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Special Issue "Printed Sensors"

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A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Tony Killard

Department of Biological, Biomedical and Analytical Sciences University of the West of England Frenchay Campus, Coldharbour Lane Bristol, BS16 1QY UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: processable nanomaterials; printed sensors; printed electronics; biomedical diagnostics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleague,

Printed sensors have been with us now for about two decades, and have brought about a revolution in analytical science and clinical chemistry. The advent of the glucose electrode strip has been particularly influential. The printing of sensors was a paradigm shift in sensor fabrication. Sensors evolved from cumbersome, three-dimensional devices, to products of two-dimensional, planar fabrication processes. Until recently, the technology of printed sensors had not evolved significantly from strips based primarily on screen printing technology. However, the recent explosion in printed electronics technology, the development of novel print-processable nanomaterials, and the development of novel printing techniques and supporting fabrication methodologies have brought about a new wave of novel printed sensor technologies.

This special issue of Sensors will feature reviews and original research articles detailing highly novel and disruptive advances in printed sensors, their materials, fabrication, and application.

Prof. Tony Killard BA
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • sensor
  • printed
  • processable materials
  • nanomaterials
  • screen printing
  • ink jet printing
  • 3D printing
  • roll to roll
  • environmental monitoring
  • diagnostics

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Cobalt Phthalocyanine Modified Electrodes Utilised in Electroanalysis: Nano-Structured Modified Electrodes vs. Bulk Modified Screen-Printed Electrodes
Sensors 2014, 14(11), 21905-21922; doi:10.3390/s141121905
Received: 26 May 2014 / Revised: 17 October 2014 / Accepted: 6 November 2014 / Published: 19 November 2014
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (3377 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC) compounds have been reported to provide electrocatalytic performances towards a substantial number of analytes. In these configurations, electrodes are typically constructed via drop casting the CoPC onto a supporting electrode substrate, while in other cases the CoPC complex is incorporated
[...] Read more.
Cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC) compounds have been reported to provide electrocatalytic performances towards a substantial number of analytes. In these configurations, electrodes are typically constructed via drop casting the CoPC onto a supporting electrode substrate, while in other cases the CoPC complex is incorporated within the ink of a screen-printed sensor, providing a one-shot economical and disposable electrode configuration. In this paper we critically compare CoPC modified electrodes prepared by drop casting CoPC nanoparticles (nano-CoPC) onto a range of carbon based electrode substrates with that of CoPC bulk modified screen-printed electrodes in the sensing of the model analytes L-ascorbic acid, oxygen and hydrazine. It is found that no “electrocatalysis” is observed towards L-ascorbic acid using either of these CoPC modified electrode configurations and that the bare underlying carbon electrode is the origin of the obtained voltammetric signal, which gives rise to useful electroanalytical signatures, providing new insights into literature reports where “electrocatalysis” has been reported with no clear control experiments undertaken. On the other hand true electrocatalysis is observed towards hydrazine, where no such voltammetric features are witnessed on the bare underlying electrode substrate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Printed Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Fabrication and Evaluation of a Micro(Bio)Sensor Array Chip for Multiple Parallel Measurements of Important Cell Biomarkers
Sensors 2014, 14(11), 20519-20532; doi:10.3390/s141120519
Received: 21 July 2014 / Revised: 20 September 2014 / Accepted: 21 October 2014 / Published: 30 October 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2122 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This report describes the design and development of an integrated electrochemical cell culture monitoring system, based on enzyme-biosensors and chemical sensors, for monitoring indicators of mammalian cell metabolic status. MEMS technology was used to fabricate a microwell-format silicon platform including a thermometer, onto
