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Special Issue "Sensors for Environmental Monitoring"

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A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2004)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Clifford K. Ho

Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, MS-1127, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1127, USA
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +1 505 845 3366
Interests: chemiresistor; chemical sensing; in-situ; soil; groundwater; VOC; hydrocarbon; environmental; monitoring

Special Issue Information

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Keywords

  • sensors for environmental monitoring

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Displaying articles 1-9
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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Sensors for Environmental Monitoring
Sensors 2005, 5(1), 1-3; doi:10.3390/s5010001
Published: 28 January 2005
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (100 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Environmental Monitoring)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Other

Open AccessArticle Automated Ground-Water Sampling and Analysis of Hexavalent Chromium using a “Universal” Sampling/Analytical System
Sensors 2005, 5(1), 38-50; doi:10.3390/s5010038
Received: 28 September 2004 / Accepted: 2 December 2004 / Published: 28 February 2005
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1109 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The capabilities of a “universal platform” for the deployment of analyticalsensors in the field for long-term monitoring of environmental contaminants were expandedin this investigation. The platform was previously used to monitor trichloroethene inmonitoring wells and at groundwater treatment systems (1,2). The platform was
[...] Read more.
The capabilities of a “universal platform” for the deployment of analyticalsensors in the field for long-term monitoring of environmental contaminants were expandedin this investigation. The platform was previously used to monitor trichloroethene inmonitoring wells and at groundwater treatment systems (1,2). The platform was interfacedwith chromium (VI) and conductivity analytical systems to monitor shallow wells installedadjacent to the Columbia River at the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site, Washington. Agroundwater plume of hexavalent chromium is discharging into the Columbia River throughthe gravels beds used by spawning salmon. The sampling/analytical platform was deployedfor the purpose of collecting data on subsurface hexavalent chromium concentrations atmore frequent intervals than was possible with the previous sampling and analysis methodsemployed a the Site. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Environmental Monitoring)
Open AccessArticle Cerenkov Counter for In-Situ Groundwater Monitoring of 90Sr
Sensors 2005, 5(1), 51-60; doi:10.3390/s5010051
Received: 7 September 2004 / Accepted: 3 December 2004 / Published: 28 February 2005
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (485 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Groundwater contamination from 90Sr is an environmental challenge posed topresent and former nuclear weapons related sites. Traditional methods of extractinggroundwater samples and performing laboratory analyses are expensive, time-consumingand induce significant disposal challenges. The authors present here a prototype countercapable of measuring 90
[...] Read more.
Groundwater contamination from 90Sr is an environmental challenge posed topresent and former nuclear weapons related sites. Traditional methods of extractinggroundwater samples and performing laboratory analyses are expensive, time-consumingand induce significant disposal challenges. The authors present here a prototype countercapable of measuring 90Sr groundwater concentrations in-situ at or below the drinking waterlimit of 8 pCi/liter. The 90Y daughter of 90Sr produces high-energy electrons, which cancreate Cerenkov light. Photomultiplier tubes convert the Cerenkov light into an electronicpulse, which then undergoes signal processing with standard electronics. Strontium-90concentrations near the drinking water limit can be measured in a matter of hours if it is insecular equilibrium with the 90Y daughter. The prototype counter is compact, can bedeployed in an American Standard 6-inch, well while operated by a single person, andtransmits the results to a central monitoring location. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Environmental Monitoring)
Open AccessArticle In-situ LIF Analysis of Biological and Petroleum-based Hydraulic Oils on Soil
Sensors 2005, 5(1), 61-69; doi:10.3390/s5010061
Received: 2 September 2004 / Accepted: 20 December 2004 / Published: 28 February 2005
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (259 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Absorption and fluorescence properties of 4 hydraulic oils (3 biological and 1petroleum-based) were investigated. In-situ LIF (laser-induced fluorescence) analysis of theoils on a brown sandy loam soil was performed. With calibration, quantitative detection wasachieved. Estimated limits of detection were below ca. 500 mg/kg
[...] Read more.
Absorption and fluorescence properties of 4 hydraulic oils (3 biological and 1petroleum-based) were investigated. In-situ LIF (laser-induced fluorescence) analysis of theoils on a brown sandy loam soil was performed. With calibration, quantitative detection wasachieved. Estimated limits of detection were below ca. 500 mg/kg for the petroleum-basedoil and ca. 2000 mg/kg for one biological oil. A semi-quantitative classification scheme isproposed for monitoring of the biological oils. This approach was applied to investigate themigration of a biological oil in soil-containing compartments, namely a soil column and asoil bed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Environmental Monitoring)
Open AccessArticle Phytochelatin Modified Electrode Surface as a Sensitive Heavy- Metal Ion Biosensor
Sensors 2005, 5(1), 70-84; doi:10.3390/s5010070
Received: 6 September 2004 / Accepted: 18 November 2004 / Published: 28 February 2005
