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Special Issue "Nano-Biosensors"

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A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2011)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Timothy S. Fisher (Website)

Birck Nanotechnology Center, School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, 1205 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
Interests: nanoscale energy transport and conversion; synthesis of nanomaterials; biosensors; cooling of microelectronics; microfluidics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The advances in the creation of nanoscale materials and devices over the past two decades have been truly wondrous. The scientific community now has a vast array of synthetic and analytical tools to make new nanomaterials and integrate them into useful, functional devices. This special issue of the journal focuses on the exciting convergence of nanomaterials and biosensors. The issue seeks to clarify the unique enhancements that are possible through the use of nanoscale features in biosensing.  Nanoscale control of size and surface functionalization can enhance surface area, local diffusion, field effects, and plasmonics, among other processes. Further, numerous practical aspects of nano-biosensors are of increasing importance--can they improve specificity? are they more or less susceptible to fouling? can they be functionalized, integrated and scaled up efficiently and economically? This special collection of contributions seeks to answer some of these questions, while in the rich tradition of scientific research raising others that will lead the field forward.

Prof. Dr. Timothy S. Fisher
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • nanomaterial synthesis
  • biosensing
  • biomolecular detection
  • surface functionalization
  • field-enhanced spectroscopy
  • bioplasmonics

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Novel Platform Development Using an Assembly of Carbon Nanotube, Nanogold and Immobilized RNA Capture Element towards Rapid, Selective Sensing of Bacteria
Sensors 2012, 12(6), 8135-8144; doi:10.3390/s120608135
Received: 1 May 2012 / Revised: 29 May 2012 / Accepted: 1 June 2012 / Published: 12 June 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (871 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study examines the creation of a nano-featured biosensor platform designed for the rapid and selective detection of the bacterium Escherichia coli. The foundation of this sensor is carbon nanotubes decorated with gold nanoparticles that are modified with a specific, surface [...] Read more.
This study examines the creation of a nano-featured biosensor platform designed for the rapid and selective detection of the bacterium Escherichia coli. The foundation of this sensor is carbon nanotubes decorated with gold nanoparticles that are modified with a specific, surface adherent ribonucleiuc acid (RNA) sequence element. The multi-step sensor assembly was accomplished by growing carbon nanotubes on a graphite substrate, the direct synthesis of gold nanoparticles on the nanotube surface, and the attachment of thiolated RNA to the bound nanoparticles. The application of the compounded nano-materials for sensor development has the distinct advantage of retaining the electrical behavior property of carbon nanotubes and, through the gold nanoparticles, incorporating an increased surface area for additional analyte attachment sites, thus increasing sensitivity. We successfully demonstrated that the coating of gold nanoparticles with a selective RNA sequence increased the capture of E. coli by 189% when compared to uncoated particles. The approach to sensor formation detailed in this study illustrates the great potential of unique composite structures in the development of a multi-array, electrochemical sensor for the fast and sensitive detection of pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle Electrical Characterization of Gold-DNA-Gold Structures in Presence of an External Magnetic Field by Means of I-V Curve Analysis
Sensors 2012, 12(3), 3578-3586; doi:10.3390/s120303578
Received: 21 January 2012 / Revised: 1 March 2012 / Accepted: 3 March 2012 / Published: 14 March 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (383 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work presents an experimental study of gold-DNA-gold structures in the presence and absence of external magnetic fields with strengths less than 1,200.00 mT. The DNA strands, extracted by standard method were used to fabricate a Metal-DNA-Metal (MDM) structure. Its electric behavior [...] Read more.
This work presents an experimental study of gold-DNA-gold structures in the presence and absence of external magnetic fields with strengths less than 1,200.00 mT. The DNA strands, extracted by standard method were used to fabricate a Metal-DNA-Metal (MDM) structure. Its electric behavior when subjected to a magnetic field was studied through its current-voltage (I-V) curve. Acquisition of the I-V curve demonstrated that DNA as a semiconductor exhibits diode behavior in the MDM structure. The current versus magnetic field strength followed a decreasing trend because of a diminished mobility in the presence of a low magnetic field. This made clear that an externally imposed magnetic field would boost resistance of the MDM structure up to 1,000.00 mT and for higher magnetic field strengths we can observe an increase in potential barrier in MDM junction. The magnetic sensitivity indicates the promise of using MDM structures as potential magnetic sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle A Nanostructured Piezoelectric Immunosensor for Detection of Human Cardiac Troponin T
Sensors 2011, 11(11), 10785-10797; doi:10.3390/s111110785
Received: 10 October 2011 / Revised: 2 November 2011 / Accepted: 9 November 2011 / Published: 16 November 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (263 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A piezoelectric immunosensor based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) co-immobilized on a dithiol-modified surface is proposed for detection of human cardiac troponin T (TnT). Anti-human troponin T (anti-TnT) antibodies were covalently immobilized on the nanostructured electrode surface by thiol-aldehyde linkages. In a homogeneous bulk solution, TnT was captured by anti-TnT immobilized on the QCM electrode. Cyclic voltammetry studies were used to characterize the AuNPs layer on the electrode surface and the anti-TnT immobilization steps. The QCM-flow immunosensor exhibited good reliability, measuring concentrations of TnT from 0.003 to 0.5 ng mL−1 in human serum with high linearity (r = 0.989; p < 0.01). The immunosensor exhibited a 7% coefficient of variation and 0.0015 ng mL−1 limit of detection, indicating a high reproducibility and sensitivity. The proposed QCM nanostructured immunosensor is easy to use and has promising potential in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction due to its speed and high sensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle A Conductometric Indium Oxide Semiconducting Nanoparticle Enzymatic Biosensor Array
