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Special Issue "State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in the UK"

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A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "State-of-the-Art Sensors Technologies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2010)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Nicholas Dale

Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Warwick Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK
E-Mail
Phone: 024 7652 3729
Interests: amperometric biosensors, neuroscience, physiology, chemosensing, purinergic signalling

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The aim of this special issue is to provide a comprehensive view on the state-of-the-art sensors technology in the UK. Research articles are solicited which will provide a consolidated state-of-the-art in this area. The Special Issue will publish those full research, review and high rated manuscripts addressing the above topic.

Prof. Dr. Nicholas Dale
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • biosensors
  • chemical sensors
  • physical sensors
  • remote sensing sensors

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Gait Event Detection on Level Ground and Incline Walking Using a Rate Gyroscope
Sensors 2010, 10(6), 5683-5702; doi:10.3390/s100605683
Received: 23 March 2010 / Revised: 24 May 2010 / Accepted: 25 May 2010 / Published: 4 June 2010
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (371 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gyroscopes have been proposed as sensors for ambulatory gait analysis and functional electrical stimulation systems. Accurate determination of the Initial Contact of the foot with the floor (IC) and the final contact or Foot Off (FO) on different terrains is important. This paper
[...] Read more.
Gyroscopes have been proposed as sensors for ambulatory gait analysis and functional electrical stimulation systems. Accurate determination of the Initial Contact of the foot with the floor (IC) and the final contact or Foot Off (FO) on different terrains is important. This paper describes the evaluation of a gyroscope placed on the shank for determination of IC and FO in subjects walking outdoors on level ground, and up and down an incline. Performance was compared with a reference pressure measurement system. The mean difference between the gyroscope and the reference was less than –25 ms for IC and less than 75 ms for FO for all terrains. Detection success was over 98%. These results provide preliminary evidence supporting the use of the gyroscope for gait event detection on inclines as well as level walking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in the UK)
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Open AccessArticle Biosensing for the Environment and Defence: Aqueous Uranyl Detection Using Bacterial Surface Layer Proteins
Sensors 2010, 10(5), 4739-4755; doi:10.3390/s100504739
Received: 5 March 2010 / Revised: 22 April 2010 / Accepted: 27 April 2010 / Published: 10 May 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (433 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The fabrication of novel uranyl (UO22+) binding protein based sensors is reported. The new biosensor responds to picomolar levels of aqueous uranyl ions within minutes using Lysinibacillus sphaericus JG-A12 S-layer protein tethered to gold electrodes. In comparison to traditional self
[...] Read more.
The fabrication of novel uranyl (UO22+) binding protein based sensors is reported. The new biosensor responds to picomolar levels of aqueous uranyl ions within minutes using Lysinibacillus sphaericus JG-A12 S-layer protein tethered to gold electrodes. In comparison to traditional self assembled monolayer based biosensors the porous bioconjugated layer gave greater stability, longer electrode life span and a denser protein layer. Biosensors responded specifically to UO22+ ions and showed minor interference from Ni2+, Cs+, Cd2+ and Co2+. Chemical modification of JG-A12 protein phosphate and carboxyl groups prevented UO22+ binding, showing that both moieties are involved in the recognition to UO22+. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in the UK)
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Open AccessArticle A Multiwell Electrochemical Biosensor for Real-Time Monitoring of the Behavioural Changes of Cells in Vitro
Sensors 2010, 10(4), 3732-3740; doi:10.3390/s100403732
Received: 2 March 2010 / Revised: 1 April 2010 / Accepted: 6 April 2010 / Published: 13 April 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (555 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We report the development of a multiwell biosensor for detecting changes in the electrochemical open circuit potential (OCP) generated by viable human cells in vitro. The instrument features eight culture wells; each containing three gold sensors around a common silver/silver chloride reference
[...] Read more.
We report the development of a multiwell biosensor for detecting changes in the electrochemical open circuit potential (OCP) generated by viable human cells in vitro. The instrument features eight culture wells; each containing three gold sensors around a common silver/silver chloride reference electrode, prepared using screen-printed conductive inks. The potential applications of the device were demonstrated by monitoring rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts (RSF) and HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells in response to chemical and biological treatments. This technology could provide an alternative to conventional end-point assays used in the fields of chemotherapy, toxicology and drug discovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in the UK)