[...] Read more.
This report describes the design and development of an integrated electrochemical cell culture monitoring system, based on enzyme-biosensors and chemical sensors, for monitoring indicators of mammalian cell metabolic status. MEMS technology was used to fabricate a microwell-format silicon platform including a thermometer, onto which chemical sensors (pH, O2) and screen-printed biosensors (glucose, lactate), were grafted/deposited. Microwells were formed over the fabricated sensors to give 5-well sensor strips which were interfaced with a multipotentiostat via a bespoke connector box interface. The operation of each sensor/biosensor type was examined individually, and examples of operating devices in five microwells in parallel, in either potentiometric (pH sensing) or amperometric (glucose biosensing) mode are shown. The performance characteristics of the sensors/biosensors indicate that the system could readily be applied to cell culture/toxicity studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Printed Sensors)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Screen-Printed Resistive Pressure Sensors Containing Graphene Nanoplatelets and Carbon Nanotubes
Sensors 2014, 14(9), 17304-17312; doi:10.3390/s140917304
Received: 31 May 2014 / Revised: 25 July 2014 / Accepted: 18 August 2014 / Published: 16 September 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (3757 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polymer composites with nanomaterials such as graphene nanoplatelets and carbon nanotubes are a new group of materials with high application possibilities in printed and flexible electronics. In this study such carbon nanomaterials were used as a conductive phase in polymer composites. Pastes with
[...] Read more.
Polymer composites with nanomaterials such as graphene nanoplatelets and carbon nanotubes are a new group of materials with high application possibilities in printed and flexible electronics. In this study such carbon nanomaterials were used as a conductive phase in polymer composites. Pastes with dispersed nanomaterials in PMMA and PVDF vehicles were screen printed on flexible substrates, and used as an active layer in pressure sensors, exploiting contact resistance phenomena. The relationship between resistance and pressure is nearly linear on a logarithmic scale for selected types of samples, and their response is several times higher than for similar sensors with graphite layers. The use of surfactants allowed us to fabricate evenly dispersed nanomaterials with different amount of nanoplatelets and nanotubes in the composites. The samples contained from 1.25 wt.% to 2 wt.% of graphene and 1 wt.% to 0.5 wt.% of nanotubes and exhibited diverse sheet resistivity. Experiments revealed the relationship between morphology and loading of functional phase in the polymer matrix and the sensors’ sensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Printed Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Tape Transfer Printing of a Liquid Metal Alloy for Stretchable RF Electronics
Sensors 2014, 14(9), 16311-16321; doi:10.3390/s140916311
Received: 31 May 2014 / Revised: 22 August 2014 / Accepted: 27 August 2014 / Published: 3 September 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (2081 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to make conductors with large cross sections for low impedance radio frequency (RF) electronics, while still retaining high stretchability, liquid-alloy-based microfluidic stretchable electronics offers stretchable electronic systems the unique opportunity to combine various sensors on our bodies or organs with high-quality
[...] Read more.
In order to make conductors with large cross sections for low impedance radio frequency (RF) electronics, while still retaining high stretchability, liquid-alloy-based microfluidic stretchable electronics offers stretchable electronic systems the unique opportunity to combine various sensors on our bodies or organs with high-quality wireless communication with the external world (devices/systems), without sacrificing enhanced user comfort. This microfluidic approach, based on printed circuit board technology, allows large area processing of large cross section conductors and robust contacts, which can handle a lot of stretching between the embedded rigid active components and the surrounding system. Although it provides such benefits, further development is needed to realize its potential as a high throughput, cost-effective process technology. In this paper, tape transfer printing is proposed to supply a rapid prototyping batch process at low cost, albeit at a low resolution of 150 μm. In particular, isolated patterns can be obtained in a simple one-step process. Finally, a stretchable radio frequency identification (RFID) tag is demonstrated. The measured results show the robustness of the hybrid integrated system when the tag is stretched at 50% for 3000 cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Printed Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Development of a Hydrogen Peroxide Sensor Based on Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified with Inkjet-Printed Prussian Blue Nanoparticles