Cited by 61 | PDF Full-text (282 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electrochemical biosensors have superior properties over other existingmeasurement systems because they can provide rapid, simple and low-cost on-fielddetermination of many biological active species and a number of dangerous pollutants. Inour work, we suggested a new heavy metal biosensor based on interaction of heavy
[...] Read more.
Electrochemical biosensors have superior properties over other existingmeasurement systems because they can provide rapid, simple and low-cost on-fielddetermination of many biological active species and a number of dangerous pollutants. Inour work, we suggested a new heavy metal biosensor based on interaction of heavy metalions (Cd2+ and Zn2+ ) with phytochelatin, which was adsorbed on the surface of the hangingmercury drop electrode, using adsorptive transfer stripping differential pulse voltammetry.In addition, we applied the suggested technique for the determination of heavy metals in abiological sample – human urine and platinum in a pharmaceutical drug. The detectionlimits (3 S/N) of Cd(II), Zn(II) and cis-platin were about 1.0, 13.3 and 1.9 pmole in 5 μl,respectively. On the basis of the obtained results, we propose that the suggested techniqueoffers simple, rapid, and low-cost detection of heavy metals in environmental, biologicaland medical samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Environmental Monitoring)
Open AccessArticle Circuit and Noise Analysis of Odorant Gas Sensors in an E-Nose
Sensors 2005, 5(1), 85-96; doi:10.3390/s5010085
Received: 8 September 2004 / Accepted: 12 December 2004 / Published: 28 February 2005
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (630 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, the relationship between typical circuit structures of gas sensorcircuits and their output noise is analyzed. By using averaged segmenting periodical graphand improved histogram estimation methods, we estimated their noise power spectra andoptimal probability distribution functions (pdf). The results were confirmed
[...] Read more.
In this paper, the relationship between typical circuit structures of gas sensorcircuits and their output noise is analyzed. By using averaged segmenting periodical graphand improved histogram estimation methods, we estimated their noise power spectra andoptimal probability distribution functions (pdf). The results were confirmed throughexperiment studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Environmental Monitoring)
Open AccessArticle Application of Artificial Neural Networks in Multitouch- Sensitive Systems for the Detection of Nitrohydrocarbons in the Air
Sensors 2005, 5(1), 97-102; doi:10.3390/s5010097
Received: 30 August 2004 / Accepted: 3 December 2004 / Published: 28 February 2005
PDF Full-text (209 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract Artificial neural networks (ANN) were applied for use with electronic-nosegenerated analytical signals. The use of ANN as a sensor calibration means was evaluated.Piezoelectric quartz sensors array in addition to the ANN data allow recognition of aliphaticnitrohydrocarbons С1–С3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Environmental Monitoring)
Open AccessArticle Environmental Studies with the Sensor Web: Principles and Practice
Sensors 2005, 5(1), 103-117; doi:10.3390/s5010103
Received: 4 October 2004 / Accepted: 5 December 2004 / Published: 28 February 2005
Cited by 41 | PDF Full-text (809 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In 1997, the Sensor Web was conceived at the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)to take advantage of the increasingly inexpensive, yet sophisticated, mass consumer-marketchips for the computer and telecommunication industries and use them to create platforms thatshare information among themselves and act in concert
[...] Read more.
In 1997, the Sensor Web was conceived at the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)to take advantage of the increasingly inexpensive, yet sophisticated, mass consumer-marketchips for the computer and telecommunication industries and use them to create platforms thatshare information among themselves and act in concert as a single instrument. This instrumentwould be embedded into an environment to monitor and even control it. The Sensor Web’spurpose is to extract knowledge from the data it collects and use this information to intelligentlyreact and adapt to its surroundings. It links a remote end-user's cognizance with the observedenvironment. Here, we examine not only current progress in the Sensor Web technology, butalso its recent application to problems in hydrology to illustrate the general concepts involved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Environmental Monitoring)

Other

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Open AccessOther Overview of Sensors and Needs for Environmental Monitoring
Sensors 2005, 5(1), 4-37; doi:10.3390/s5010004
Received: 31 August 2004 / Accepted: 1 December 2004 / Published: 28 February 2005
Cited by 69 | PDF Full-text (975 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper surveys the needs associated with environmental monitoring and longtermenvironmental stewardship. Emerging sensor technologies are reviewed to identifycompatible technologies for various environmental monitoring applications. Thecontaminants that are considered in this report are grouped into the following categories:(1) metals, (2) radioisotopes, (3) volatile
[...] Read more.
This paper surveys the needs associated with environmental monitoring and longtermenvironmental stewardship. Emerging sensor technologies are reviewed to identifycompatible technologies for various environmental monitoring applications. Thecontaminants that are considered in this report are grouped into the following categories:(1) metals, (2) radioisotopes, (3) volatile organic compounds, and (4) biologicalcontaminants. United States regulatory drivers are evaluated for different applications (e.g.,drinking water, storm water, pretreatment, and air emissions), and sensor requirements arederived from these regulatory metrics. Sensor capabilities are then summarized according tocontaminant type, and the applicability of the different sensors to various environmentalmonitoring applications is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Environmental Monitoring)

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