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Special Issue "Nanopore Sensors: Fabrications, Properties and Applications"

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A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Dusan Losic (Website)

School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
Fax: +61 8 8303 4373
Interests: nanomaterials; nanoengineering; nanomedicine; biosensing; bioseparations; functional biomaterials; bioinspired materials; drug-releasing implants; nano-carriers for drug delivery; diatom nanotechnology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The past decade has seen a phenomenal growth in the research on bioinspired sensors and biosensors based on nanoscale channels with typical dimensions of less than 100 nm because of their extraordinary properties and single molecule detection capabilities. Numerous methodologies, including focused ion beam milling, transmission electron microscopy, electron beam lithography, soft-imprint lithography, nanosphere lithography, electrochemical anodization, chemical and ion track-etching have been explored to fabricate single nanopore and nanopore arrays from different materials such as metals, semiconductors, metal oxides, polymers, proteins, carbon, graphene, etc. This Special Issue will address challenges in the fabrication of nanopore structures, exploring their unique properties and applications for designing ultra-sensitive sensing devices.

Prof. Dr. Dusan Losic
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs).


Keywords

  • Nanopores
  • nanopore arrays
  • solid nanopores
  • nanopore fabrications
  • single molecule detections
  • ion-channel
  • nanopore sensors

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle The Influence of Nanopore Dimensions on the Electrochemical Properties of Nanopore Arrays Studied by Impedance Spectroscopy
Sensors 2014, 14(11), 21316-21328; doi:10.3390/s141121316
Received: 22 July 2014 / Revised: 24 October 2014 / Accepted: 5 November 2014 / Published: 11 November 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1735 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The understanding of the electrochemical properties of nanopores is the key factor for better understanding their performance and applications for nanopore-based sensing devices. In this study, the influence of pore dimensions of nanoporous alumina (NPA) membranes prepared by an anodization process and [...] Read more.
The understanding of the electrochemical properties of nanopores is the key factor for better understanding their performance and applications for nanopore-based sensing devices. In this study, the influence of pore dimensions of nanoporous alumina (NPA) membranes prepared by an anodization process and their electrochemical properties as a sensing platform using impedance spectroscopy was explored. NPA with four different pore diameters (25 nm, 45 nm and 65 nm) and lengths (5 μm to 20 μm) was used and their electrochemical properties were explored using different concentration of electrolyte solution (NaCl) ranging from 1 to 100 μM. Our results show that the impedance and resistance of nanopores are influenced by the concentration and ion species of electrolytes, while the capacitance is independent of them. It was found that nanopore diameters also have a significant influence on impedance due to changes in the thickness of the double layer inside the pores. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanopore Sensors: Fabrications, Properties and Applications)
Open AccessArticle WO3/W Nanopores Sensor for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) Determination under Visible Light
Sensors 2014, 14(6), 10680-10690; doi:10.3390/s140610680
Received: 5 May 2014 / Revised: 28 May 2014 / Accepted: 4 June 2014 / Published: 17 June 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (539 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A sensor of a WO3 nanopores electrode combined with a thin layer reactor was proposed to develop a Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) determination method and solve the problem that the COD values are inaccurately determined by the standard method. The visible [...] Read more.
A sensor of a WO3 nanopores electrode combined with a thin layer reactor was proposed to develop a Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) determination method and solve the problem that the COD values are inaccurately determined by the standard method. The visible spectrum, e.g., 420 nm, could be used as light source in the sensor we developed, which represents a breakthrough by limiting of UV light source in the photoelectrocatalysis process. The operation conditions were optimized in this work, and the results showed that taking NaNO3 solution at the concentration of 2.5 mol·L−1 as electrolyte under the light intensity of 214 μW·cm−2 and applied bias of 2.5 V, the proposed method is accurate and well reproducible, even in a wide range of pH values. Furthermore, the COD values obtained by the WO3 sensor were fitted well with the theoretical COD value in the range of 3–60 mg·L−1 with a limit value of 1 mg·L−1, which reveals that the proposed sensor may be a practical device for monitoring and controlling surface water quality as well as slightly polluted water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanopore Sensors: Fabrications, Properties and Applications)
Open AccessArticle Membrane Thickness Dependence of Nanopore Formation with a Focused Helium Ion Beam
Sensors 2014, 14(5), 8150-8161; doi:10.3390/s140508150
Received: 10 March 2014 / Revised: 11 April 2014 / Accepted: 29 April 2014 / Published: 6 May 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (689 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Solid-state nanopores are emerging as a valuable tool for the detection and characterization of individual biomolecules. Central to their success is the realization of fabrication strategies that are both rapid and flexible in their ability to achieve diverse device dimensions. In this [...] Read more.
