applications)
Figures

Open AccessArticle A Real-Time Cardiac Arrhythmia Classification System with Wearable Sensor Networks
Sensors 2012, 12(9), 12844-12869; doi:10.3390/s120912844
Received: 25 July 2012 / Revised: 27 August 2012 / Accepted: 6 September 2012 / Published: 21 September 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1445 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Long term continuous monitoring of electrocardiogram (ECG) in a free living environment provides valuable information for prevention on the heart attack and other high risk diseases. This paper presents the design of a real-time wearable ECG monitoring system with associated cardiac arrhythmia classification
[...] Read more.
Long term continuous monitoring of electrocardiogram (ECG) in a free living environment provides valuable information for prevention on the heart attack and other high risk diseases. This paper presents the design of a real-time wearable ECG monitoring system with associated cardiac arrhythmia classification algorithms. One of the striking advantages is that ECG analog front-end and on-node digital processing are designed to remove most of the noise and bias. In addition, the wearable sensor node is able to monitor the patient’s ECG and motion signal in an unobstructive way. To realize the real-time medical analysis, the ECG is digitalized and transmitted to a smart phone via Bluetooth. On the smart phone, the ECG waveform is visualized and a novel layered hidden Markov model is seamlessly integrated to classify multiple cardiac arrhythmias in real time. Experimental results demonstrate that the clean and reliable ECG waveform can be captured in multiple stressed conditions and the real-time classification on cardiac arrhythmia is competent to other workbenches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Sensor Networks for Healthcare and Pervasive Applications)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Unobstructive Body Area Networks (BAN) for Efficient Movement Monitoring
Sensors 2012, 12(9), 12473-12488; doi:10.3390/s120912473
Received: 16 July 2012 / Revised: 5 September 2012 / Accepted: 10 September 2012 / Published: 13 September 2012
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (983 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The technological advances in medical sensors, low-power microelectronics and miniaturization, wireless communications and networks have enabled the appearance of a new generation of wireless sensor networks: the so-called wireless body area networks (WBAN). These networks can be used for continuous monitoring of vital
[...] Read more.
The technological advances in medical sensors, low-power microelectronics and miniaturization, wireless communications and networks have enabled the appearance of a new generation of wireless sensor networks: the so-called wireless body area networks (WBAN). These networks can be used for continuous monitoring of vital parameters, movement, and the surrounding environment. The data gathered by these networks contributes to improve users’ quality of life and allows the creation of a knowledge database by using learning techniques, useful to infer abnormal behaviour. In this paper we present a wireless body area network architecture to recognize human movement, identify human postures and detect harmful activities in order to prevent risk situations. The WBAN was created using tiny, cheap and low-power nodes with inertial and physiological sensors, strategically placed on the human body. Doing so, in an as ubiquitous as possible way, ensures that its impact on the users’ daily actions is minimum. The information collected by these sensors is transmitted to a central server capable of analysing and processing their data. The proposed system creates movement profiles based on the data sent by the WBAN’s nodes, and is able to detect in real time any abnormal movement and allows for a monitored rehabilitation of the user. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Sensor Networks for Healthcare and Pervasive Applications)
Open AccessArticle Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Body Area Networks Using the Finite-Difference-Time-Domain Method
Sensors 2012, 12(7), 9862-9883; doi:10.3390/s120709862
Received: 30 May 2012 / Revised: 10 July 2012 / Accepted: 10 July 2012 / Published: 23 July 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2970 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A rigorous full-wave solution, via the Finite-Difference-Time-Domain (FDTD) method, is performed in an attempt to obtain realistic communication channel models for on-body wireless transmission in Body-Area-Networks (BANs), which are local data networks using the human body as a propagation medium. The problem of
[...] Read more.
A rigorous full-wave solution, via the Finite-Difference-Time-Domain (FDTD) method, is performed in an attempt to obtain realistic communication channel models for on-body wireless transmission in Body-Area-Networks (BANs), which are local data networks using the human body as a propagation medium. The problem of modeling the coupling between body mounted antennas is often not amenable to attack by hybrid techniques owing to the complex nature of the human body. For instance, the time-domain Green’s function approach becomes more involved when the antennas are not conformal. Furthermore, the human body is irregular in shape and has dispersion properties that are unique. One consequence of this is that we must resort to modeling the antenna network mounted on the body in its entirety, and the number of degrees of freedom (DoFs) can be on the order of billions. Even so, this type of problem can still be modeled by employing a parallel version of the FDTD algorithm running on a cluster. Lastly, we note that the results of rigorous simulation of BANs can serve as benchmarks for comparison with the abundance of measurement data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Sensor Networks for Healthcare and Pervasive Applications)
Open AccessArticle Ultra Low Power Signal Oriented Approach for Wireless Health Monitoring
Sensors 2012, 12(6), 7917-7937; doi:10.3390/s120607917
Received: 27 March 2012 / Revised: 29 May 2012 / Accepted: 29 May 2012 / Published: 8 June 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1019 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years there is growing pressure on the medical sector to reduce costs while maintaining or even improving the quality of care. A potential solution to this problem is real time and/or remote patient monitoring by using mobile devices. To achieve this,
[...] Read more.
In recent years there is growing pressure on the medical sector to reduce costs while maintaining or even improving the quality of care. A potential solution to this problem is real time and/or remote patient monitoring by using mobile devices. To achieve this, medical sensors with wireless communication, computational and energy harvesting capabilities are networked on, or in, the human body forming what is commonly called a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). We present the implementation of a novel Wake Up Receiver (WUR) in the context of standardised wireless protocols, in a signal-oriented WBAN environment and present a novel protocol intended for wireless health monitoring (WhMAC). WhMAC is a TDMA-based protocol with very low power consumption. It utilises WBAN-specific features and a novel ultra low power wake up receiver technology, to achieve flexible and at the same time very low power wireless data transfer of physiological signals. As the main application is in the medical domain, or personal health monitoring, the protocol caters for different types of medical sensors. We define four sensor modes, in which the sensors can transmit data, depending on the sensor type and emergency level. A full power dissipation model is provided for the protocol, with individual hardware and application parameters. Finally, an example application shows the reduction in the power consumption for different data monitoring scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Sensor Networks for Healthcare and Pervasive Applications)