Sensors 2011, 11(10), 9300-9312; doi:10.3390/s111009300
Received: 4 August 2011 / Revised: 4 September 2011 / Accepted: 23 September 2011 / Published: 28 September 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1713 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We report a conductometric nanoparticle biosensor array to address the significant variation of electrical property in nanomaterial biosensors due to the random network nature of nanoparticle thin-film. Indium oxide and silica nanoparticles (SNP) are assembled selectively on the multi-site channel area of [...] Read more.
We report a conductometric nanoparticle biosensor array to address the significant variation of electrical property in nanomaterial biosensors due to the random network nature of nanoparticle thin-film. Indium oxide and silica nanoparticles (SNP) are assembled selectively on the multi-site channel area of the resistors using layer-by-layer self-assembly. To demonstrate enzymatic biosensing capability, glucose oxidase is immobilized on the SNP layer for glucose detection. The packaged sensor chip onto a ceramic pin grid array is tested using syringe pump driven feed and multi-channel I–V measurement system. It is successfully demonstrated that glucose is detected in many different sensing sites within a chip, leading to concentration dependent currents. The sensitivity has been found to be dependent on the channel length of the resistor, 4–12 nA/mM for channel lengths of 5–20 µm, while the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant is 20 mM. By using sensor array, analytical data could be obtained with a single step of sample solution feeding. This work sheds light on the applicability of the developed nanoparticle microsensor array to multi-analyte sensors, novel bioassay platforms, and sensing components in a lab-on-a-chip. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-Biosensors)
Open AccessCommunication Biofunctionalized Zinc Oxide Field Effect Transistors for Selective Sensing of Riboflavin with Current Modulation
Sensors 2011, 11(7), 6645-6655; doi:10.3390/s110706645
Received: 1 May 2011 / Revised: 1 June 2011 / Accepted: 20 June 2011 / Published: 27 June 2011
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (378 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Zinc oxide field effect transistors (ZnO-FET), covalently functionalized with single stranded DNA aptamers, provide a highly selective platform for label-free small molecule sensing. The nanostructured surface morphology of ZnO provides high sensitivity and room temperature deposition allows for a wide array of [...] Read more.
Zinc oxide field effect transistors (ZnO-FET), covalently functionalized with single stranded DNA aptamers, provide a highly selective platform for label-free small molecule sensing. The nanostructured surface morphology of ZnO provides high sensitivity and room temperature deposition allows for a wide array of substrate types. Herein we demonstrate the selective detection of riboflavin down to the pM level in aqueous solution using the negative electrical current response of the ZnO-FET by covalently attaching a riboflavin binding aptamer to the surface. The response of the biofunctionalized ZnO-FET was tuned by attaching a redox tag (ferrocene) to the 3’ terminus of the aptamer, resulting in positive current modulation upon exposure to riboflavin down to pM levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-Biosensors)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Noble Metal Nanoparticles for Biosensing Applications
Sensors 2012, 12(2), 1657-1687; doi:10.3390/s120201657
Received: 20 December 2011 / Revised: 29 January 2012 / Accepted: 2 February 2012 / Published: 7 February 2012
Cited by 127 | PDF Full-text (619 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the last decade the use of nanomaterials has been having a great impact in biosensing. In particular, the unique properties of noble metal nanoparticles have allowed for the development of new biosensing platforms with enhanced capabilities in the specific detection of [...] Read more.
In the last decade the use of nanomaterials has been having a great impact in biosensing. In particular, the unique properties of noble metal nanoparticles have allowed for the development of new biosensing platforms with enhanced capabilities in the specific detection of bioanalytes. Noble metal nanoparticles show unique physicochemical properties (such as ease of functionalization via simple chemistry and high surface-to-volume ratios) that allied with their unique spectral and optical properties have prompted the development of a plethora of biosensing platforms. Additionally, they also provide an additional or enhanced layer of application for commonly used techniques, such as fluorescence, infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Herein we review the use of noble metal nanoparticles for biosensing strategies—from synthesis and functionalization to integration in molecular diagnostics platforms, with special focus on those that have made their way into the diagnostics laboratory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-Biosensors)
Open AccessReview Plasmonic Nanostructures for Nano-Scale Bio-Sensing
Sensors 2011, 11(11), 10907-10929; doi:10.3390/s111110907
Received: 8 October 2011 / Revised: 13 November 2011 / Accepted: 14 November 2011 / Published: 21 November 2011
Cited by 77 | PDF Full-text (1413 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The optical properties of various nanostructures have been widely adopted for biological detection, from DNA sequencing to nano-scale single molecule biological function measurements. In particular, by employing localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), we can expect distinguished sensing performance with high sensitivity and [...] Read more.
The optical properties of various nanostructures have been widely adopted for biological detection, from DNA sequencing to nano-scale single molecule biological function measurements. In particular, by employing localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), we can expect distinguished sensing performance with high sensitivity and resolution. This indicates that nano-scale detections can be realized by using the shift of resonance wavelength of LSPR in response to the refractive index change. In this paper, we overview various plasmonic nanostructures as potential sensing components. The qualitative descriptions of plasmonic nanostructures are supported by the physical phenomena such as plasmonic hybridization and Fano resonance. We present guidelines for designing specific nanostructures with regard to wavelength range and target sensing materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-Biosensors)
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