Sensors 2014, 14(8), 14222-14234; doi:10.3390/s140814222
Received: 13 June 2014 / Revised: 16 July 2014 / Accepted: 23 July 2014 / Published: 4 August 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (2422 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A sensor for the simple and sensitive measurement of hydrogen peroxide has been developed which is based on screen printed electrodes (SPEs) modified with Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs) deposited using piezoelectric inkjet printing. PBNP-modified SPEs were characterized using physical and electrochemical techniques to
[...] Read more.
A sensor for the simple and sensitive measurement of hydrogen peroxide has been developed which is based on screen printed electrodes (SPEs) modified with Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs) deposited using piezoelectric inkjet printing. PBNP-modified SPEs were characterized using physical and electrochemical techniques to optimize the PBNP layer thickness and electroanalytical conditions for optimum measurement of hydrogen peroxide. Sensor optimization resulted in a limit of detection of 2 × 10−7 M, a linear range from 0 to 4.5 mM and a sensitivity of 762 μA∙mM–1∙cm–2 which was achieved using 20 layers of printed PBNPs. Sensors also demonstrated excellent reproducibility (<5% rsd). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Printed Sensors)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Humidity Sensors Printed on Recycled Paper and Cardboard
Sensors 2014, 14(8), 13628-13643; doi:10.3390/s140813628
Received: 31 May 2014 / Revised: 13 July 2014 / Accepted: 21 July 2014 / Published: 28 July 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1085 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Research, design, fabrication and results of various screen printed capacitive humidity sensors is presented in this paper. Two types of capacitive humidity sensors have been designed and fabricated via screen printing on recycled paper and cardboard, obtained from the regional paper and cardboard
[...] Read more.
Research, design, fabrication and results of various screen printed capacitive humidity sensors is presented in this paper. Two types of capacitive humidity sensors have been designed and fabricated via screen printing on recycled paper and cardboard, obtained from the regional paper and cardboard industry. As printing ink, commercially available silver nanoparticle-based conductive ink was used. A considerable amount of work has been devoted to the humidity measurement methods using paper as a dielectric material. Performances of different structures have been tested in a humidity chamber. Relative humidity in the chamber was varied in the range of 35%–80% relative humidity (RH) at a constant temperature of 23 °C. Parameters of interest were capacitance and conductance of each sensor material, as well as long term behaviour. Process reversibility has also been considered. The results obtained show a mainly logarithmic response of the paper sensors, with the only exception being cardboard-based sensors. Recycled paper-based sensors exhibit a change in value of three orders of magnitude, whereas cardboard-based sensors have a change in value of few 10s over the entire scope of relative humidity range (RH 35%–90%). Two different types of capacitor sensors have been investigated: lateral (comb) type sensors and modified, perforated flat plate type sensors. The objective of the present work was to identify the most important factors affecting the material performances with humidity, and to contribute to the development of a sensor system supported with a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) chip directly on the material, for use in smart packaging applications. Therefore, the authors built a passive and a battery-supported wireless module based on SL900A smart sensory tag’s IC to achieve UHF-RFID functionality with data logging capability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Printed Sensors)
Figures