Open AccessArticle Whispering Gallery Modes in Standard Optical Fibres for Fibre Profiling Measurements and Sensing of Unlabelled Chemical Species
Sensors 2010, 10(3), 1765-1781; doi:10.3390/s100301765
Received: 1 January 2010 / Revised: 4 February 2010 / Accepted: 23 February 2010 / Published: 3 March 2010
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (4378 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Whispering gallery mode resonances in liquid droplets and microspheres have attracted considerable attention due to their potential uses in a range of sensing and technological applications. We describe a whispering gallery mode sensor in which standard optical fibre is used as the whispering
[...] Read more.
Whispering gallery mode resonances in liquid droplets and microspheres have attracted considerable attention due to their potential uses in a range of sensing and technological applications. We describe a whispering gallery mode sensor in which standard optical fibre is used as the whispering gallery mode resonator. The sensor is characterised in terms of the response of the whispering gallery mode spectrum to changes in resonator size, refractive index of the surrounding medium, and temperature, and its measurement capabilities are demonstrated through application to high-precision fibre geometry profiling and the detection of unlabelled biochemical species. The prototype sensor is capable of detecting unlabelled biomolecular species in attomole quantities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in the UK)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Microfluidic Systems for Biosensing
Sensors 2010, 10(7), 6623-6661; doi:10.3390/s100706623
Received: 1 June 2010 / Revised: 20 June 2010 / Accepted: 30 June 2010 / Published: 9 July 2010
Cited by 44 | PDF Full-text (2493 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the past two decades, Micro Fluidic Systems (MFS) have emerged as a powerful tool for biosensing, particularly in enriching and purifying molecules and cells in biological samples. Compared with conventional sensing techniques, distinctive advantages of using MFS for biomedicine include ultra-high sensitivity,
[...] Read more.
In the past two decades, Micro Fluidic Systems (MFS) have emerged as a powerful tool for biosensing, particularly in enriching and purifying molecules and cells in biological samples. Compared with conventional sensing techniques, distinctive advantages of using MFS for biomedicine include ultra-high sensitivity, higher throughput, in-situ monitoring and lower cost. This review aims to summarize the recent advancements in two major types of micro fluidic systems, continuous and discrete MFS, as well as their biomedical applications. The state-of-the-art of active and passive mechanisms of fluid manipulation for mixing, separation, purification and concentration will also be elaborated. Future trends of using MFS in detection at molecular or cellular level, especially in stem cell therapy, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, are also prospected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in the UK)
Open AccessReview Metal Oxide Semi-Conductor Gas Sensors in Environmental Monitoring
Sensors 2010, 10(6), 5469-5502; doi:10.3390/s100605469
Received: 30 March 2010 / Revised: 10 May 2010 / Accepted: 20 May 2010 / Published: 1 June 2010
Cited by 273 | PDF Full-text (1815 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors are utilised in a variety of different roles and industries. They are relatively inexpensive compared to other sensing technologies, robust, lightweight, long lasting and benefit from high material sensitivity and quick response times. They have been used extensively
[...] Read more.
Metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors are utilised in a variety of different roles and industries. They are relatively inexpensive compared to other sensing technologies, robust, lightweight, long lasting and benefit from high material sensitivity and quick response times. They have been used extensively to measure and monitor trace amounts of environmentally important gases such as carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. In this review the nature of the gas response and how it is fundamentally linked to surface structure is explored. Synthetic routes to metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors are also discussed and related to their affect on surface structure. An overview of important contributions and recent advances are discussed for the use of metal oxide semiconductor sensors for the detection of a variety of gases—CO, NOx, NH3 and the particularly challenging case of CO2. Finally a description of recent advances in work completed at University College London is presented including the use of selective zeolites layers, new perovskite type materials and an innovative chemical vapour deposition approach to film deposition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in the UK)
Open AccessReview Sonochemically Fabricated Microelectrode Arrays for Use as Sensing Platforms