Solid-state nanopores are emerging as a valuable tool for the detection and characterization of individual biomolecules. Central to their success is the realization of fabrication strategies that are both rapid and flexible in their ability to achieve diverse device dimensions. In this paper, we demonstrate the membrane thickness dependence of solid-state nanopore formation with a focused helium ion beam. We vary membrane thickness in situ and show that the rate of pore expansion follows a reproducible trend under all investigated membrane conditions. We show that this trend shifts to lower ion dose for thin membranes in a manner that can be described quantitatively, allowing devices of arbitrary dimension to be realized. Finally, we demonstrate that thin, small-diameter nanopores formed with our approach can be utilized for high signal-to-noise ratio resistive pulse sensing of DNA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanopore Sensors: Fabrications, Properties and Applications)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Advanced Nanoporous Materials for Micro-Gravimetric Sensing to Trace-Level Bio/Chemical Molecules
Sensors 2014, 14(10), 19023-19056; doi:10.3390/s141019023
Received: 29 August 2014 / Revised: 1 October 2014 / Accepted: 9 October 2014 / Published: 13 October 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (7230 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Functionalized nanoporous materials have been developed recently as bio/chemical sensing materials. Due to the huge specific surface of the nano-materials for molecular adsorption, high hopes have been placed on gravimetric detection with micro/nano resonant cantilevers for ultra-sensitive sensing of low-concentration bio/chemical substances. [...] Read more.
Functionalized nanoporous materials have been developed recently as bio/chemical sensing materials. Due to the huge specific surface of the nano-materials for molecular adsorption, high hopes have been placed on gravimetric detection with micro/nano resonant cantilevers for ultra-sensitive sensing of low-concentration bio/chemical substances. In order to enhance selectivity of the gravimetric resonant sensors to the target molecules, it is crucial to modify specific groups onto the pore-surface of the nano-materials. By loading the nanoporous sensing material onto the desired region of the mass-type transducers like resonant cantilevers, the micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensors can be formed. Recently, such micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensors have been successfully applied for rapid or on-the-spot detection of various bio/chemical molecules at the trace-concentration level. The applicable nanoporous sensing materials include mesoporous silica, zeolite, nanoporous graphene oxide (GO) and so on. This review article focuses on the recent achievements in design, preparation, functionalization and characterization of advanced nanoporous sensing materials for micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanopore Sensors: Fabrications, Properties and Applications)
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Open AccessReview Single-Molecule Study of Proteins by Biological Nanopore Sensors
Sensors 2014, 14(10), 18211-18222; doi:10.3390/s141018211
Received: 24 May 2014 / Revised: 31 August 2014 / Accepted: 19 September 2014 / Published: 29 September 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2640 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanopore technology has been developed for detecting properties of proteins through monitoring of ionic current modulations as protein passes via a nanosize pore. As a real-time, sensitive, selective and stable technology, biological nanopores are of widespread concern. Here, we introduce the background [...] Read more.
Nanopore technology has been developed for detecting properties of proteins through monitoring of ionic current modulations as protein passes via a nanosize pore. As a real-time, sensitive, selective and stable technology, biological nanopores are of widespread concern. Here, we introduce the background of nanopore researches in the area of α-hemolysin (α-HL) nanopores in protein conformation detections and protein–ligand interactions. Moreover, several original biological nanopores are also introduced with various features and functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanopore Sensors: Fabrications, Properties and Applications)
Open AccessReview Nanoporous Anodic Alumina Platforms: Engineered Surface Chemistry and Structure for Optical Sensing Applications
Sensors 2014, 14(7), 11878-11918; doi:10.3390/s140711878
Received: 12 May 2014 / Revised: 23 June 2014 / Accepted: 25 June 2014 / Published: 7 July 2014
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (6933 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electrochemical anodization of pure aluminum enables the growth of highly ordered nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) structures. This has made NAA one of the most popular nanomaterials with applications including molecular separation, catalysis, photonics, optoelectronics, sensing, drug delivery, and template synthesis. Over the [...] Read more.
Electrochemical anodization of pure aluminum enables the growth of highly ordered nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA) structures. This has made NAA one of the most popular nanomaterials with applications including molecular separation, catalysis, photonics, optoelectronics, sensing, drug delivery, and template synthesis. Over the past decades, the ability to engineer the structure and surface chemistry of NAA and its optical properties has led to the establishment of distinctive photonic structures that can be explored for developing low-cost, portable, rapid-response and highly sensitive sensing devices in combination with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and reflective interference spectroscopy (RIfS) techniques. This review article highlights the recent advances on fabrication, surface modification and structural engineering of NAA and its application and performance as a platform for SPR- and RIfS-based sensing and biosensing devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanopore Sensors: Fabrications, Properties and Applications)

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