Open AccessArticle The Use of Screen-Printed Electrodes in a Proof of Concept Electrochemical Estimation of Homocysteine and Glutathione in the Presence of Cysteine Using Catechol
Sensors 2014, 14(6), 10395-10411; doi:10.3390/s140610395
Received: 25 April 2014 / Revised: 5 June 2014 / Accepted: 10 June 2014 / Published: 12 June 2014
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (668 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Screen printed electrodes were employed in a proof of concept determination of homocysteine and glutathione using electrochemically oxidized catechol via a 1,4-Michael addition reaction in the absence and presence of cysteine, and each other. Using cyclic voltammetry, the Michael reaction introduces a new
[...] Read more.
Screen printed electrodes were employed in a proof of concept determination of homocysteine and glutathione using electrochemically oxidized catechol via a 1,4-Michael addition reaction in the absence and presence of cysteine, and each other. Using cyclic voltammetry, the Michael reaction introduces a new adduct peak which is analytically useful in detecting thiols. The proposed procedure relies on the different rates of reaction of glutathione and homocysteine with oxidized catechol so that at fast voltage scan rates only homocysteine is detected in cyclic voltammetry. At slower scan rates, both glutathione and homocysteine are detected. The combination of the two sets of data provides quantification for homocysteine and glutathione. The presence of cysteine is shown not to interfere provided sufficient high concentrations of catechol are used. Calibration curves were determined for each homocysteine and glutathione detection; where the sensitivities are 0.019 µA·µM−1 and 0.0019 µA·µM−1 and limit of detections are ca. 1.2 µM and 0.11 µM for homocysteine and glutathione, respectively, within the linear range. This work presents results with potential and beneficial use in re-useable and/or disposable point-of-use sensors for biological and medical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Printed Sensors)
Open AccessArticle A Low-Power Integrated Humidity CMOS Sensor by Printing-on-Chip Technology
Sensors 2014, 14(5), 9247-9255; doi:10.3390/s140509247
Received: 25 April 2014 / Revised: 19 May 2014 / Accepted: 20 May 2014 / Published: 23 May 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (299 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A low-power, wide-dynamic-range integrated humidity sensing chip is implemented using a printable polymer sensing material with an on-chip pulse-width-modulation interface circuit. By using the inkjet printing technique, poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene)/polystyrene sulfonate that has humidity sensing features can be printed onto the top metal layer of
[...] Read more.
A low-power, wide-dynamic-range integrated humidity sensing chip is implemented using a printable polymer sensing material with an on-chip pulse-width-modulation interface circuit. By using the inkjet printing technique, poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene)/polystyrene sulfonate that has humidity sensing features can be printed onto the top metal layer of a 0.35 μm CMOS IC. The developed printing-on-chip humidity sensor achieves a heterogeneous three dimensional sensor system-on-chip architecture. The humidity sensing of the implemented printing-on-chip sensor system is experimentally tested. The sensor shows a sensitivity of 0.98% to humidity in the atmosphere. The maximum dynamic range of the readout circuit is 9.8 MΩ, which can be further tuned by the frequency of input signal to fit the requirement of the resistance of printed sensor. The power consumption keeps only 154 μW. This printing-on-chip sensor provides a practical solution to fulfill an ultra-small integrated sensor for the applications in miniaturized sensing systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Printed Sensors)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Wearable Electronics and Smart Textiles: A Critical Review
Sensors 2014, 14(7), 11957-11992; doi:10.3390/s140711957
Received: 14 May 2014 / Revised: 24 June 2014 / Accepted: 1 July 2014 / Published: 7 July 2014
Cited by 137 | PDF Full-text (1815 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electronic Textiles (e-textiles) are fabrics that feature electronics and interconnections woven into them, presenting physical flexibility and typical size that cannot be achieved with other existing electronic manufacturing techniques. Components and interconnections are intrinsic to the fabric and thus are less visible and
[...] Read more.
Electronic Textiles (e-textiles) are fabrics that feature electronics and interconnections woven into them, presenting physical flexibility and typical size that cannot be achieved with other existing electronic manufacturing techniques. Components and interconnections are intrinsic to the fabric and thus are less visible and not susceptible of becoming tangled or snagged by surrounding objects. E-textiles can also more easily adapt to fast changes in the computational and sensing requirements of any specific application, this one representing a useful feature for power management and context awareness. The vision behind wearable computing foresees future electronic systems to be an integral part of our everyday outfits. Such electronic devices have to meet special requirements concerning wearability. Wearable systems will be characterized by their ability to automatically recognize the activity and the behavioral status of their own user as well as of the situation around her/him, and to use this information to adjust the systems’ configuration and functionality. This review focuses on recent advances in the field of Smart Textiles and pays particular attention to the materials and their manufacturing process. Each technique shows advantages and disadvantages and our aim is to highlight a possible trade-off between flexibility, ergonomics, low power consumption, integration and eventually autonomy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Printed Sensors)
Open AccessReview Disposable Screen Printed Electrochemical Sensors: Tools for Environmental Monitoring
Sensors 2014, 14(6), 10432-10453; doi:10.3390/s140610432
Received: 9 March 2014 / Revised: 3 June 2014 / Accepted: 5 June 2014 / Published: 13 June 2014
Cited by 42 | PDF Full-text (302 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Screen printing technology is a widely used technique for the fabrication of electrochemical sensors. This methodology is likely to underpin the progressive drive towards miniaturized, sensitive and portable devices, and has already established its route from “lab-to-market” for a plethora of sensors. The
[...] Read more.
Screen printing technology is a widely used technique for the fabrication of electrochemical sensors. This methodology is likely to underpin the progressive drive towards miniaturized, sensitive and portable devices, and has already established its route from “lab-to-market” for a plethora of sensors. The application of these sensors for analysis of environmental samples has been the major focus of research in this field. As a consequence, this work will focus on recent important advances in the design and fabrication of disposable screen printed sensors for the electrochemical detection of environmental contaminants. Special emphasis is given on sensor fabrication methodology, operating details and performance characteristics for environmental applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Printed Sensors)

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