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview A Review of Protocol Implementations and Energy Efficient Cross-Layer Design for Wireless Body Area Networks
Sensors 2012, 12(11), 14730-14773; doi:10.3390/s121114730
Received: 1 September 2012 / Revised: 17 October 2012 / Accepted: 22 October 2012 / Published: 2 November 2012
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (399 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The issues inherent in caring for an ever-increasing aged population has been the subject of endless debate and continues to be a hot topic for political discussion. The use of hospital-based facilities for the monitoring of chronic physiological conditions is expensive and ties
[...] Read more.
The issues inherent in caring for an ever-increasing aged population has been the subject of endless debate and continues to be a hot topic for political discussion. The use of hospital-based facilities for the monitoring of chronic physiological conditions is expensive and ties up key healthcare professionals. The introduction of wireless sensor devices as part of a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) integrated within an overall eHealth solution could bring a step change in the remote management of patient healthcare. Sensor devices small enough to be placed either inside or on the human body can form a vital part of an overall health monitoring network. An effectively designed energy efficient WBAN should have a minimal impact on the mobility and lifestyle of the patient. WBAN technology can be deployed within a hospital, care home environment or in the patient’s own home. This study is a review of the existing research in the area of WBAN technology and in particular protocol adaptation and energy efficient cross-layer design. The research reviews the work carried out across various layers of the protocol stack and highlights how the latest research proposes to resolve the various challenges inherent in remote continual healthcare monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Sensor Networks for Healthcare and Pervasive Applications)
Open AccessReview A Review on Architectures and Communications Technologies for Wearable Health-Monitoring Systems
Sensors 2012, 12(10), 13907-13946; doi:10.3390/s121013907
Received: 16 July 2012 / Revised: 9 October 2012 / Accepted: 10 October 2012 / Published: 16 October 2012
Cited by 34 | PDF Full-text (1376 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nowadays society is demanding more and more smart healthcare services that allow monitoring patient status in a non-invasive way, anywhere and anytime. Thus, healthcare applications are currently facing important challenges guided by the u-health (ubiquitous health) and p-health (pervasive health) paradigms. New emerging
[...] Read more.
Nowadays society is demanding more and more smart healthcare services that allow monitoring patient status in a non-invasive way, anywhere and anytime. Thus, healthcare applications are currently facing important challenges guided by the u-health (ubiquitous health) and p-health (pervasive health) paradigms. New emerging technologies can be combined with other widely deployed ones to develop such next-generation healthcare systems. The main objective of this paper is to review and provide more details on the work presented in “LOBIN: E-Textile and Wireless-Sensor-Network-Based Platform for Healthcare Monitoring in Future Hospital Environments”, published in the IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine, as well as to extend and update the comparison with other similar systems. As a result, the paper discusses the main advantages and disadvantages of using different architectures and communications technologies to develop wearable systems for pervasive healthcare applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Sensor Networks for Healthcare and Pervasive Applications)
Figures

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessTechnical Note A Synchronous Multi-Body Sensor Platform in a Wireless Body Sensor Network: Design and Implementation
Sensors 2012, 12(8), 10381-10394; doi:10.3390/s120810381
Received: 16 March 2012 / Revised: 24 July 2012 / Accepted: 26 July 2012 / Published: 31 July 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (754 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Human life can be further improved if diseases and disorders can be predicted before they become dangerous, by correctly recognizing signals from the human body, so in order to make disease detection more precise, various body-signals need to be measured simultaneously in
[...] Read more.
Background: Human life can be further improved if diseases and disorders can be predicted before they become dangerous, by correctly recognizing signals from the human body, so in order to make disease detection more precise, various body-signals need to be measured simultaneously in a synchronized manner. Object: This research aims at developing an integrated system for measuring four signals (EEG, ECG, respiration, and PPG) and simultaneously producing synchronous signals on a Wireless Body Sensor Network. Design: We designed and implemented a platform for multiple bio-signals using Bluetooth communication. Results: First, we developed a prototype board and verified the signals from the sensor platform using frequency responses and quantities. Next, we designed and implemented a lightweight, ultra-compact, low cost, low power-consumption Printed Circuit Board. Conclusion: A synchronous multi-body sensor platform is expected to be very useful in telemedicine and emergency rescue scenarios. Furthermore, this system is expected to be able to analyze the mutual effects among body signals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body Sensor Networks for Healthcare and Pervasive Applications)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Sensors Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
sensors@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Sensors
Back to Top