Sensors 2010, 10(5), 5090-5132; doi:10.3390/s100505090
Received: 26 January 2010 / Revised: 15 April 2010 / Accepted: 27 April 2010 / Published: 25 May 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1301 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The development, manufacture, modification and subsequent utilisation of sonochemically-formed microelectrode arrays is described for a range of applications. Initial fabrication of the sensing platform utilises ultrasonic ablation of electrochemically insulating polymers deposited upon conductive carbon substrates, forming an array of up to 70,000
[...] Read more.
The development, manufacture, modification and subsequent utilisation of sonochemically-formed microelectrode arrays is described for a range of applications. Initial fabrication of the sensing platform utilises ultrasonic ablation of electrochemically insulating polymers deposited upon conductive carbon substrates, forming an array of up to 70,000 microelectrode pores cm–2. Electrochemical and optical analyses using these arrays, their enhanced signal response and stir-independence area are all discussed. The growth of conducting polymeric “mushroom” protrusion arrays with entrapped biological entities, thereby forming biosensors is detailed. The simplicity and inexpensiveness of this approach, lending itself ideally to mass fabrication coupled with unrivalled sensitivity and stir independence makes commercial viability of this process a reality. Application of microelectrode arrays as functional components within sensors include devices for detection of chlorine, glucose, ethanol and pesticides. Immunosensors based on microelectrode arrays are described within this monograph for antigens associated with prostate cancer and transient ischemic attacks (strokes). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in the UK)
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Open AccessReview Carbon Nanostructure-Based Field-Effect Transistors for Label-Free Chemical/Biological Sensors
Sensors 2010, 10(5), 5133-5159; doi:10.3390/s100505133
Received: 23 March 2010 / Revised: 15 April 2010 / Accepted: 5 May 2010 / Published: 25 May 2010
Cited by 65 | PDF Full-text (887 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Over the past decade, electrical detection of chemical and biological species using novel nanostructure-based devices has attracted significant attention for chemical, genomics, biomedical diagnostics, and drug discovery applications. The use of nanostructured devices in chemical/biological sensors in place of conventional sensing technologies has
[...] Read more.
Over the past decade, electrical detection of chemical and biological species using novel nanostructure-based devices has attracted significant attention for chemical, genomics, biomedical diagnostics, and drug discovery applications. The use of nanostructured devices in chemical/biological sensors in place of conventional sensing technologies has advantages of high sensitivity, low decreased energy consumption and potentially highly miniaturized integration. Owing to their particular structure, excellent electrical properties and high chemical stability, carbon nanotube and graphene based electrical devices have been widely developed for high performance label-free chemical/biological sensors. Here, we review the latest developments of carbon nanostructure-based transistor sensors in ultrasensitive detection of chemical/biological entities, such as poisonous gases, nucleic acids, proteins and cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in the UK)
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Open AccessReview Oxidant Sensing by Protein Kinases A and G Enables Integration of Cell Redox State with Phosphoregulation
Sensors 2010, 10(4), 2731-2751; doi:10.3390/s100402731
Received: 11 January 2010 / Revised: 19 March 2010 / Accepted: 22 March 2010 / Published: 26 March 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3567 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The control of vascular smooth muscle contractility enables regulation of blood pressure, which is paramount in physiological adaptation to environmental challenges. Maintenance of stable blood pressure is crucial for health as deregulation (caused by high or low blood pressure) leads to disease progression.
[...] Read more.
The control of vascular smooth muscle contractility enables regulation of blood pressure, which is paramount in physiological adaptation to environmental challenges. Maintenance of stable blood pressure is crucial for health as deregulation (caused by high or low blood pressure) leads to disease progression. Vasotone is principally controlled by the cyclic nucleotide dependent protein kinases A and G, which regulate intracellular calcium and contractile protein calcium sensitivity. The classical pathways for activation of these two kinases are well established and involve the formation and activation by specific cyclic nucleotide second messengers. Recently we reported that both PKA and PKG can be regulated independently of their respective cyclic nucleotides via a mechanism whereby the kinases sense cellular oxidant production using redox active thiols. This novel redox regulation of these kinases is potentially of physiological importance, and may synergise with the classical regulatory mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in the UK)

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